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and grasshoppers, are due primarily to the ground, or on the roots of plants, trees, and waning fertility of the soil, and the fact that shrubs, the free use of the Phønix disinfecthese depredators find in the great decrease of tant or some other powder, containing a conthe grasses and weeds, which are their natural siderable quantity of the carbolate of lime in aliment, the necessity of preying upon the more fine powder, seems to be the most effectual precious crops, and that these in their turn can- remedy. But the greater part are hatched not derive from the impoverished soil the from eggs deposited on the plants themselves. means of replacing the tissues which the raven- For these, syringing or sprinkling with sulous insects have devoured. This leads us to phur is the only effectual remedy. There are speak of the terrible plague of insects inju- many washes or solutions recommended as rious to vegetation experienced during the past certain to destroy these insect pests; some of year. To a considerable extent these were them are doubtless effective, but they kill the new enemies. The army-worm and the boll- plant as well as the insects. A solution of worm preyed upon the cotton as they had done tobacco-soap, a filthy, disgusting compound, is before; the midge and the Hessian fly com- largely advertised, but is not always efficacious; mitted ravages among the cereal grains; the the suds from whale-oil soap, which is also aphis or plant-louse family, universal pests, strongly recommended, frequently fails; that destroying with equal zest the life-juices of of cresylic soap is better, and is perhaps prefthe hop, the rose, the potato, and the grape; erable to any thing else, but there is danger and the grasshoppers were almost universally to the plants if it is applied in too great prevalent and destructive to grass, to herbage strength. Numberless nostrums have been and foliage, not only on the plains of Kansas, advertised as sure to accomplish the object, but Nebraska, and Iowa, but in the hills and val- those which are best owe their value to the leys of the Eastern States. These were old foes. presence of either cresylic or carbolic acid in But the newer comers were the ten-lined spear- some form of combination. man, or potato-bug, which has for some years For the destruction of the “ten-lined spearcommitted such havoc upon the potato crop ; man" or potato-bug (which, though belonging the great variety of beetles large and small, to the family of the Cantharidæ, like the potato which have attacked the roots of grasses and blister-fly, Cantharis vittata, was well known other plants; the larvæ of innumerable moth in the Eastern States, is now named by entoand butterfly tribes, from the odious measur- mologists Doryphora' decim lineata, from its ing-worm, the Procris (those yellow worms peculiar markings), various means have been with black dots which are found in colonies of recommended, but none of them thoroughly from 15 to 100 on the under side of the grape effective. The use of slaked lime in powder, leaves); the eight-barred Alypia, whose light- sprinkled over the vines, of sawdust saturated blue color banded with black renders him less with coal-oil, of brine (which must be much disgusting than his depredations warrant; to diluted or it will kill the plants as well as the the giant larvæ of the sphinx tribes, huge bugs), of powdered hellebore (somewhat danloathsome creatures of various shades, from gerous, being an active poison), and of soot, light-green to velvety brown, and, prettier but have all been recommended. We believe the equally destructive, the larvæ of the beautiful suds from cresylic soap as good as any of them. wood-nymphs. When we add to these the Another method of exterminating the bugs is whole race of hairy caterpillars, and the crick- to take a double scoop-net, made something like ets which devour so voraciously every green an eel-pot, and passing it swiftly and vigorously thing, we have an army of enemies, which will over the potato vines, sweep them into it, and almost drive the horticulturist, the grape- then, when once caught, drop them into boiling grower, and the farmer, to despair.

water. This is effectual, but it is tedious work. How shall we rid ourselves of these pests? The year was more prolific than most of The birds, especially the sparrows, the swal- those which preceded it, in the publication of lows, the wrens, and the robins are good friends really able and valuable books on agriculture in this extremity, and if they claim a few straw- and horticulture. The following were the berries, cherries, or grapes as toll, they have most important: “The Agricultural” and the richly earned them by their activity and zeal. " Horticultural Annual " for 1868;

