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nd the careful thorough and
him, Burke of touch, that pression, that at fame, Vol.
many uments and io. ore than a bare
reader." Vide imboldt's bigh ble for the sa. part relating to
To which we 10, for a cri. For remarks on here he shows
and in tbe and writers," Foduce another re of following
Vide Europe E inaccurate of
Ibid. p. 978. on Robertson, l. iii. p. 405. the following Reformation,
taire and Raynal, had rendered the subject attractive to their countrymen, the one by the lively and epigrammatic manner in which, in a few forcible remarks, he condensed the philosophy of history,—the other by bringing to bear on the familiar subjects of former history the new lights of modern science, the more extended views of society, more correct deductions of philosophy, and larger experience in the laws of commerce and legislation. Still there was room left for a successor who should avail bimself of what time has disclosed of its historical treasures, and of what the research and observation of travellers bas elicited among the remains of the conquered country, and who should gratify the increasing curiosity and intelligence of the public by a picture painted on a broader scale, with greater variety of views, and a richer accumulation of particular objects. Yet, while Mr. Prescott's previous History of Mexico has been advantageous to him in respect of drawing immediate attention to the present, we think it also may tend somewhat to its prejudice by the necessary comparison that will be made between them. To those who have read the Conquest of Mexico by Cortez, that of Peru by Pizarro will appear something like an echo of the former, -a repetition of the same views and the same adventures, with the disadvantage of fainter colouring, less attractive adventures in the conquerors, and a weaker sympathy with the vanquished. Perhaps, too, the force of our emotions has been somewhat exhausted by previous excitement : we can foretell, from our knowledge of the characters, what will be the arrangement of the plot, and what the certainty of the catastrophe. The names of the characters indeed are changed ; the whole drama is performed by meaner actors; the leader is cast in less heroic mould, and the sufferers have less command over our sympathies, displaying neither the same active valour nor passive fortitude, neither the exhaustless resources which made us doubtful of the struggle, nor the devoted patriotism which made us deplore their fall.
Much, too, of the novelty of the scene had passed away ;-the barbaric splendours that first opened on our eyes on the shores as it appeared of a new-born world; the wild magnificence of Nature spread out on a gigantic scale unknown before; cities of savage tribes that far surpassed all the fabled glories of the East; towns in an unknown country, built by an unknown people, glowing with gold and gems, such as neither Babylon nor Cairo in their proudest days had known; and roads of communication stretching hundreds of leagues alike over mountain and river and ravine, such as Rome herself had never either executed or conceived. There too was the spectacle for the first time presented of nations formed of what appeared the discordant elements of society,--anomalous junction of what belonged to various æras of time and different developments of civilization. There was at once the soft and effeminate luxury of an Asiatic court, and the blondy superstitions, the dark idolatries, and the loathsome cannibalism of the savage of the wilderness. These are striking scenes for the traveller to describe, and for the moralist and the philosopher to contemplate. But their first impression had gradually faded away, and when the historian again took up the pencil, however bright his colours, and however skilful
ology, in bis I cannot but Filberforce's
committed ers, p. 395. nd therefore
gives high 4gesSee riters, like ip. Maffei,
in the various editions it has gone through. It would form as curious a historyı
his pencil, he could not command the same eager expectation, or detain the restless curiosity of his readers. That which is repeated becomes weaker in its impression. If we listen to the striking of a distant clock, the first and perhaps second hours will come distinctly on the ear, and the remainder will invariably be lost, and, as it were, melt away into a faint admixture of low undistinguishable sounds.
