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proposed, and General Meade, in his report to by a proclamation of the Governor, chiefly General Grant, stated that the proposed con- to provide for the registration of voters at stitution failed to receive a majority of regis- the presidential election. A committee of tered votes, and was, therefore, rejected under seven was appointed to consider that part of the terms of the very act which, it was claimed, the Governor's message relating to registration. gave the election vitality.

On the 21st September a joint resolution and The Senate Committee on Fees and Salaries memorial to the President of the United States reported on the House bill in regard to the pay passed the Legislature, calling upon him to deof members and officers as follows: chaplain, tail a sufficient force of troops for the State, to $4; secretary, $10; assistant secretary, $8; secure protection, as the laws were neither reclerk, $8; page, $4; doorkeeper, $6; presi- spected nor obeyed, and violence had been dent, $12, members, $8; sergeants, $6; mile- committed, in many cases, upon human life. age, 60 cents; which was passed, but vetoed by It stated that officers had been intimidated the Governor, as the pay of members was fixed from the discharge of their duties, and many by the law of 1861, and the constitution forbade forced to resign. an increase of pay during the sitting of the No action was taken on the petition of the Legislature.

Legislature. On the 1st October, the registraThe Legislature also passed a bill

, giving to tion bill passed both Houses, and subsequently itself the power of casting the electoral vote received the Governor's assent. It empowered of the State for President of the United States, the Secretary of State to appoint one registrar which was vetoed by Governor Smith. In his in each county, who would have the power of Feto, dated August 12th, he said:

appointing deputies. A bill providing for the After the most mature reflection, I am forced to the election was passed. An amendment of the conclusion that the bill is wrong in principle, and that Senate made it a misdemeanor for any person it would be a dangerous precedent in a republican to challenge a voter. government. As my judgment does not approve the The political canvass for the presidential bill, it is my constitutional duty to return it to the election was vigorously carried on by both garded as remarkable that the first Legislature con parties throughout the State; clubs were orvened in Alabama shall, in face of the principles of ganized, meetings held, and the greatest exciteits organization, which every republican professes ment and enthusiasm prevailed. The Legisto hold dear, deny not only to the colored but the lature, which had adjourned after passing the white man the right, by his vote, to indicate his choice registration law, met again on November 1. for President and Vice-President of the United States, and take the matter in its own hands. What excuso

The Governor's message chiefly dwelt upon can there be for it? Is it mere party expedienoy? If the resources of the State, and the importance 89, then it is an abandonment of the principles and an of encouraging Northern capital to develop acknowledgment that the material out of which the them. It called attention to the outrages perRepublican party is composed cannot be trusted. In other words, it is to say that colored men will not do petrated by secret societies, particularly in to be trusted. This action of the General Assembly Northern Alabama, and recommended a limited will be regarded as still more remarkable when it is appropriation to the State agricultural fair to considered in connection with what seems to have open at Montgomery on the 18th of the month. been the almost unanimous opinion of the leading members of the Republican party of Alabama.

The presidential election passed over more

quietly than was anticipated from the strong feelOn the 11th, the Senate passed the following ing on both sides. The Democrats carried the bill for the removal of disabilities, which was State by a majority of about 40,000 votes; even not adopted in the House :

a large number of blacks voted that ticket. Szc. 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of The financial condition of Alabama appears Alabama, That all the disabilities imposed by the to be gradually improving. The indebtedsecond clause of the Third Section of Article

Seven ness of the State consists of bonded, trust fund, and the same are hereby removed, as fully to all in- and miscellaneous. The bonded indebtedness tents and purposes as though no such disabilities had amounts to $4,726,200; the trust fund and been imposed, from all citizens who shall file an ap- miscellaneous to $3,051,746. Total, with templication with the Judge of Probate of the county in which such citizens may reside, in the following year ending September 30, 1868, were $1,577,

porary loans, $7,904,116. The receipts for the terms, to wit: I, State of Alabama, do make this application for relief 144; of which there was collected from genfrom the disabilities imposed upon me by the second eral taxes and licenses, $726,327. The total clause of the Third Section of the Seventh Article of assessment of real estate for the same period the constitution of the State of Alabama and to be

was about $98,908,572, and of personal proprestored to the rights of citizenship.

