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The following table shows the area and four years he was engaged, most of the time, population of each of the independent Ameri- in hunting, and exploring the region lying can states, and of the possessions of the north of the Orange River, in South Africa, European powers in 1868.
and made many valuable contributions to our
knowledge of that country. For the first Population.
two years he was accompanied by his friend I. Independent American States.
Galton, but for the last two his only companArgentine Republic...
826,828 1,465,000 ions were his servants and the savages. He Bolivia..
535,769 1,987,352 visited Lake Ngami, which no European, exBrazil..
3,231,047 11,780,000 cept Livingstone, had then explored; reaching Chili..
182,624 2,084,960 it by a new route, and ascending the Tioge, its Colombia.
357,179 2,920,473 Costa Rica..
principal northern affluent, for a considerable
218,984 1,300,000 distance. In 1855, he returned to England, Guatemala.
44,778 1,180,000 and published his "Lake Ngami; or, DiscorHayti..
10,205 572,000 eries in Southwestern Africa," which was Honduras.
47,092 350,000 eagerly sought after. But the love of advenMexico...
773,144 8,137,853 Nicaragua...
ture was a ruling passion with him, and he Paraguay
126,352 1,337,431 presently returned to South Africa, revisited Peru.
510,107 2,500,000 Lake Ngami, in 1858; ascended the Tioge San Domingo.
136,500 River to a higher point than before, and then, San Salvador..
7,335 600,000 United States.
in company with an English elephant-hunter, Uruguay.
Mr. Green, who still survives, made his way Venezuela..
368,235 2,200,000 up the Okavango, the principal tributary of
the Tioge, from the northwest, to about lat. Total.....
11,182,277 73,996,069 18° s., and long. 18° E. from Greenwich. II. European Possessions.
Here they left the river, and moving first British Possessions...
3,636,375 4,835,541 southwest, and then south-southeast, travFrench Possessions... Spanish Possessions.
52,085 1,979,838 ersed the province of the Ovambo, one of the Dutch Possessions..
63,115 92,521 principal red tribes of Herero-Land. At this Danish Possessions
48,231 time no European, except the German missionSwedish Possessions...
ary Hugo Hahn, had visited this country. The Total.......
4,547,701 7,274,706 region visited by Andersson was only the north
eastern portion of the country; but he was ANDERSSON, CHARLES JOHN, an eminent very favorably impressed by it. While here African explorer and author, born in Sweden, he was severely injured by a wounded eleabout 1812; died in or near Ondonga, one of phant, and at first reported dead. He rethe towns of the Ovambo, in Herero-Land, covered, however, and published an account Southwestern Africa, in January, 1868. From of his discoveries, with the title “The Okahis childhood, Andersson was fond of ad- vango River, a Narrative of Travel.” He reventure, and delighted in field-sports, hunt- turned to Herero-Land again, we believe, in ing, and the study of natural history in the 1861, by way of Walfisch Bay, and ascended field. He had achieved considerable reputa- the Zwachaub, a considerable distance. After tion in his own country as a naturalist, when, exploring, with Mr. Hahn, various portions of in 1849, he visited England, of which country the country, he purchased from Tjikongo, the his mother was a native, bringing with him å King of Herero-Land, a large tract of land fine collection of living animals and birds, as near the capital, Ondonga, and commenced well as many prepared specimens, illustrating breeding cattle on a large scale. The Namavery fully the fauna of Sweden. He had long quas made a raid upon his herds and drovo cherished the hope of being able to visit off a great number of cattle, and in his purAfrica, and then to explore new regions, and suit and battle with the marauders, to recover make collections in natural history, which his stolen property, he was severely wounded, should be unrivalled in their extent and per- his thigh bone being shattered so badly as fection; but the expenses incident to such to make him a cripple for life. He was rean expedition had deterred him; and he now moved to Cape Town for surgical aid ; but, desired to dispose, if possible, of his collec- after his partial recovery, returned to Ondontions on such terms as to be able to explore ga, and undertook to furnish the materials for Iceland, and study the habits of its rare birds. “Illustrated Fauna of Southwestern AfriWhile making arrangements for this purpose,
ca." He had made considerable progress on he fell in with an Englishman, named Galton, this at the time of his death. who was about to go to South Africa, on a ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The following hunting expedition, and invited Andersson to table, from the Church Almanac for 1869, accompany him, offering to bear all the ex- exhibits the number of clergymen, parishes, penses of the journey. Andersson eagerly em- communicants, teachers and scholars of Sunbraced this offer, and, sailing from England, in day-schools, and the amount of church, misthe early spring of 1850, reached Cape Town sionary and charitable contributions for each on the 24th of June in that year. For the next diocese :
The general statistical summary was as fol- Stations, 28; missionaries, foreign, 17; native, lows:
14; assistants, 42; teachers and catechists, 35; Dioceses.