Perhaps the way to do justice to Mr. Prescott's history would be to (present an outline of its contents, to follow him in his bright historic path, to point out to our readers at once the steadiness of his step and the rapidity of his stride, to pause over his animated and brilliant descriptions, to remark the graceful and natural transitions by which he conducts the thread of his narrative, to praise the knowledge by which he forms a correct estimate of motive and character, and to admire and applaud the humane and philanthropic language which he never fails to bring to soothe the wounded feelings of humanity, and draw a veil over the sufferings which he is reluctantly obliged to describe. This, however, is a task that we have no power of performing, not only requiring great circumspection and care, but larger limits than we can command ; and the original work also is so alluring in its subject, so pleasing in its execution, and so moderate in its extent, as would never fatigue the attention, or make any undue demands on the time. What we propose to do, therefore, is to extract a few passages, which will give a sufficient specimen of Mr. Prescott's manner of treating his subject; while in the dissertation which is prefixed to the first volume, as a necessary introduction to the subsequent history, the reader will find some interesting observations on the period at which this singular and recent civilization of the Peruvians commenced the supposed sources of it, whether foreign or such as grew out of the circumstauces in which they were placed,- of their institutions, arts, religion, laws, traditions, and language,--all subjects of great interest, many involved in much mystery for want of such existing monuments and relics as remain amidst the ruins of other departed nations, and all treated with learning, intelligence, and candour. We do not hold out Mr. Prescott's style as one that is to our taste without faults. In his descriptive parts we think it too exuberant, too much abounding in epithet, erring on the side of too great fulness. It is a great fault in a writer to pour out all his stores without reserve, to leave nothing to the reader to supply, no spot unoccupied which he can appropriate, no touch which he can add; and we think that this graceful and judicious reserve of power is a very distinguishing feature in the style of Robertson.
Let us now pass on to the history that lies before us the history of this strange crusade-this singular conflict of opposing passions and interests, met from distant quarters of the globe in deadly and fatal strife: avarice, and fanaticism, and bigotry on the one hand, -on the other, ignorance, cruelty, tyranny, and hideous and bloody superstition.
As our extracts must be few, it may be as well to take them from those portions of the narrative which are striking without being too familiar; and accordingly we must pass over the earlier stages of the invasion, and the very interesting chapters, with all their strong and vivid painting of the invader's bold march across the mountains to the interior of the country, till the Spaniards stood face to face with the Peruvian monarch. We must pass over his capture, his death, with the massacre attending it, and the subjugation of the people and dissolution of the native government, till we see
July, ation, or detain Deated becomes a distant clock, the ear, and the -y into a faint
- task that we
mspection and nal work also
so moderate e any undue
to extract a r. Prescott's eh is prefixed tient history, od at which nenced--the the circum$, religion, ly involved as remain learning 3 style as we think le of too is stores unoccu
the conquering banners of Castile displayed before the walls of the capital of the western empire.
" It was late in the afternoon when the vinces. The quarters whence this motley conquerors came in sight of Cuzco; the de. population came are indicated by their scending Sun was streaming his broad peculiar dress, and especially their head rays full on the imperial city, where many gear, so rarely found at all on the Ame. an altar was dedicated to his worship. rican Indian, wbich, with its variegated The low ranges of buildings, shewing in colours, gave a picturesque effect to the his beams like so many lines of silvery
