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of a pave, south aisle, and chancel ; and, INSTITUTE OF BRITISII ARCHITECTS.
what we trust is not a mere embellish-

April 20. W. Tite, esq. V.P. in the
ment of the drawing, a screen of oak, sur. chair.
mounted by a cross, appears to separate A letter was read, from M. de Prangey,
the chancel from the pave. The roof is of of Paris, accompanying some works on
open timber work, composed of trussed Moorish architecture, and in which he gave
rafters ; and the entire design, from the a description of the ancient sculptured
excellence of its architectural character, fragments from Nineveh, and a collection
may be regarded as a superior example of of casts from others at Persepolis, lately
church architecture.

arrived in the French capital.
1171. New Church, Salton Waldron, A communication was read from Sir
near Shaftesbury. G. Alexander.-This Gardiner Wilkinson, accompanying
edifice consists of nave, aisles, and chan. drawing made by him of the fallen " Tus-
cel, and a west tower and spire. The can Column," at Baalbek,
architecture is perpendicular, as, we be A paper by C. Varley, esq. On a
lieve, Mr. Alexander's designs generally Method of Ventilating Rooms for Large
are ; the roofs are of good pitch, and the Assemblies,' and also one ‘On preventing
design exhibits good features.

the Emission of Noxious Elluvia from
1187. North-west view of Battersea the Sewers into the Streets,' were read.
New Church, now erecting, from the May 3. W. Tite, esq. V.P. in the chair.
designs of Lee and Bury. J. Bury. -The following office-bearers were elected

1188. Interior of same. -- An important for the ensuing year : -President, Earl de
structure, apparently of large dimensions, Grey; Vice Presidents, S. Angell, C.
in the decorated style; the tracery is Fowler, and A. Poynter, esqs. ; Honorary
foliated, but late. It consists of a chancel, Secretaries, G. Bailey and J. J. Scholes,
nave and aisles, with transept to aisles. esqs.; Honorary Secretary for Foreign
The tower is at the south-west angle of Correspondence, T. L. Donaldson, esq. ;
the nave, and is surmounted with a spire, Ordinary Members of the Council, G.
baring spire lights of rather a florid cha. Alexander, H. Ashton, C. Barry, D. Bran-
racter. The interior is very effective; don, R. D. Chantrell, T. L. Donaldson,
the arches spring from octagonal columns, J. B. Gardiner, E. J. Anson, jun., G.
the roof is open timber-work, the trusses Pownall, and J. Woolley, esqs. ; Auditors,
composed of arched braces, beneath a C. Mayhew and T. Meyer, esqs. ; Hon.
collar. The organ appears to be placed orary Solicitor, W. L. Donaldson, esq. ;
in a chamber situate within the lower Treasurer, Sir W. R. Farquhar.
story of the tower. The font is octagonal, May 17. Earl de Grey, President, in
panneled, and raised on a platform ; below the chair, who presented to J. W. Pap.
the strings and round the arches are worth, Fellow, the Medal of the Institute
painted inscriptions in illuminated charac for his essay. On the Adaptation and Mo-
ters, and also at the font and other parts. dification of the Orders of the Greeks by
The structure may, upon the whole, be the Romans and Moderns ;' and to James
regarded as a superior specimen of modern Bell, the Medal of Merit for his essay on
church architecture.

the same subject.
1286. Christ Church, Bermondsey, now The Rev. Prof. Willis read a paper On
ereeting by G. Allen and W. B. Hays, the Successive Construction and History
from the designs of W. B. Hays.-A of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at
Norman structure in the modern accepta- Jerusalem, from Constantine downwards.'
tion of the word, consisting of a nave After alluding generally to the holy places
with aisles, and a tower and spire at the visited by the pilgrims and grouped
north-west angle of the nave. The inte together within the walls of the church,
rior shews lofty and slender columns with and the buildings immediately connected
Norman caps, rather awkward-looking with it, he proceeded to give a brief history
imitations of the older examples, which of the successive destructions and re-
the designers do not appear to have re constructions of the church from its
collected are generally short and thick, original foundation by the Emperor Con-
circumstances which render them incon- stantine to the time of its being rebuilt
venient when side galleries are designed, after the fire in 1802. He then described
as in this structure, therefore, and for the the building as it existed when the Cru-
accommodation of these excrescences, the saders were driven out of Jerusalem ; and
modern Norman attenuated pillar has by analyzing and comparing the numerous
been invented. The roof is of open tim. pilgrim' writers of the Middle Ages, en.
ber, and is the only good feature about the deavoured to show the nature of the
design.

additions which the Crusaders had made,
(To be continued.)