39 candidates for orders, 10; day-scholars, 1,300; Bishops..
47 Sunday-school scholars, 900; baptisms, 97; Bishops-elect
2 confirmations, 117; communicants, 628. The Priests and deacons.
2,687 missions of the Board are in Liberia, China, Whole number of clergy..
and Hayti. The American Church MisOrdinations-Deacons.
108 sionary Society reported, in 1868, an income of Priests
98 $89,406, being an increase of $7,081 from the Total..
previous year. This society employs 109 misCandidates for orders..
sionaries in the United States, and 1 in South Churches consecrated.. Baptisms—Infants
26,835 America. The receipts of the Evangelical Adults.
7,067 Education Society amounted to $34,837, and Not stated.
1,800 had, at the end of the financial year (the secTotal
85,702 ond of its existence), 130 students dependent Confirmations...
21,958 Communicants-increase in 27 dioceses
upon it for means to enable them to prepare during past year...
14,365 for the ministry. The Society for the Increase Present number..
194,692 of the Ministry had an income of about $26,Marriages.
9,945 000; the Evangelical Knowledge Society, of Barials Sunday-school teachers..
In Ireland there are two archbishops and Contributions..
$4,457,888 28 ten bishops, divided among the two provinces
as follows: Armagh.—Armagh, Derry, Down, The receipts of the Board of Missions, in its
Kilmore, Meath, Tuam. Dublin. Dublin, domestic department, during the years 1867 and 1868, were $138,367 from legacies
, Cashel, Cloyne, Killaloe, Limerick, Ossory.
Outside of the United Kingdom the following $9,005; in the foreign department, $63,369; dioceses are in connection with the Church of from legacies, $3,558. The domestic depart- England: ment employs 162 missionaries. The statis
In Europe.-Gibraltar. tics of the foreign department are as follows:
In Asia.—Calcutta (metropolitan), Bombay,
Labuan and Sarawack, Madras, Colombo, Vic* Taken from the Convention Journal of 1867. + Estimated.
Population of diocese in 1861.
No. of clergy.
No. of parishes.
598 601 630 45
PROVINCE OF CANTER
In Africa.—Cape Town (metropolitan), Mau- of New York, north of the southerly boundaritius, Grahamstown, St. Helena, Orange River ries of Columbia, Greene, and Delaware CounState, Central Africa, Natal, Sierra Leone, Ni- ties), and one from the Diocese of Western ger region.
New York. The election of the Rev. O. F. In Australia and Polynesia.–Sydney (me- Robertson, as Bishop of the Diocese of Mistropolitan), Adelaide, Melbourne, New Castle, souri, was confirmed, and two missionary bishPerth, Brisbane; Goulburn, Tasmania, New ops, the Rev. B. W. Morris for Oregon and Zealand (metropolitan), Christ Church, Nelson, Washington Territories, and the Rev. o. W. Wellington, Waiaku, Dunedin, Melanesia, Ho- Whitaker for Nevada, were appointed. A nolulu, Grafton, and Armidale.
canon was passed in regard to the formation In America.-Montreal (metropolitan), To- of new dioceses, the main provisions of which ronto, Newfoundland, Fredericton, Nova Sco- are as follows: 1. Satisfactory evidence is to be tia, Huron, Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Ru- submitted to the General Convention that adepert's Land, New Westminster, Jamaica, Bar- quate provision has been made for the support badoes, Antigua, Nassau, Guiana.
of the episcopate. 2. There must be within the The following table gives the names of the limits of the new diocese at least six parishes dioceses of the Church of England, the (total, and as many presbyters who have been canonnot Anglican) population of the territory over ically resident in the diocese at least one year. which the diocese extends, and the number of 3. There must be left in the old diocese at least the clergy and parishes in each:
twelve parishes and twelve presbyters. 4. There shall be but one bishop in any city. Dioceses existing within the bounds of any State were
authorized to establish for themselves a fedPROVINCE OF YORK. York 930,216
erate council or convention, to decide and de744
584 Durham. 858,095
liberate upon the common interests of the Carlisle..