SEC. 2. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the erty, $26,037,572. duty of the Probate Judge to file all applications made

The cotton returns for the year were also in pursuance of the provisions of this act in his office, satisfactory. The three last years show that but he shall not be entitled to any fee or charge for the supply is on the increase. The receipts at Teseiving or filing such application.

domestic and foreign ports were, for 1866, Several unimportant measures were adopted, 429,102 bales; in 1867, 329,516 bales; in 1868, and on the 13th of August the Legislature ad- 400,000 bales. The tax on the cotton of Alajourned until the 1st Monday in November. bama, for the year 1868, at $12.50 per bale, But it was again convened on September 16th, amounted to about $5,000,000.

ALASKA. The treaty with Russia for the couver islands, and the coasts of Washington, transfer of this territory to the United States, Oregon, and California. and the payment of $7,200,000, in coin, were The warm stratum of air above this vast executed in full during 1867. The new north- mass of warm water is necessarily laden with western bonndary of the United States, estab- aqueous vapor, and, coming in contact with the lished by this treaty, may be described as com- colder air from the continent, a condensation mencing at a point betwen the Diomede of vapor and precipitation of rain is the conIslands, nearly in the middle of Behring's sequence. This humidity of the climate susStraits, about one degree south of the Arctic tains the immense growth of timber with Circle, in latitude 66°; it reaches from thence which the whole country along the seaboard on the meridional line of 168° 50' W., toward abounds. The largest trees climb the steepest the North Pole of the earth; thence south to mountain-sides to elevations of two thousand the shore of the Arctic Ocean, at about longi- five hundred to three thousand feet. The Sitka tude 143° west, and latitude 69° 30', including spruce was cut and measured four feet diameKotzebue Sound, Cape Lisburne, Icy Cape, ter and one hundred and eighty feet long, and Point Franklin, Point Barrow, Sunith's Bay, others determined to be two hundred and fifty and other points which are regarded as histori- feet high and six feet diameter. The yellow cal in Arctic exploration, within the territory cedar (Cupressus sitchensis) was found six feet of the United States. From the Diomede in diameter and estimated to be one hundred Islands in a southwesterly direction, it extends and fifty feet high; it commences about latito latitude 50° in longitude about 168° east, be- tude 54° 34' and extends throughout the archiing about 30° of longitude farther to the west pelago from 54° 40' to 59° 15'—how much than the Sandwich Islands.

farther north was not examined. So that, at the present time, the territory of This is the best wood on the coast for shipthe United States extends in an east and west building and cabinet-work. Specimens of this direction from longitude 67° west (at Eastport, wood from a wrecked vessel of the RussianMe.), to longitude 168° east, in the North Pa- American Company were shown. The vessel cific Ocean (beyond the most westerly island had been built thirty-two years, and lying a of the Aleutian group), equal to 125° of longi- wreck for six years, yet the timbers and keltude, which, on a parallel of 45° north, would son were as sound as the day when the vessel be equal to about 5,303 geographical or 6,187 was built, and the iron and copper bolts were statute miles.

unoxidized, and the wood around them well The population of Alaska is reported by the preserved. Under ground its preservative military commander to be 8,000 whites and qualities are equally remarkable, as was illus15,000 Indians. By an act of Congress the coun- trated by timber at Fort Simpson, that had try is made a revenue district of the United been under ground twenty years, and taken States, and Sitka established as the port of entry. out as sound as the day it was cut. The military force of the United States in the When it is known that the shore line of the territory consists of two full regiments of in- islands, bays, inlets, and straits of the archifantry and nine companies of cavalry.

pelago amount to seven thousand eight hunThe representatives of the Federal Govern- dred and sixty statute miles, the inexhaustible ment, when they went to Sitka to receive a supply of this part only of the territory may transfer of the territory, were accompanied by be readily comprehended. For comparison it scientific explorers, of whom Professor David- was stated that the shore line of Washingson has made some interesting statements of his ton Territory, from Columbia River to the investigations to the Academy of Natural Sci- northern boundary, including Washington ence at San Francisco.