—and finally the probable plan of the
original Basilica of Constantine. Tha

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principal authorities quoted were Bernar rected attention, alluding to the carving
dino and Zuallardo for the Crusaders' and other embellishments that adorn the
Church; and Seewulf for the building as exterior, especially the external staircase in
it existed immediately before the Cru the court. Of the north front, looking
saders began their additions. Prof. Willis from the court, he also spoke highly; and
also gave his own translation of Eusebius's particularly mentioned the colouring of
account of the church, as built by Con the window recesses, as throwing out the
stantine ; and exhibited plans made ac architectural details with much effect.
cording to these several descriptions, He then proceeded to describe the Palace
showing the different states of the building; of Chambord, situated about four leagues
those portions being tinted the same colour from Blois, and one of the most curious
in each plan which appear to have retained and interesting palaces in France,-sup-
their original position during the suc- posed to have been designed by Pri.
cessive ages that have elapsed since the maticcio. It exhibits in its details the
construction of the first commemorative imaginative mind of an artist, rather than
edifice on the holy site. A model of the the practical science of an architect. The
Church of the Holy Sepulchre was ex roof, with its forest of towers, studded in
hibited, by favour of Mr. Johns.

every direction with niches, columns,
May 31. C. Fowler, esq. V.P. in the pilasters, gabels, &c., and crowned with
chair. A Marble from Pompeii, sculptured the cupola of the grand staircase, which
in relief on both sides, and having pivot rises above all the rest, forms a picturesque
holes in the top and bottom edges, was ensemble ; and the various noble opart.
exhibited by Mr. E. Brown, who supposes ments in the interior, and the grand dou-
it to have been used as a window, or to ble staircase, though all suffering from the
close an aperture.

application of whitewash, still possess
Mr. J. G. Crace read an account of the powerful attractions for the lover of Re-
Palaces of Blois and Chambord, with naissance Art.
illustrations of the Renaissance style of June 14. Ambrose Poynter, esq. V.P.
art from those buildings. The Palace of in the chair.
Blois stands on the site of a Roman camp, A communication was read from A. H.
and possesses remains of very considerable Layard, esq. relative to further dis-
antiquity. It passed into the hands of the coveries made by him at Nimroud ; par-
De Chatillons about 1292, and was sold ticularly as to the fact of the employment
by that family to the Duke of Orleans, of colour by the ancient Assyrians in the
who took possession in 1397. Their de- embellishment of their architecture and
scendant became Louis the Twelfth. It sculpture ; describing the mode of con-
was bestowed on Gaston d'Orleans bystruction adopted, and stating that it had
Louis the Thirteenth, and after his death, been satisfactorily ascertained that the
it became again the property of the buildings recently brought to light are of
Crown. The palace forms an irregular various epochs ; and expressing an opi-
quadrangle, of which the south side was nion that some of those at Nimroud are of
built by the old Dukes of Orleans, the much more remote antiquity than those at
east by Louis the Twelfth, the north by Khorsabad, and probably of the age of
Francis the First, and the west by Gaston Ninus or Semiramis.
d'Orleans. All these are of different styles . On the Geometric System applied by
of architecture, the early domestic the Mediæval Architects to the propor-
Gothic, the Ramboyant or enriched, the tions of their Ecclesiastical Structures,' by
Renaissance of Francis the First, and the R. D. Chantrell, esq.--The chief object of
Franco-Italian of Mansard. Mr. Crace the paper was to prove that in all the
particularly directed attention to the mediæval structures a general principle
eastern side, -on the centre front of which of the most perfect and beautiful propor-
the canopied recess over the archway was tion pervades the design, and may be re-
remarked as a beautiful example of the cognized by the scientific observer. This
style: and illustrations of this and the system must be adopted by the modern
staircase were given. A description of architect in order to produce the same suc-
the interior as it appeared during the time cessful results. That some general princi-
of Louis the Twelfth was quoted from the ple of composition had been adopted by
writings of a chronicler of the time. The the mediæval architects is an opinion that
famous Salle des Etats, situate on the has been entertained by various individuals
north-east angle of the building, was fully for many years past; and attempts have
described, and an account given of the been made by Kerrich, Essex, Browne,
meeting of the States therein during the and others to develope it. Their en-
time of Henry the Third. It was, how. deavours have been attended with various
ever, to the Renaissance building of Francis degrees of success ; but according to the
the First that the author principally di- author of the paper no pne bat himself has