" The book But the insect tribes were too abundant in the of Evergreens,” by J. Hoopes; “Cotton Culsummer of 1868 to be completely kept under ture," by Lyman; “Darwin's Variations of by any family of birds. The song-sparrows, Animals and Plants," 2 vols.; “Gardening for the most active of these destroyers of noxious Profit," by Peter Henderson; Harris's - Ininsects and worms, so glutted themselves that sects injurious to Vegetation,” a new edition; after a time they lost their appetite and became “How Crops Grow," by Professor S. W. Johndiscouraged. Birds, too, do not readily find son; “The Percheron Horse; " Harris's “Ruor seize those larvæ which colonize the under ral Annual," 2 vols.; "The Tim Bunker Pa side of the leaves of the grape, the pelargonium, pers"; "The Crack Shot,” by Barber; Du and other large-leaved plants. For these, other Breuil's “Vineyard Culture,” edited by Dr measures of destruction or prevention are need- Warder; "Farm Talk,” by Brackett; Geyelin' ful. So far as the eggs, from which these dep- “Poultry Breeding; " Waring's Element redators are hatched, are deposited in the of Agriculture."

ALABAMA. At the close of the previous governed thereby—assuring them that they shall be year, on December 28th, Major-General John respected in the exercise of their powers so long as Pope having been relieved by President John- impartial justice is meted out to all; but the comson from the command of the Third Military fullest extent, the plenary powers with which he is

manding general is determined to exercise, to the District, comprising the States of Alabama, intrusted, to secure protection of person and property Georgia and Florida, Major-General Meade in the district he commands. was assigned to the same, and a change of the By command of Major-General MEADE. district commander of Alabama soon followed,

R. C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General. by assigning Brigadier-General Julius Hayden

There was much excitement, and strong to the position held by Major-General Wag- partisan feeling, throughout the State, relative ner Swayne.

to the adoption or rejection of the new constiEarly in the month of January, Major E. W. tution proposed by the convention, held in Crittenden, post commandant at Montgomery,

1867, under the Reconstruction Act of Conissued a general order, forbidding military or

gress. Meetings were held and addresses deganizations of any character, except troops of livered, for and against it. The Conservative the United States. He further directed that State committee called upon the people to all such organizations, in existence, should be form clubs, and thus concentrate their opimmediately disbanded; and that all mayors, position to the measure. A conference, in sheriffs, or other civil authorities, should re- opposition to the constitution, was held at port at once every violation of this order. Montgomery, and attended by influential

One of the earliest acts of General Meade delegates from all parts of the State. It isFas to reinstate the clerk of the District sued an address to the people, setting forth Court, Charles R. Hubbard, who had been re

the reasons for their opposition. They said moved by General Swayne.

the Constitution was framed by delegates The relations existing at this time between representing merely the blacks and non-resithe civil and military authorities of the dis- dents, and not the white inhabitants; nearly trict are explained in an order issued by Gen- forty thousand of whom were disfranchised eral Meade, on January 15th, which was as

by the article on franchise, passed by the follows:

convention that formed the instrument, in General Orders, No. 10.

order to secure its success. They further de

clared that so sweeping was the disfranchiseATLANTA, Ga., January 15, 1868. T, }

ment, that its effect would be to place the The frequency of reported outrages, and the ac- State government in the hands of the blacks companying expression of opinion of subordinate and their abettors. In addition, every person civil authorities, require notice and action on the wishing to vote was required to take a testpart of the major-general commanding,

oath. In the opinion of the conference, this 1. The commanding general desires it to be under- oath or affirmation, of itself, was rigid enough stood that the trial and punishment of criminals is to disfranchise several thousands of consciento be left to the civil authorities, so long as the said tious voters. The address further stated as authorities are energetic, active, and do justice to the rights of person and property without distinction of

follows: race or color, Whenever the major-general com- By the law of Congress as it now stands, a majorimanding is satisfied, from evidence produced, that ty of the registered voters of the State must vote in the civil authorities fail to do their duty, then prompt the election, or the constitution is not adopted. estion will be taken by him, both for the punish. There are about 167,000 registered voters in the ment of criminals, and the removal from office of der- State, so that it will require 84,000 votes to adopt elict civil officers.'