Sound, Admiralty Inlet, Puget's Sound, and After describing the geographical features of Hood's Canal, amounted to only two thousand the country visited by the Coast Survey party and twenty-eight statute miles. under his charge, the marks of glacial action, Temperature and rainfall, etc., at Sitka, from fourvolcanoes, etc., he described the influence of

teen years' observation at the Imperial Observatory at the great current of warm water which crosses New Archangel. the Pacific Ocean from the coasts of Formosa Temperature Fahrenheit.

*4.8 in latitude 22°, longitude 238° west) and the March....35°.5

... 41o.8


April.. easternmost point of Japan, and strikes upon May.



Spring the coast of North America south of Sitka. It June .47o.2



......15.4 is this great, warm river of the ocean which July. .51°.7

*4.1 Summer.

Summer. gives the mild climate to Alaska, as the Atlan- August....55°.3


10.5 tic Gulf stream makes Great Britain and Nor. Sept’r.....51°.2



11.9 way inhabitable.


Autumn. This great, warm stream leaves the coast of December.31°.?


.22.9 Japan about latitude 35°, and passes eastward January ..31o.1

7.6 Winter.

Winter to the latitude of 48° and longitude 148°, where February .32°.9

7.1 one branch turns sharply toward Sitka, and

83.1 for year. the greater volume of water passes southward along the coast of Queen Charlotte and Van- * About the monthly average of Pennsylvania.

Rain in inches.



8.5 8.2

Yearly mean 42o.9, or 3° warmer than the directions from the boat; but in the shoaler middle of Norway, or six inches less than As- water he invariably struck bottom, came up, toria at the mouth of Columbia River. Greatest straight from the point struck, with his head rainfall

, ninety-six inches, in 1850; least, fifty- enveloped in a mud coat, and was easily taken. eight and six-tenths inches, in 1861. Greatest But the “Fairweather ground " is so covered in one month, twenty-one and three-tenths, with whale when the "whale feed " covers Angust, 1867; least, six and a half, in Novem- those waters in June and July, that the old ber, 1853. In the same month of August, navigators frequently mistook the spouting of 1867, the records of the Smithsonian Institu- the hundreds around them for the surf breaktion show that eighteen inches fell in Eastern ing upon sunken rocks.—(See Dixon, Meares, Pennsylvania! The yearly average of days Portlock, etc.) apon which rain, snow, and hail fell, or on The great value of the territory consists in which fog prevailed, for fourteen years, was the immense banks of cod, the woods, the furs, two hundred and forty-five.

and the deposits of coal, of which persons It is to be noted that the above results are found and brought away specimens. This from observations made hourly throughout the coal was found close to navigable waters, and year.

by analysis proved superior to any bituminous The harbor of Sitka never freezes, and its ice on the Pacific; the exact locality of the vein is unfit for the San Francisco market, which or veins was not discvered on account of the derives its supply from Kodiak, in latitude 57° lateness of the season, etc., but the geologist 47' , or 15° north of Boston.

and mining engineer with the officials of the At Kodiak, some years, thermometer never Government reported that all the accompanying runs below zero. Lisiansky says that, in 1805, geological conditions existed for good coal. the thermometer did not fall below 38° until The specimens were found for a distance of December 24th, when it reached 26°. The cold- between five and seven miles. est day that year was January 22d, when the ALLEN, WILLIAM, D.D., an eminent scholar, thermometer was above zero.

teacher, and author, President successively of Iee forms from fifteen to twenty-four inches Dartmouth University and Bowdoin College, each year. Coldest temperatures noted are by born in Pittsfield, Mass., January 2, 1784; died the ice company's agents within the last fifteen in Northampton, Mass., July 16, 1868. He was Fears, when the thermometer has reached 18° the son of Rev. Thomas Allen, the first minisbelow zero, but the men worked without extra ter of Pittsfield, a patriot of the Revolution. clothing, as the air was perfectly calm. The His mother was a daughter of Rev. Jonathan ice is not thicker than that about Boston, al- Lee, of Salisbury, Conn., a descendant, in the though nine hundred geographical miles far- fifth generation, from Governor Bradford of ther north!