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succeeded in discovering the true principle were, protruded: one pillar is wholly capable of uniform application. Mr. insulated. Similar instances of this, Chantrell exhibited a number of plans and which has been termed "a beauty of other diagrams in elucidation of his unfrequent occurrence," may be found theory; and without which it would be in the churches of Little Addington, impracticable to convey an adequate idea Northamptonshire, and Nun Monkton, of the system.

Yorkshire. Models of a new kind of brick invented Mr. Lechmere exhibited some drawings by Mr. Merrell, of Woodbridge, were of stained glass remaining in the Priory exhibited and explained. The bricks are church of Great Malvern, which, when 80 shaped as to form internal channels for perfect, represented King Henry VII. the passage of air, and consequently pro- and his Queen, Prince Arthur, Sir Regiduce a thorough ventilation of the wall. nald Bray, Sir John Savage, and Sir

Thomas Lovell. The inscription beneath, OXFORD ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. as being erected during the lifetime of May 5. The Report of the Com the persons commemorated, commences mittee stated that their attention had been with “Orate pro bone statu'' instead of principally directed to the selection of “ Orate pro animabus." The only figures designs for sepulchral monuments in remaining in a perfect state are those of churchyards, and to the provision of the Prince and Sir Reginald Bray, who painted glass for the new east window of are both represented kneeling at low desks, Dorchester church; and that the Hon. which are usually called faldstools, and G. F. Boyle had been appointed Secretary have been figured as such, though Mr. in the room of Mr. Lowe, who has left Lechmere expressed some doubt as to Oxford.

that being their correct designation. The Rev. W. Sewell, B.D. Vice-Pre. (These are engraved in Carter's Ancient sident, delivered a lecture on the corrup- Sculpture and Painting.) tion of Greek architecture preparatory to The Rev. Henry Thompson, M.A. the introduction of Gotbic.

Corresponding Secretary, read a paper May 26. The Report of the Com on the parish church of Wrington, So. mittee chiefly commented on the presents merset, one of the finest village churches received, which were unusually numerous, in England, and an admirable example of including a large number of impressions the rich and elegant style of Perpendicuof brasses, both ancient and modern. It lar prevalent in that county. The tower was also stated that Mr. E. A. H. Lechmere, especially, is, perhaps, unsurpassed for of Christ Church, had been elected to the harmony of composition and delicacy place on the committee rendered vacant of detail. The manor and church of by the election of the Hon. G. F. Boyle, Wrington being formerly dependencies of as Secretary

the abbey of Glastonbury, there can be The President then read a communica- little doubt but that the present fabric is tion from J. H. Markland, esq. Corre- owing to the munificence of that house. sponding Secretary, on several peculiari. The exact date is uncertain ; but from ties in the Abbey Church of Bath, espe

traces of an earlier roof remaining against cially the remains of pillars of earlier the tower within, it would seem that the date at the east end, which, from the latter was built before the present nave. numerous fragments of Roman antiquity The chancel is, for the most part, a relic found in the city, have been often attri of an earlier building, and is much inbuted to that people, but which he showed ferior in size and richness. The east should rather be considered as fragments window is transition decorated, from of one of the two Romanesque cathedrals, geometrical to flowing tracery. bearing date respectively 1088 and 1140, Mr. Freeman made some remarks which preceded the present building corroborating Mr. Thompson's statement Mr. Markland mentioned the works in on the great merit of Wrington church, the abbey in 1833, which, although with which he was well acquainted. He they took place before church arrange- alluded to other Somersetshire churches, ment was understood, and consequently which were much spoiled by the retention were open to objection on that score,

of the smaller and earlier chancels, insatisfactorily supplanted in many parts stancing Gatton, where the effect of a work of bad character, and brought to light most lofty and magnificent nave is much several concealed features of antiquity.

deteriorated by the low arches of a preMr. Markland also laid before the ceding building remaining under the cen. Meeting a drawing of the interior of the tral tower. This church was remarkable west end of Swainswick church, Somer

for a west front far surpassing the usual setshire, into the body of which the parochial model, even when the church is piers supporting the tower are, as it large and of the cross form,

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Mr. Lucas exhibited his models of the pose in the 13th century, introduced a proposed restoration of William of Wyke. general and uniform change and improve. ham's monument. Considerable diffi. ment into the system of ecclesiastical culty had been experienced in ascertain architecture, from which resulted the ing how to supply the loss of some of early Pointed Style, a style perfect and the figures in the niches around the sides beautiful in a scientific and artistic view, of the tomb; he had at length inserted and peculiarly appropriate in its applicaangels bearing shields. The models are tion to the spirit of the Christian faith. painted and gilded.