the constitution. 2. The military are to cooperate with, and aid the We could not, under the unfair influences arrayed civil authorities in the detection, capture, and custody against us, reasonably hope to secure more than of criminals, and they are further authorized, in cases 84,000 votes against the constitution, and unless we where they have reason to believe that the civil au- do' we would not accomplish more by voting than we thorities are not disposed to do their duty, to retain would by refusing to vote. Then, the most certain criminals in custody until the fact becomes evident, way of defeating the constitution, as the law now bether the civil authorities will or will not perform stands, is to refrain from voting. their duty-immediately reporting their action on all But in the event the law is changed by Congress, such cases to these headquarters.

and it is enacted that the majority of the votes cast 3. Writs of habeas corpus, issued against crimi- shall decide upon the adoption or rejection of the nals in the custody of the military, will be obeyed so constitution, the Congress will then have been forced far as to produce the body of the prisoner in court, to a departure from the law which it has ordained, and the making of a respectful return, setting forth and the rule which it has presented for itself and the the grounds and authority by which the prisoner is people of the State, in determining whether this conheld. Should the court fail to respect the authority stitution should be the constitution of Alabama, and ander which the prisoner was held, the custody of will be compelled to exhibit to the world the fact the criminal will not be transferred to the court with- that the constitution they impose is not the constitucut a reference to these headquarters.

tion of the people of Alabama, but the constitution 4. The major-general desires to impress on the of a minority of the whole people, and that, a negro officers under his command the exercise of a sound minority. discretion and good judgment. It is his determina- Could the constitution be defeated by voting tion to afford the civil authorities every opportunity to against it under the assumed change in the law of discharge their duties untrammelled by any action on Congress, with the unpropitious and hostile influthe part of the military, but such as they, the civil ences opposed to us? We are constrained to the opinauthorities, may invite and desire. He makes this ion that it could be: public notice to the civil authorities that they may be 1. Because the negroes, as a body, will vote for its

adoption. To this there might be exceptions, but but will be so considered when accompanied by viothis would be the rule.

lent and incendiary articles threatening the preser2. The machinery for conducting the registries, vation of the peace, or by attempts to obstruct civil and the elections, is in the hands of those who favor officers, as indicated in paragraph 1 of this order. the adoption of the constitution, and there are no suf- Should any civil officer violate the provisions of this ficient means of purging the polls, or preventing or order, the case will be promptly reported to these detecting frauds in the registration or in the manage- headquarters. ment of the election. The following resolutions were unanimously against the constitution, prepared in 1867,

On the 4th of February, the vote for and adopted by the conference:

took place and passed off quietly. The whites, Resolved, 1. That we recommend to the peoplo with unusual unanimity, abstained from the by the convention, lately in session at Montgomery, polls, and also a large number of blacks. The to abstain from voting at all the elections to be held friends of the constitution made a most strengon the fourth and fifth of February, either upon the ous effort to poll as large a vote as possible, question of ratifying or rejecting that constitution, or still they were defeated by about 15,000 votes. for candidates for offices under it. 2. That we also recommend to the opponents tended to four days, by order of Major-General

The time for taking the votes was also exof said constitution, that they form and maintain effective political organizations among themselves in Meade. About 70,000 votes were polled for every portion of the State, until they are delivered the constitution, while it required about from the perils which are impending.

85,000 to insure its success. The friends of The thirtieth day of January was recom

the constitution elected the Governor, W. H. mended to the people of the State as a day of Smith, the Lieutenant-Governor, the members fasting and prayer to Almighty God, to deliver of Congress, and a large majority of the memthe people of Alabama “from the horrors of bers of the Legislature. negro domination."

About this time a bill, providing for the adA petition also was prepared by the people mission of Alabama as a State in the Union, opposed to granting suffrage to the blacks, was introduced in the lower House of Congress and presented to the lower Xouse of Congress, and referred to the Committee on Reconstrucin which they complained of the grievances tion. The majority of that commitee submitted, under which they considered that the people on March 11th, to the House of Representatives, of Alabama were suffering. They professed a report in favor of the bill, which was to esthe humblest submission and obedience to the tablish the constitution thus rejected at the laws, and portrayed the poverty prevailing on polls, chiefly on the ground that a severe storm account of the unsettled condition of the State, prevented the attendance of the voters in the owing to the political animosities and strifé Republican part of the State. existing. In conclusion, they said :