Plymouth. Entering Harvard College at the Cinside of Ounglaska from nine years' observation of early age of fourteen, Mr. Allen graduated in the Bishop Benjaminoff.

class of 1802, and commenced his theological Tempestare Fahrenheit.

studies with Rev. Dr. Pierce, of Brookline, the 299.9 33o.4

.....Spring 33°.9 famous genealogist. In 1804 he was licensed 41°.3

to preach by the Berkshire Association. In 46°.2

1805 he received the appointment of Regent July 50°.6

. Summer 490.6 Aigist.

or Proctor of Harvard College, succeeding .51°.9 September. 439.7

Rev. William Ellery Channing in this posi86°.7

.Fall 37°.5 tion, and was also Assistant Librarian of the Sotember. 32.4

College. He resided, in these capacities, in December 299.0 January 299.5

Cambridge for six years, devoting himself sedu

Winter 30°.1 .31°.0) Only 1o.8 below Sitka

lously to intellectual pursuits. During this

period he prepared the first edition of his 37°.8 for the year, or 5°.1 below that American Biographical Dictionary (published of Sitka,

in 1809), which contained biographical sketches The highest temperature recorded is 779.0, of about seven hundred eminent Americans. He and the lowest only 0°.6 below zero, but only also contributed, in 1807, to Drs. Bogue and upon ten occasions was it recorded less than Bennett's (English ) History of the Dissenters, 10° above zero.

“ Historical and Biographical Sketches, or an Seventy American whalers yearly fish on Account of Religion in America,” a manuscript this coast, to ten English and French. At of 180 pages. In 1810 he delivered the Phi present the principal fishing-ground is in the Beta Kappa oration at Harvard College, Washregion of Behring's Straits, on account of the ington Allston being poet the same year. In shallowness of the Bebring Sea and Arctic October, 1810, he was ordained as successor Deean, which have only thirty fathoms of to his father to the pastorate of the CongreTater. On the great Fairweather ground, be- gational Church in Pittsfield. In 1813 he Teen Sitka and the entrance to Cook's Inlet, preached the annual election sermon before 1 60°, the greater depth of water enabled the the Legislature of Massachusetts. He was Thale to "sound" without touching bottom, married the same year to Maria Malleville and to come up far away and in uncertain Wheelock, daughter of Hon. John Wheelock,



second President of Dartmouth College. In correspondence, was itself the sufficient labor 1816 the Legislature of New Hampsbire al- of a lifetime; but Dr. Allen's intellectual actered the charter of Dartmouth College and tivity enabled him to accomplish a vast amount made it a university, of which Dr. Allen was of additional labor. In 1828 he published an in 1817 appointed President, as successor to elaborate essay entitled “ Junius Unmasked," his father-in-law. When the legislation of the in which he attempted to demonstrate that Lord State of New Hampshire in the famous “Dart- Sackville was Junius. In 1845 appeared his mouth College Case" was annulled in 1819, “Memoirs of Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, D.D." by the Supreme Court of the United States, the first President of Dartmouth College; in and the rights of the college were maintained, 1848 his Historical Discourse at Dorchester, Dr. Allen was appointed President of Bow- on the Fortieth Anniversary of the Second doin College, in which office he served from Church; in 1853 a "Memoir of John Codman, 1820 till 1839, when he resigned and removed D. D.;" in 1854 an“ Address at the Close of the to Northampton. In 1831 he was subjected Second Century since the Settlement of Northto serious embarrassment in his official rela- ampton;" in 1856, “ Wunnipoo, a Tale of the tions in consequence of certain acts of the Hoosatunnuk;” in 1860,“ Christian Sonnets; Maine Legislature, touching colleges, which in 1866, “Poems of Nazareth and the Cross ; virtually took from him the office of President and in 1867, “Sacred Songs.” In addition to for about two years; but the subsequent ac- these, he had compiled a collection of "Psalms tion of the Supreme Court restored him to his and Hymns,” many of the latter original, long place, and he continued to discharge his duties in use in Massachusetts; contributed at vawith all fidelity, till impaired health rendered rious times to Webster's Dictionary more than a change necessary.