It was likewise stated, that, in addition to the above views, the Freemasons of the

Church made it an object of their exer. RESTORATION OF ST. JOHN'S GATE. tions to preserve, and, if necessary, to

On the 14th June the Council of the effect the restoration of such architectural College of “ Freemasons of the Church" remains of antiquity as might be threatgave a conversazione, to which admission ened with demolition unnecessarily, or was obtained by a payment, to be applied should be endangered by decay, or, towards the restoration of St. John's Gate, through neglect or local circumstances, Clerkenwell. The rooms were crowded, have become inaccessible to the public. and Sir Walter James, Bart. took the Hence their efforts towards the restorachair

tion of the gate of the Knights Hospi. Mr. J. Wykeham Archer addressed tallers, in Clerkenwell, which was ordered, the meeting at some length, in a discourse in accordance with the directions of the relative to the object of the assembly. He Street Improvement Act, either to be likewise explained the general objects and demolished entirely, or, as an alternative, pretensions of the Architectural College to be covered over with compo. of Freemasons of the Church, describing The recovery, progress, and present hopethe title adopted by the society as one ful aspect of the gate were described, and not intended to express any conformity a strong appeal was made for an extension with the general body of freemasons, but of the necessary means. The lecturer rather as indicative of the professed views then proceeded to give a summary of the of the college, viz., the recovery, mainte. history of the Priory of St. John, and of nance, and furtherance of the free princi. those other circumstances which render ples and practice of architecture ; such the Gate-house interesting. A further having been, in their opinion, the princi- subscription of 101. 108. on the part of ples of the early fraternities so designated, Messrs. Reid was announced, 31. 38. from and who by their labours, under the au. Sir Walter James, and, in addition to other thority of the Pope, and according to the subscriptions, several pounds were proresolutions of a Council held for the pur. cured by the sale of tickets.

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.
April 29. Henry Hallam, esq. Vice
President. The Earl of Ellesmere was
elected a Fellow of the Society.

J. G. Teed, esq. Q.C. exhibited an ancient manuscript of Domestic Recipes, of about the year 1377.

George Grant Francis, esq. F.S.A. exhibited the moulds and casts of three Roman inscriptions on a stone discovered lately at Port Talbot, near Aberavon, in Glamor. ganshire. The most legible of these bears the following, in uncial characters :

I мес
MAG OR
DIANVS

A VG
(Imperator Cæsar Marcus Antonius
Gordianus Augustus.)

Dr, Bromet, F.S.A. communicated a

further explanation of the monument at Gavr' Innis, in Britany, together with some rubbings from those of its sculptured stones which he considered the most interesting. A remarkable peculiarity in this monument consists in the interior faces of several of its component stones being engraved with concentric curves resembling eels or serpents; and others with those instruments called celts, or small ovals pointed at one end, but so placed as to give an appearance of their being hieroglyphic characters. There are only two other instances of the kind on record, viz., one formerly near Gavr' Innis called the Pierres Plates, now destroyed, and the one at New-Grange, in Ireland. Another distinctive feature is a sort of staple made in the stone at about three feet from the ground, by three holes communicating with

century, introduced 1 - change and improve tem of eccleiastical

which resulted C, a style perfect and tific and artatic nie opriate in its appien

. f the Christian faith, 1, that, in additica de - Freemasons of the

ohject of their ezers and, if necessary, of such architecten

as might be thres 1 unnecessarils

, ed by decay, a, ocal circumstances

, Eible to the public

, Swards the restoran he Knights Hepi.

which was ordered e directions of the Act, either to be , as an alternative,

compo. and present hope ere described, and e for an extension ; The lecturer

summary of the St. John, and of es which render Sg. A further

on the part of d. 31. 38. from dition to other

1847.]
Society of Antiquaries.