masses in the streets. light, filled up the bosom of the valley, The habitual order and decorum main. and the lower slopes of the mountains, tained in this multifarious assembly, whose shadowy forms hung darkly over the showed the excellent police of the capital, fair city, as if to shield it from the me. where the only sounds that disturbed Haced profanation. Pizarro prepared for the repose of the Spaniards were the his entrance into the Peruvian capital. noises of feasting and dancing, which the The little army was formed into three di, natives with happy insensibility con. visions, of which the centre or battle as it stantly prolonged to a late hour of the was called was led by the general. The night. The edifices of the better sort, and suburbs were thronged with a countless they were very numerous, were of stone multitude of the natives, who had flocked or faced with stone. Among the principal from the city and the surrounding country were the royal residences ; as each soveto witness the showy and to them start reign built a new palace for himself, co. ling pageant. All looked with eager cu. vering, though low, a large extent of riosity on the strangers, the fame of whose ground. The walls were sometimes stained terrible exploits had spread to the remotest or painted with gaudy tints, and the gates, parts of the empire. They gazed with we are assured, were sometimes of coastonishment on their dazzling arms and loured marble. In the delicacy of the fair complexions, which seemed to pro stone-work,' says another of the conclaim them the true Children of the Sun; querors, the natives far excelled the Spaand they listened with feelings of myste niards, though the roofs of their dwellrious dread as the trumpet sent forth its ings, instead of tiles, were only of thatch, prolonged notes through the streets of the but put together with the nicest art. The capital, and the solid ground shook under sunny climate of Cuzco did not require a the heavy tramp of the cavalry. The ca. very substantial material for defence pital of the Incas, though falling short agaiost the weather. The most important of the El Dorado which had engaged their building was the fortress, planted on a credulous fancies, astonished the Spa solid rock that rose boldly above the niards by the beauty of its edifices, the city. It was built of bewn stone, so finely length and regularity of its streets, and wrought that it was impossible to detect the good order and appearance of comfort, the line of junction between the blocks, even luxury, visible in its numerous popu. and the approaches to it were defended by lation. It far surpassed all they had yet three semicircular parapets composed of seen in the New World. The population such heavy masses of rock that it bore of the city is computed by one of the con resemblance to the kind of rock known querors at two hundred thousand inhabi. to architects as the Cyclopian.* The forfants, and that of the suburbs at as many tress was raised to a height rare in Perumore. This account is not confirmed as vian architecture, and from the summit of far as I have seen by any other writer ; the tower the eye of the spectator ranged but, however it may be exaggerated, it is over a magnificent prospect, in which the certain that Cuzco was the metropolis of a wild features of the mountain scenery, great empire, the residence of the court rocks, woods, and waterfalls, were mingled and the chief nobility, frequented by the with the rich verdure of the valley, and the most skilful mechanics and artisans of shining city filling up the foreground, -all every description, who found a demand blended in sweet harmony under the deep for their ingenuity in the royal precincts : azure of a tropical sky. The most sumpwhile the place was garrisoned by a nu
tuous edifice in Cuzco in the time of the merous soldiery, and was the resort finally Incas was undoubtedly the great Temple of emigrants from the most distant pro
dedicated to the Sun, which, studded with
* For Cyclopian architecture, consult Dodwell's Views and Descriptions of Cyclopian or Pelasgic Remains in Greece and Italy, with constructions of a later period, folio, 1833, a supplement to the author's Tour in Greece. The work is scarce, unfortunately, as few were printed.Rey.
* In a
gold plates, as already noticed, was sur thousand pesos de oro, and each one of rounded by convents and dormitories for the infantry half that sum, though the the priests, with their gardens and broad same discrimination was made by Pizarro parterres sparkling with gold. The exte as before in respect to the rank of the rior ornaments had been already removed parties, and their relative services. But by the conquerors-all but the frieze of Sancho, the royal notary, and secretary gold, which, embedded in the stones, still of the commander, estimates the whole encircled the principal building. It is amount as far less, not exceeding five probable that the tales of wealth so hundred and eighty thousand and two greedily circulated among the Spaniards hundred pesos de oro, and two hundred greatly exceeded the truth. If they did and fifteen thousand marks of silver. In not, the natives must have been very suc the absence of the official returns, it is cessful in concealing their treasures from impossible to determine which is correct. the invaders. Yet much still remained, But Sancho's narrative is countersigned, not only in the great House of the Sun ; it may be remembered, by Pizarro and the but in the inferior temples which swarmed royal treasurer Riquelme, and doubtless, in the capital. *
cavern therefore, shews the actual amount for near the city they found a number of which the conquerors accounted to the vases of pure gold, richly embossed with