À minority report was also submitted against We are beset by secret oath-bound political socie- the bill. Mr. Thaddeus Stevens, of Pennsylties; our character and conduct are systematically vania, opposed the bill, on the ground that it misrepresented and magnified to you and in the news. would be wrong to force on the people of Alapapers of the North ; the intelligent and impartial bama a constitution in face of such a vote. adininistration of just laws is obstructed; industry and enterprise are paralyzed by the fears of the whitě The bill was referred back to the committee, men and the expectations of the black that Alabama and a substitute reported and passed in the will soon be delivered over to the rule of the latter; House, but not acted upon by the Senate. and many of our best people are, for these reasons, On the 17th of February the recently-elected leaving the homes they love for other and strango Legislature of Alabama met in the office

of rule by the sword. Send down among us honorable the Sentinel

newspaper, at Montgomery. The and upright men of your own people, of the race to Lieutenant-Governor, A. J. Applegate, called which you and we belong, and ungracious, contrary the Senate to order, and in his address to them to wise policy and the institutions of the country, and said that he regretted the absence of Governtyrannous as it will be, no hand will be raised among or Smith. The fact that Congress had not us to resist by force their authority. But do not, we implore you, abdicate your rule over us, by transfer. voted on the bill to admit the State could make ring us to the blighting, brutalizing, and unnatural no difference, as there was no doubt that the dominion of an alien and inferior race, a race which Assembly was legally elected, and Congress has never exhibited sufficient administrative ability would undoubtedly recognize whatever they which it is broken up in its native seats; and which might do. It was absolutely necessary for the in all ages has itself furnished slaves for’all the other Assembly to act in advance of Congress, beraces of the earth.

cause the life of the nation was in danger, and For the purpose of modifying order No. 49, there was a pressing “necessity for two Śenaissued during the previous year, Major-General tors from Alabama to sit upon the trial of that Meade issued an order, dated February 2, 1868, renegade and traitor, Andrew Johnson.” The in which he prohibits the insertion of official Assembly would be sustained by Congress and documents in all newspapers attempting to by General Meade. “General Meade has been obstruct, in any manner, the civil officers in in consultation with many of us for the last the discharge of their duties. He further few days, and stands ready to sustain our said :

action. If any other assistance were needed, MaOpposition to reconstruction, when conducted in a jor-General Dustan, commanding the militia, legitimate manner, is not to be considered an offence; can at an hour's notice surround our body with

several regiments of loyal troops. Let us have thereof, held in September, 1865, we hereby again no fear, but face the danger like men who are proclaim our faithful adherence to that ordinance, ready to do their duty at all hazards. It is now and we assure the people of the United States that

there are no laws in force in this State, enacted by my duty to say that the Senate of Alabama is our authority, which make any distinction in the organized and ready for duty."

protection which they give the person and property After some unimportant business, the Senate of both races, and we hereby declare our solemn puradjourned.

pose that these laws shall be faithfully and impar

tially administered as soon as the military are withThe proceedings were annulled by the sub- drawn, and we are permitted to manage our own sequent action of Congress in the admission of affairs. Alabama.

Resolved, That the thanks of the Southern people, On the 28th of February, General Meade as well as all friends of free government, are eminently issued an order instructing all officers, whose due to Andrew Johnson for the unflinching courage duty it is made by law to provide for the re- himself of his official oath to preserve, protect, and

and unsurpassable ability with which he has acquitted lief of paupers, to extend relief to all persons defend the Constitution of the United States ; that entitled to claim and claiming the same as this convention pays to him its respects and admirapaupers, without any discrimination as to race tion, both as a patriot and a man, being incorruptiblo or color. And that in all public institutions which he has just triumphantly passed.

in both capacities, as proven by the ordeal through supported by legislative appropriation or taxation, for the benefit of the deaf and dumb,

About this time a meeting was held at Montthe blind, or insane, indigent colored persons

gomery in support of General Grant for the should be received on the same conditions and presidency, at which some soldiers attended, enjoy all the benefits which white persons were who

gave expression to their feelings in oppoentitled to receive and enjoy in such institu

sition to General Grant, and were strongly tions.

censured in a military order issued by Major About this time some difficulty arose be

W. F. Hartz, commanding the sub-District of tween the military authorities and judiciary. Montgomery, The Hon. B. T. Pope, Judge of the Twelfth