266,591 827 272 Church within the limits of their State, proChester 1,248,416
370 vided the powers they propose to exercise are Manchester. 1,679,326
approved by the General Convention before Ripon... 1,103,394
determinate action is taken. The canon on Sodor and Man 52,469
parochial boundaries was amended by adding to the second clause of the sixth section the
following words: “But nothing in this clause Canterbury
474,607 536 357 shall be construed to prevent any clergyman London.
2,570,079 716 Winchester. 1,267,794 1,012
of this Church from officiating in any parish
599 St. Asaph's.
246,337 250 185 church, or in any place of public worship used Bangor...
134 by any congregation of this Church, or elseBath and Wells.
481 where within the parochial cure of the minisChichester.
311 St. David's.
ter of said congregation, with the consent of 432,689 527 Ely 480,710 720 529
the clergyman in charge of such congregation, Exeter
694 or, in his absence, of the churchwardens and Gloucester and Bristol.. 568,574
459 vestrymen or trustees of such congregation, or Hereford 232,401 466 358
a majority of them.”
The eleventh canon was Lichfield
1,221,404 879 Lincoln 706,026 1,029
repealed, and the following substituted in its Llandaff.
“No minister in charge of any conNorwich..
667,704 1,161 908 gregation of this Church, or in case of vacancy Oxford.. 515,083
or absence, no churchwardens, vestrymen, or Peterborough. 486,977 715
trustees of the congregation, shall permit any Rochester
609,914 804 564 Salisbury.
377,337 671 471 person to officiate therein without sufficient Worcester 857,775 661 442 evidence of his being duly licensed or ordained
to minister in this Church, Provided that Total for England and
nothing herein shall be so construed as to forWales... ..... 20,209,671 | 17,667 12,539 bid communicants of the Church to act as lay
The Triennial General Convention of the readers." The clergymen of the Church of Protestant Episcopal Church of the United England in Canada were recognized as admisStates met in the city of New York, on the sible to all the rights and privileges of their 7th of October. The new Diocese of Nebraska brethren of the Church in the United States. was admitted after considerable debate on the With reference to propositions for union with use of the word “council" instead of conven- other branches of the Church, the House of Bishtion in the journal of its diocesan convention. ops were authorized to appoint a committee The resolution of admission was, however, un- from among their own number, which shall be conditional, making no reference to these an organ of communication with the other terms. Four new dioceses were erected, one branches of the Church, and with the different from the Diocese of Maryland (embracing the other Christian bodies who may desire inforEastern Shore of Maryland), two from the Dio- mation or conference on the subject; the said cese of New York (the one embracing Long committee to be entitled "The commission Island, and the other the nineteen counties of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the
United States of America on Church Unity.” mons adopted, on April 28th, the resolution proThe House of Bishops subsequently appointed pared by Mr. Gladstone, by a majority of sixtyBishops Mellvaine, Whittingham, Atkinson, five votes. The proposition was rejected by Clark, and Coxe, the committee upon Church the House of Lords.' The Bishops of the EsUnity. The joint committee on intercommun- tablished Church were unanimous and the ion with the Eastern Churches reported favor- Anglican clergy almost unanimous in their opable progress for the project, and the commit- position. The Presbyterian Church of Scottee were continued, with the power to corre- land, which is the state church of Scotland, and spond with the authorities of the Russian and the Irish Presbyterian Church, which annually other branches of the Oriental Church, for the receives from the state government a regium acquisition of further authentic information, donum (a royal present) of £30,000, likewise and to report the result to the next General passed resolutions against Mr. Gladstone's bill. Convention. A committee of bishops was ap- The Wesleyan Connection were non-committal. pointed to confer with the Metropolitan and All the other religious denominations of Great Patriarch of the Russian Church in regard to Britain strongly supported Mr. Gladstone and the Rasso-Greek Diocese of Alaska and its pro- the Liberal party. At the election of a new posed intercommunion with this Church, and House of Commons, in November, the Liberal also with the Anglican Bishop of Rupert's party had a majority of over 110. The ConLand in regard to the transfer of the commu- servative Ministry resigned, and Mr. Gladstone nicants of the Church of England in Alaska to formed a new Liberal Ministry, which is the jurisdiction of this Church. The conven- pledged to carry through the disestablishment. tion continues the recognition of the Protes- Previously the report of the royal commistant Church of Sweden. The following canon sioners on the revenues and condition of the on divorce was adopted: “No minister of this Church of Ireland had appeared (the report is Church shall solemnize matrimony in any case dated July 27, 1868), and recommended imwhere there is a divorced wife or husband of portant reductions as to the benefices of the either party still living; but this canon shall Irish Church. The report is signed by the not be held to apply to the innocent party in a Earl of Meath, as chairman, by Earl Stanhope, divorce for the cause of adultery, or to parties Lord de Vesci, Sir Joseph Napier, and Messrs. once divorced seeking to be united again.”