Whichever statement we receive, the figures of serpents, locusts, and other the sum, combined with that obtained at animals. Among the spoil were four Caxamalca, might well have satisfied the golden llamas, and ten or twelve statues cravings of the most avaricious. The of women, some of gold, others of silver, sudden influx of so much wealth, and that 'which merely to see,' says one of the con too in so transferable a form, among a querors, with some naïvelé, 'was truly a party of reckless adventurers little ac. great satisfaction. The gold was probably customed to the possession of money, had thin, for the figures were all as large as its natural effect. It supplied them with life, and several of them, being reserved for the means of gaming, so strong and comthe royal fifth, were not recast, but sent mon a passion with the Spaniards that it in their original form to Spain. The ma may be considered a national vice. For. gazines were stored with curious com tunes were lost and won in a single day, modities : richly tinted robes of cotton sufficient to render the proprietors inand feather work, gold sandals, and dependent for life; and many a desperate slippers of the same material, for the gamester, by an unlucky throw of the women, and dresses composed entirely of dice or turn of a card, saw himself stripped beads of gold. Yet the amount of trea in a few hours of the fruits of years of sure in the capital did not equal the san toil, and obliged to begin over again the guine expectations that had been formed business of rapine. Among these one is by the Spaniards. But the deticiency was mentioned in the cavalry service nained supplied by the plunder which they had Leguizano, who had received as his share collected at various places on their march. of the booty the image of the Sun, which, In one place, for example, they met with raised on a plate of burpisbed gold, spread ten planks, or bars, of solid silver, over the walls in a recess of the great each piece being twenty feet in length, temple, and which for some reason or one foot in breadth, and two or three other, perhaps because of its superior aches thick ; they were intended to de fineness, was not recast like the other corate the dwelling of an Inca noble. ornaments, This rich prize the spendThe whole mass of treasure was brought thrift lost in a single night; whence it into one
common heap, as in Caxa. came to be a proverb in Spain, Juega el malca, and after some of the finer speci Sol antes que amanezca, ' Play away the mens had been deducted for the crown Sun before sunrise.' The effect of such a the remainder was delivered to the Indian surfeit of the precious metals was in goldsmiths, to be melted down into ingots stantly felt on prices. The most ordinary of an uniform standard. The division of articles were only to be had for exorbitant the spoil was made on the same principle
A quire of paper sold for ten as before. There were four hundred and
pesos de oro ; a bottle of wine for sixty ; a eighty soldiers, including the garrison of sword for forty or fifty ; a cloak for a Xauxa, who were each to receive a share, hundred, sometimes for more ; a pair of that of the cavalry being double that of shoes cost thirty or forty pesos de oro; the infantry. The amount of booty is and a good horse could not be had for less stated variously by those present at the than twenty-five hundred, some brought division of it. According to some it con a still higher price. Every article rose in siderably exceeded the ransom of Ata value as gold and silver, the representa. buallpa ; others state it as less. Pedro tives of all, declined. Gold and silver, in Pizarro says that each horseman got six short, seemed to be the only things in Cuzco
esos de oro, and each one
their relative services. But e royal notary, and secretary Enander, estimates the whole
far less, not exceeding fire 1 eighty thousand and two 8 de oro, and two hundred ousand marks of silver. In of the official returns, it is determine which is correct.
narrative is countersigned, membered, by Pizarro and the er Riquelme, and doubtless, ews the actual amount for
ouquerors accounted to the ichever statement we receive, bined with that obtained at might well have satisfied the the most aparicious. The
of so much wealth, and that Eansferable a form, among 3 ckless adventurers little to
the possession of money, had fiect. It supplied them with
f gaming, so strong and cold. En with the Spaniards that it sidered a national vice. For lost and won in a single day,
render the proprietors in. ir life; and many a desperate ✓ an unlucky throw of the pfa card, saw himself stripped urs of the fruits of years of ged to begin over again the
that were not wealth. Yet there were consideration and competence; and whilst some few wise enough to return contented they excited the envy of their countrymen with their present gains to their native stimulated them to seek their own for. country. Here their ricbes brought them tunes in the like path of adventure.”