ten thousand words not found in other dictionDuring his residence at Northampton, a aries of the English language, and had pubperiod of nearly thirty years, he was constantly lished at various times thirty-five other serengaged in literary pursuits, but for some mons, addresses, essays, and extended poems, years preached occasionally in that and the ad- besides numerous contributions to the Panoplist jacent towns. In all the benevolent enter- and other periodicals. “He was," says an inprises of the day he was actively interested, es- timate friend, "a thorough gentleman of the pecially in the cause of foreign missions, being old school, a devout Christian, an old-fashioned à corporate member of the American Board, New-England theologian, an antislavery reand the senior member of that body at the publican, a wide and faithful student of New; time of his death. He was an earnest advocate England history, and a good and warm-hearted of peace, and represented the American Peace laborer in every true word and work." Society at the International Peace Congress, ALLIANCE EVANGELICAL.* At the general which assembled at Paris in 1849. He de- meeting of the Evangelical Alliance, held at fended the rights of the African race through- Amsterdam, in 1867, an invitation was presented out the world. He believed in the utility of on behalf of the American branch, to hold the planting colonies of free colored emigrants in next meeting in New York. The invitation Africa, as a means of redressing the unutter

was favorably received, and a desire was able wrongs done to that quarter of the globe generally expressed to hold

the next meeting by Christian nations, while he favored the after a shorter interval than usual. The Britspeediest possible emancipation of every slave ish branch, in particular, urgently recomon earth. He was a careful observer of public mended the holding of the next meeting in affairs and political parties. He sympathized the year 1869. At å meeting held in London warmly with every token of progress in the anti- on July 8th, a series of resolutions to that effect slavery movement of the present century, his was adopted assigning, among others, the folmemory covering the whole period of its his- lowing considerations, as having influenced tory. His labors as a student and author were their opinion : such as few men have been able to perform, and were undoubtedly too great for his health. He readiness which has been of late manifested on both

1. The Council have rejoiced much in the laudable was an elegant classical scholar, and well versed sides of the Atlantic to seize upon every occurrence in physical science, his knowledge of mineralogy in the ordinary course of Providence, that might be and botany in particular being very thorough. improved for the purpose, to elicit the kind and genFew men were more completely masters of countries toward each other; and they cannot but think English politics, history, and literature, than that the Alliance will be wise to take advantage of he, while his familiarity with modern lan- this state of public feeling, and by holding their guages enabled him to comprehend and enjoy meeting sooner, perhaps, than was at first contemthe politics and literature of the Continental divine’ blessing, to strengthen and render it permanations. In 1832 he published a revised and nent. enlarged edition of his American Biographical 2. The Council cannot look without anxiety on the Dictionary, in which the number of biographi- state of the European Continental nations, and the cal sketches exceeded eighteen hundred, and many causes which, unless restrained by the Almighty in 1857 he issued a third revision, including arm, may in an unexpected moment disturb the presseven thousand names. The preparation of

* For a brief history of the Evangelical Alliance, see such a work, involving as it did an immense the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867.

ent tranquillity, and endanger the peace of the world, had, at the close of the year, not been conand thus prevent the possibility of the intended con

cluded. The provisional government of Spain ference being held.