. A Shafto Adair, John T. Ball, Evelyn Shirley, new canon, similar to that for the trial of bish- George Clive, and Edward Howes; and it ops, was adopted on the trial of ministers. forms, with summary, tables, and schedules, a Provision was made for the correction of typo- bulky volume of more than six hundred pages. graphical errors in the Prayer Book. A new The report is replete with interesting informacanon on assistant bishops was adopted. They tion on the Irish Church. It states that the may be elected in case of disability of the total revenue of the Irish Church from all bishop, and succeed him if they survive him, sources is £613,984; 1,319 benefices have a and may vote in his stead in the General Con- church population of over forty, and extending vention, but can have no additional vote if he to 5,000 and upward. The bishoprics suggested is present. A commission of laymen, presby- for abolition are Meath, Killaloe, Cashel, and ters, and bishops was authorized to revise Kilmore. The majority of the commissioners the version of the psalms and hymns, and re- are in favor of leaving one archbishopric only, port to the next General Convention. The that of Armagh. All bishops are to receive preparation of Prayer Books in German, £3,000 a year income, and an additional £500 French, and Swedish was directed. Increased when attending Parliament. The Primate is solicitude was expressed respecting the mis- to get £6,000, and the Archbishop of Dublin, sionary work among the freedmen, and practi- if continued, '£5,000. The abolition is recomcal measures were recommended to advance it. mended of all cathedrals and deaneries, except The convention declined to act definitely on eight. With a view to a rearrangement of the subject of ritualism. The subject was re- benefices, it is proposed that ecclesiastical comferred to the House of Bishops, who were re- missioners shall have extended powers to supquested to set forth, for consideration and press or unite benefices. All benefices, not adoption by the next General Convention, having a Protestant population of forty, to be sach additional rubrics to the book of Common abolished. The estates of all capitular bodies Prayer as in their judgment may be deemed and of the bishoprics abolished are to be vested Decessary. It was resolved that, meanwhile, in ecclesiastical commissioners, and the surplas in all matters doubtful, reference should be of all property vested in them to be applicable made to the Ordinary, and no changes should at their discretion to augmentation of benefices. be made against the counsel and judgment The Ecclesiastical Commission is to be modiof the bishop:
fied by the introduction of three unpaid layThe most important event in the history of men and two paid commissioners, one appointthe Church of England was the resolution of ed by the Crown, the other by the Primate. the House of Commons in favor of disestab- The management of all lands is to be taken out lishing the Anglican Church in Ireland and of the hands of ecclesiastical persons and placed its appointment of a Liberal Ministry pledged in those of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. to carry out this policy. The House of Com- The commissioners expressly state that they
have conducted their inquiry, and that they re- Episcopal Church to appoint a commission, port, on the assumption that the Irish Church with a view to a reunion of the two churches. will continue by law established and endowed. The Methodist Conference complied with this