Our next extract will be from that portion of the narrative which gives so graphic an account of the rash and disastrous expedition to the river Amazon, filled as it is with tales of the most disastrous sufferings on the one hand, and the most dauntless courage and inflexible endurance on the other ; but we will prefix to it a few words as introductory, and as explanatory of the spirit which dictated it.
" It is not easy at this time to com. their own credulous fancies, is shewn by prehend the impulse given to Europe by the extravagant character of their enterthe discovery of America. It was not prises; by expeditions in search of the the gradual acquisition of some border magical fountain of health, of the golden territory, a province, or a kingdom that temple of Doboyba, of the golden sehad now been gained, but a new
world that pulchres of Zenu, for gold was ever floatwas now thrown open to Europeans. ing before their distempered vision, and the The races of animals, the mineral trea. name of Castilla del Oro, Golden Castile, sures, the vegetable forms, and the varied the most unhealthy and most unprofitable aspects of nature, man in the different region of the Isthmus, held out a bright phases of civilization, filled the mind with promise to the unfortunate settler, who entirely new sets of ideas, that changed too frequently instead of gold found there the habitual current of thought, and stimu- only his grave, In this realm of en. lated it to indefinite conjecture. The chantment all the accessories served to eagerness to explore the wonderful secrets maintain the illusion. The simple natives of the new hemisphere became so active with their defenceless bodies and rude that the principal cities of Spain were weapons were no match for the European in a manner depopulated, as emigrants warriors, armed to the teeth in mail. The thronged one after another to take their odds were as great as those found in any chance upon the deep. It was a world of legend of chivalry, where the lance of the romance that was thrown open for what- good knight overturned hundreds at a ever might be the luck of the adventurer ; touch. The perils that lay in the disbis reports on his return were tinged with coverer's path, and the sufferings he had a colouring of romance that stimulated to sustain, were scarcely inferior to those still higher the sensitive fancies of his that beset the knight errant. Hunger, countrymen, and nourished the chimerical and thirst, and fatigue, the deadly effluvia sentiments of an age of chivalry. They of the morass, with its swarms of venomous listened with attentive cars to tales of insects, the cold of winter snows, and the Amazons, which seemed to realise the scorching sun of the tropics ; these were classic legends of antiquity, to stories of the lot of every cavalier who came to seek Patagonian giants, to flaming pictures of his fortune in the New World. It was the an El Dorado, where the sands sparkled reality of romance. The life of the Spanish with gems, and golden pebbles as large adventurer was one chapter more, and as birds' eggs were dragged in nets out not the least remarkable, in the chronicles of the rivers. Yet that the adventurers of knight errantry.” were no impostors, but too easy dupes of
Among the numerous bold adventures and enterprises that shed such a fierce and lurid colouring on the narratives of the historian there was none more remarkable either for the dangers and privations with which it was attended, or for the astonishing courage and resources with which it was met, than the wild expedition of Gonzalo Pizarro and his followers over the mountains toward the east, to find the fabled land of ciental spices, which had long captivated the imagination of the conquerors. Three hundred and fifty Spaniards, of whom about half were mounted, and four thousand Indians, accompanied him in a journey to regions untravelled and unknown ; and, to evince, at once the providence of the leader, the nature of the country he expected to find, and the mode which he pursued to sustain his followers, an immense drove of no less than four thousand swine GENT. MAG. VOL. XXVIII.
rapine. Among these one is
the cavalry service named ho had received as his share be image of the Sun, which, ate of burbished gold, spread s in a recess of the great which for some reason or 8 because of its superior not recast like the other 'his rich prize the spend. a single night; whence it proverb in Spain, Juega ei imanezca, Play away the ise.' The effect of such a precious metals was inrices. The most ordinary y to be had for exorbitant
of paper sold for ten ottle of wine for sixty; a or fifty; a cloak for a es for more ; a pair of or forty pesos de oro; could not be had for less Qudred, some brought
Every article rose in silver, the representad. Gold and silver, ir
the only things in Cuzco