3. The attitude of the Papal power toward na- showed, however, a desire to come to an untions which have recently asserted the right of self- derstanding, and it was announced that, in government, and are in various ways breaking off accordance with the proposition made by the its yoke, and have proclaimed religious liberty to Government of the United States, a peace contheir subjects, together with its vigorous activity in ference, attended by representatives of all the still further of various forms of intellectual infidelity belligerent powers, would meet, in the course and practical atheism in all nations, strongly impress of the winter, in Washington. the Council with the conviction that evangelical The number of civil wars in Spanish AmeriChristians must be more than ever united and active,

ca was as great as ever. The established nor be slow to fulfil the great duties to which the times so loudly call them,

governments were overthrown in San Domin4. And, finally, the Council would be ungrateful go, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Peru, and Uruguay. not to recognize the manifold and rich blessings by In the last-named state, President Flores lost which all the General Conferences of the Alliance his life together with his office. Civil wars have been attended and followed, thus leading to and also raged in Mexico, Hayti, and in the United ized by the approbation of our Divine Redeemer, and States of Colombia. In Ecuador, the President that their recurrence, as often as Providence permits, was censured by Congress, and resigned. is pleasing to Him and tends to advance His glory. Bloody wars with the Indians had to be sus

For these and similar reasons, the council of tained by the governments of the United the English branch inquired whether the au- States, Mexico, the Argentine Republic, and tumn of 1869 might not be looked to, on the Chili; and in neither of these states is there supposition that circumstances in the United yet a prospect of lasting peace. States and in Europe should favor it, as the The establishment of a regular monthly probable time of holding the conference. steamship line between the United States and

The American branch, in compliance with China and Japan, the rapid progress of the this request, resolved to hold the next General Pacific Railroad, which it is thought may be Conference of the Alliance in the city of New complete in the course of the year 1869 or York, in the autumn of 1869.

1870, the connection of the United States with AMERICA. The transfer of the extensive Cuba, are prominent events in the commercial possessions of Russia in Northwestern Ameri- history of America. The importance of these ca to the United States, which had been pro- agencies of modern civilization is everywhere vided for by the treaty of the 29th of March, recognized. All the independent governments 1867, was in 1868 ratified by the Senate of the of America have directed their attention to the Cnited States. Thus the area of the indepen- encouragement of new steamboat and teledent American States has been considerably graph lines, and to the increase of railroads; enlarged. The purchase of the two Danish isl- and the time seems to be very near when the ands, St. Thomas and St. John, was ratified by capitals of all the American States will be conan almost unanimous vote of the inhabitants

, nected by telegraph. Immigration also is enbut no action was taken upon it by the Senate couraged by all the American states, though of the United States. In Cuba, a war for estab- many of the South American states cannot lishing the independence of the island broke expect to obtain any considerable results so out in September, and at the close of the year long as they are not willing to establish relithe insurgents still held control of the town gious toleration. of Bayamo, and a considerable portion of the In the United States considerable agitation Eastern District. In Nova Scotia, the popular was kept up by a diversity of opinion between dissatisfaction with the establishment of the Do- the President and the majority of Congress, minion of Canada was so great that annexation relative to the reconstruction of the Southern to the United States was generally declared to States, and the constitutionality of some of the be preferable to a union with Canada.

acts passed by Congress on this subject. In The war of Brazil, the Argentine Republic, the progress of this conflict, President Johnand Cruguay against Paraguay, continued son was impeached, but acquitted. The presithroughout the year. The progress of the dential election resulted in the triumph of the allies was slow, and at the close of the year Republican party, and the choice of General President Lopez was still a formidable oppo- Grant for President. At the close of the year, Dent. Imprudently, President Lopez got into all the Southern States except three-Virginia,

serious difficulty with the minister of the Mississippi, and Texas—having complied with United States in Paraguay, Mr. Washburn; the conditions demanded by the congressional but when the successor of Mr. Washburn, Gen- Acts of Reconstruction, were represented in eral McMahon, called upon him, he guaranteed the national Congress.' In December, Presifall atonement for any outrage that might have dent Johnson issued a proclamation of univerbeen committed upon the American flag. (See sal amnesty. At the beginning of the year PABAGCAY.)

1869, the internal condition of the country was No acts of hostility took place between more quiet than at any previous period since Spain and the allied Republics of Chili, Peru, the beginning of the civil war in 1861. (See Bolivia, and Ecuador, although a formal peace UNITED STATES.)

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