The question of effecting a union between request; but the House of Bishops of the Trithe Anglican and other divisions of the Chris- ennial General Convention of the Protestant tian world continued to be the subject of an Episcopal Church, to which a numerouslyearnest discussion. As regards the Eastern signed petition for the appointment of a simiChurches, public opinion both in the Protes- lar commission was presented, contented ittant Episcopal Church of the United States self with the appointment of a General Comand in the Church of England, clearly favors mittee on Christian Unity, without instructing the project of, at least, intercommunion. The the committee as to negotiations with any action of the Triennial Convention of the particular religious denomination. For the American Church has already been referred to. object of promoting a union between the AnIn England the subject was debated at consid- glican, the Eastern, and the Roman Catholic erable length, in the Convocation of Canter. Churches, the “ Association for promoting the bury, on the 4th of July, at which the differ- Unity of Christendom” was founded in ence in the creed of the two churches, and the 1857. In September of 1858–-a year after the former and present relations to each other, re- formation of the society—675 members had ceived a thorough review. A committee had been enrolled, and the following numbers submitted a report, declaring the object sought were added to the lists in the years enumerby the movement to be not a fusion of the two ated below respectively: In 1859, 833 membodies or a submission of either to the superior bers; in 1860, 1,060; in 1861, 1,007; in 1862, authority of the other, or a modification of the 1,393; in 1863, 1,202; in 1864, 1,340; in 1865, services of one to correspond with those of 1,317; in 1866, 1,401; in 1867, 1,647; in Septhe other, but “simply the mutual acknowl- tember, 1868, 803; making a total of 12,684. edgment that all churches which are one in The division of these, as given by the Rev. the possession of a true episcopate, one in George F. Lee, D. O. L., who in 1868 retired sacraments
, and one in their creed, are, by from the office of general secretary, is interesttheir union in their common Lord, bound to ing. Of the 12,684 members of the society, 1,881 receive one another to full communion in belong to the Roman Catholic Church in variprayers and sacraments as members of the ous countries; 685 are Orientals ; 92 are atsame household of faith."
tached to such uncertain or miscellaneous A new project of this kind was brought for communities, whose names the secretary was ward in England, in the early part of the year, unwilling to take upon himself to decline; and having for its object a union between thé 10,026 belong to the Church of England and Anglicans and the Wesleyans. The plan was other churches in communion with the same. briefly advocated by an Anglican paper of The names have been obtained by a systematic High-Church tendencies, the Guardian, which circulation of the formal prospectus of the asproposed to the Wesleyans an adhesion to the sociation in English, Latin, French, German, established order of the Church of England, Spanish, and Italian. The following paragraph Episcopal supervision, confinement of the ad- from Dr: Lee's report is indicative of the obministration of the sacraments to persons Epis- jects of the Association: “It has been the copally ordained, with ordination of such Wes- secretary's honor and privilege to correspond leyan ministers as might desire it, who might with a large number of distinguished Catholies retain their itinerancy, and minister in their of many rites, whose private letters to bimself churches as licensed chapels-of-ease, subor- officially have been carefully preserved, as they dinate to the jurisdiction of the parish in may in future throw considerable light on the which they are situated, other Wesleyans to great movement for effecting corporate rebe licensed as lay readers. The Anglicans union, which the late Cardinal Wiseman theowould make no alterations in their services retically inaugurated in 1841, and which the and Prayer Book, but would allow the Wesley- Association for promoting the Unity of Chrisans the use of a set of subsidiary services. The tendom first put in practical shape in 1857.” attention of the Convocation of York, on the The ritualistic controversy continues to oc6th of February, was directed to the subject, cupy a prominent place in all the branches of and the bishops resolved that they would cor- the Anglican Church. The action taken with dially welcome any practical attempt to effect regard to it, by the Triennial General Convena brotherly reconciliation between the Wes- tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church, has leyan body and the Church of England. As already been stated. It was regarded, by both this plan proposed to treat with the Wesleyans parties in the Church, as favorable to the hopes as an inferior body, the latter were not able to of the ritualists. In England, the Royal Comconsider it with a view to adopting it. The mission on Ritualism * presented their second same plan was the subject of considerable discussion in the Protestant Episcopal Church of
* On the appointment of this commission and their first the United States. A number of Anglican Report, see ANNUAL AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867. clergymen signed a memorial to the Quadren- The recommendations of the commissioners with respect
to the rubrics, orders, and directions contained in the nial General Conference of the Methodist Prayer Book will form the subject of the next report.