In the early part of June, a bill, for the adJudicial Court, was arrested and incarcerated, mission of North Carolina South Carolina, by First-Lieutenant Charles J. Johnson, com- Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida, passed both manding at Jacksonville, for violation of Gen

Houses of Congress over the President's veto, eral Order No. 53, which instructed all judges

and these States thus became entitled to repto see that juries were empanelled “without resentation in Congress. discrimination." Judge Pope interpreted the

Immediately upon the passage of this bill, order as meaning, “without discrimination as the Governor-elect, W. H. Smith, issued the to color, but requiring the other qualifications following proclamation, convening the Legisrequired by statute.” In this view he was sus- lature, in order to conform to the conditions tained by Major-General Meade, who ordered of the act of Congress, and to ratify the prohis discharge from arrest, and censured the ceedings of the constitutional convention : conduct of Lieutenant Johnson.

MONTGOMERY, ALA., June 26, 1868. A military commission was convened on

Whereas, by the terms of an Act of the Congress of the 13th, at Selma, for the trial of several per

the United States, entitled an “ Act to admit the

States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, sons charged with riot and assault and battery. Georgia, Alabama, and Florida to representation in The indictment contained several charges and Congress," it is provided as follows: specifications. The court found all the pris- “That, if the day fixed for the meeting of the Leoners, except two, guilty, and sentenced them gislature of either of said States, by the constitution to terms of imprisonment varying from one to nearly arrived before the passage of this Act, that

or ordinance thereof, shall have passed, or have so five years, and a fine of five hundred dollars there shall not be time for the Legislature to assemble each. General Meade approved of the pro- at the period fixed, such Legislature shall convene at ceedings and findings, but mitigated the sen

the end of twenty days from the time this Act takes tences. These trials caused more than ordi- effect, unless the Governor shall sooner convene the nary excitement, from the fact that they came Now, therefore, I, William H. Smith, Governorwithin the civil jurisdiction.

elect for the State of Alabama, by the power and auA State convention assembled at Montgom- thority in me vested by said Act of Congress, do ery on the 3d of June. After two days' de- hereby convene the Legislature of this State at 'tho liberation it adopted a resolution in favor of capitol, at the hour of 12 M., Monday, July 13, 1868.

W. H. SMITH, Governor-elect. sending delegates to the National Democratic Convention, to be held at New York, on the

The Legislature accordingly assembled on 4th of July, and passed the following resolu- July 13th. Of the 84 members comprising the

House, 26 were blacks. Mr. J. Carraway (col

ored) was elected Speaker of the lower House. ciples and the patriotism of the

Democratic party, read in the Senate : Resolved, That, having entire confidence in the prin- The following message from the Governor was We hereby pledge ourselves to support the candidates of that party for President and Vice-President of the United States, to be nominated at the coming conven

Executive DEPARTMENT, STATE SLABAMA,} tion in the city of New York on the 4th of July next. Gentlemen of the Senate and Ilouse of Representatives :

Ressloed, That slavery having been prohibited in I have received from Major-General Meade, comthe State of Alabama by a convention of the people manding the Third Military District, an official order,

VOL. VIII.-2

same."

tions:

an

numbered 100, in regard to organizing the General The direction of affairs in the State was Assembly of this state. A duly verified copy of the order is herewith communicated for your information. by General Meade, in the following order, issued

now turned over to the new civil authorities W. H. SMITH, Prov'l Gov'r of Alabama.

on July 14th: General Orders, No. 100.

Whereas, Official information has been received at HEADQUARTERS THIRD MILITARY DISTRICT, these headquarters from the Governor-elect of the DEPARTMENT OF GEORGIA, FLORIDA, AND ALABAMA,

State of Alabama, that the Legislature of said State, ATLANTA, Ga., July 9, 1868.

elected under the provisions of General Order No. 101, Whereas, by virtue of the Act of Congress, which series of 1867, from these headquarters, has assembecame a 'law June 25, 1868, and of the proclama- bled and complied with the requisitions of the Act of tion of the Governor-elect of the State of Alabama, Congress, which became a law June 25, 1868, entitled issued in conformity therewith, the two Houses of