71
each other at the back, and indicating nied with a plan and view of Keynsham
much friction by the internal smoothness, church.
as if by the action of ropes passed through. May 6. Thomas Stapleton, esq. V.P.

Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. F.S.A. com John Britton, esq. F.S.A. addressed a municated, from his collection of records, letter to the President “On Cromlechs a new notice of Shakspeare, being a copy and Kistvaens,” accompanied by the exof the will of Thomas Whyttington, hus- hibition of numerous drawings of each bandman, dated the 25th of March, 1601, class of such Celtic monuments. The obby which, among other bequests, he gives ject of this paper was to shew that both to the poor of Stratford 408. then in the the cromlech and the kistvaen were se. hands of Anne Shaxspere, “wyf of Wyl. pulchral in their origin, with this differlyam Shaxspere," and due to him. Among ence between them : the former consists numerous other small bequests we meet, of the largest blocks, which are put fur. -"Item, I give to Thomas Hathaway, ther apart from each other, without any sonne to the late deceased, Margret Hath. attempt to fill the interstices; are placed way, late of Old Stratford, 12d." It will on high ground in open view, instead of be recollected that the marriage bond of being immersed in a barrow, and the lid Shakspeare, and the autograph signature or roof is one large and prominent block, of Sir Thomas Lucy, the well-known instead of being made of several pieces. magistrate, are in the same collection of The kistvaen, or stone chest, is an inclo. records.

sure of stones smaller than those of the The Hou. R. C. Neville, F.S.A. com cromlech, placed in an upright position, municated an account of the examination almost or quite touching each other, enof a group of barrows, five in number, in closing a bottom of rock or stones ; it is the county of Cambridge, and situated at completed by a covering of several flat the distance of a mile and a halt from stones, and closely surrounded by a mound Royston; this was accompanied with illus of earth. They are found not only throughtrative drawings. These barrows give a out our own empire, but also in France, name to the locality, the spot where they Spain, Scandinavia, Russia, and even in stand being called Five Hill Field; and North and South America. They have from commanding an extensive view, they therefore excited great discussion; and have been considered by some as originally while Norden, Camden, Aubrey, Stukeley, intended for beacons. But the researches Borlase, Pennant, and Whitaker advocate of Mr. Neville prove that they were de their funereal appropriation, Toland, Rowcidedly of a funereal character; and cine- land, Pegge, and King maintain that they rary vases, remains of men and animals, were altars for the sacrifice of human vica fragments of charcoal, the iron head of a tims, as alluded to by Cæsar, Tacitus, pike, and a beaatifully preserved large Strabo, and others. Mr. Britton quotes brass coin of Marcus Aurelius, were a long list of writers on this question, and brought to light by excavation. These decisively concludes that the true purpose labours, says Mr. Neville, “ fully establish of these monuments is sepulchral. in my mind an idea I have long held with May 13. Viscount Mahon, Pres. regard to British barrows, that cutting Sir John M. Brackenbury, who forthrough at once to the centre will, in merly resided for many years as the British general, prove inefficacious, though it may Consul at Cadiz, exhibited by the hands be accidentally successful. From the posi- of Sir Henry Ellis a gold ring set with an tion of the remains in those we have been intaglio, found in a Roman tomb at Cadiz considering, it is more than probable that, during Sir John's residence there, about had this plan been adopted, the excavators, mid-way between the city and the fortress owing to the magnitude of the mounds, of Puntales, in the Bay of Cadiz. Within would have missed the articles; and even the tomb were three urns; one was of had they driven horizontal shafts in dif baked earth; another of metal; and the ferent directions from the centre, it is fair third, in which this with four other rings to conjecture that the result would have were found, was of a semi-transparent been the same.

substance, which had the appearance of The Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, F.S.A. alabaster. These urns were immediately communicated the copy of a brief, relating broken by the youths who discovered to the tower of Keynsham church, Somer them, in the hope of obtaining something set, which was destroyed by lightning in

of value from within. Of the rings, one 1632, and a very detailed copy of the held a cameo, which was subsequently church wardens' accounts, shewing the broken; an unpolished emerald ornaseveral sums collected under the said mented the second ; and two others had a brief, and the moneys laid out in the scorpion rudely engraven upon the gold. rebuilding of the said tower from 1632 to The ring now exhibited, the fifth of these, is 1640. This manuscript was accompa. exactly, both as to the ring and the intaglio

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