Act to admit the States of North Carolina, the Legislature are directed to assemble at Montgom- South Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, and ery on the 13th instant; and

Florida to representation in Congress;" and whereas, Whereas, in view of the fact that until the State of Alabama has complied with the requirements of the therein set forth by any State, the officers of said

said act states that, on compliance with the conditions acts of Congress entitling it to representation, all State, duly elected and qualified under the constitugovernmental officers in said State are provisional tion thereof, shall be inaugurated without delay, it is and subject to the direct authority of the district therefore ordered : commander; and

1. That all civil officers holding office in the State, Whereas, The usual hope of organizing legislative whether by military appointment or by failure to bodies is in this instance impracticable: It is ordered—1. That the Hon. William H. Smith, offices and turn over to their properly elected and

have successors qualified, shall promptly yield their Provisional Governor of the State of Alabama, pro- qualified successors all public property, archives, ceed at 12 M., on the 13th instant, to effect such pre- books, records, etc., belonging to the same. liminary organization of both Houses of the Legislature as will enable the same to enter on the discharge District of Alabama, is officially notified of the in

2. Whenever the military commander of the subof the duties assigned them by law. 2. That before auguration of the State government elect, military each House shall be considered legally organized, the authority under the Acts of Congress, known as the Provisional Governor will require that,

in conformity Reconstruction Laws, will be at an end in said State ; with the reconstruction acts and act which became and it is the duty of the sub-District commander to a law June 25, 1868, each House, before proceeding to transfer every thing appertaining to the government any business beyond organization, shall take meas- of said State to the proper civil officers, and to abures to purge itself of all members who may be dis- stain in future, upon any pretext whatever, from any qualified from holding office under the provisions of interference with

or control over the civil authorities Section 3, an amendment to the Constitution known of the State, or the persons and property of the citias Article 14.

zens thereof. By order of Major-General MEADE. 8. On the inauguration of the civil government, R. C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-General.

all prisoners held in custody or by bonds for offences The president then informed the Senate that against the civil law will be turned over to the proper they, having complied with the requirements civil authority. In the mean time writs of habeas corof Congress, were vested with full authority obeyed and the decisions conformed to.

pus from United States Courts will be respectfully

Writs to transact the civil business.

from State courts will have respectful returns made, In the House and Senate a resolution was stating prisoners are held by authority of the United adopted ratifying the 14th Article of Arnend- States, and can only be released by writs issued by ments to the Constitution of the United States, United States Courts. and also another, ratifying the resolutions of

By order of Major-General MEADE.

R. C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-General. the Thirty-eighth Congress abolishing slavery. The Governor, W. H. Smith, in his message

The following is an extract from an order of strongly recommended the removal of all disa. General Meade's defining the military jurisdicbilities from the people of Alabama, and opposed any disfranchisement except for crime.

The several States comprising this military disHe urged the necessity of a sound and thor: trict, having by solemn acts of their Assemblies con

formed to the requisitions of the acts of Congress ough common-school system of education, stat- which became a law June 25, 1868, and civil governing that 37,600 of the adult white population ment having been inaugurated in each, the military of Alabama, in 1860, could neither read nor power vested in the district commander by the Rewrite, and that the colored people were still construction Laws, by the provisions of these laws more' deficient. He recommended the devel- these headquarters, and bearing upon the rights

of opment of the agricultural and industrial in- persons and property, will have in the several States terests of Alabama. Not having reports from of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, only such force as the institutions of the State, he could not may be given to them by the courts and Legislatures state their condition, or the details of the of the respective States. financial affairs of the Treasury. “In conclu- The late Secretary of State, Micah Taul, and sion, gentlemen,” he said, "you will pardon the Attorney-General

, John W. A. Sandford, me for again reminding you that you have as- protested against this order on the ground sembled to legislate in the interest of the whole that, if Alabama was entitled to representation people. Knowing you as I do, and judging of in Congress, it was because she was a member your motives by what I know of my own, I of the Union. Among the reserved rights of am assured that you will perform your duty in States was the power in each State to ordain no bitter or partisan spirit, and that your acts and establish a constitution for itself and laws will one and all promote the prosperity and for its domestic government. The people of welfare of every citizen."

the State of Alabama rejected the constitution

tion:

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