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thren by the toleration act. Many who voted became zealous advocates for it. Neither the for the application little suspected that the strong opposition the bill met with in the gewords “to lake off the subscription," impli neral body of ministers, and from other quared, or authorized the committee to put in a ters, nor its deserved fate in the House of human subscription, in the new act they Lords, so far awakened them, as to see and adSought, and to be enforced with every penal vance to the old, strong, and only tenable poft. law as the former. But the committee hap A second application was renewed in 1773, pened to have different ideas, and, accord. on the former ill chosen and very excepcioningly, after a month's deliberation, they of able ground; but that the committee might fered to the legislature, without once con. have less opposition, they now included the Solting their constituents, such a declaration old test with the new one, in their bill, that of faith as suited themselves (the judi ministers who came to the magistrate to quacious Dr. Price excepted.) This declaration lify might have the alternative of subscribing was proposed, however, in the name of all which they pleased. This mode of proceeding their brethren; and in a circular letter thro' they christened, ebe common principle of liberty, the kingdom they proceeded so far, as to tell and seriously said to their country brethren, the country ministers, that if the magistrate “this is thought to be something more expresive required them to subscribe this new religious of our great principle.t". A large part of the teft, “ebey ougbe to do it."

general body still. opposed the crimmittee's Numbers wondered at the infatuation, plan, and the more it was examined, the precipitancy, and domination of the leaders weakness of its friends became more exposed. in this momentous affair. The rest necessarily It was demonstrated that the first principles of divided the body of ministers. Some secretly Protestant Diffenters, and of Christianity, were lamented, others openly opposed, the mea. abandoned by them; and that they were seeksures and the bill. The toleration sought was ing the enlargement of their own legal recuevidently partial.The terms on which rity, though no terror was near them, at the 'twas asked, dishonourable to Protestant Dir. imminent peril of numbers of their brethren. senters, - It'threw them into the hands A church adversary acknowledged, “ it was of the magiftrate, and tended to keep up too little to ask." | The very same principles the obnoxious diftin&tion of subscribers and by which the committee justified a confornon-sabscribers-It Aill preserved in full force mity to their new religious subscription, were the cruel laws against the last and thus many proved to be equally decisive for that already were left helpless and hopeless, exposed, by established, and which they werc chosen ca their own brethren, to poverty, imprisonment remove; and the same argoments which jus. and ruin, at every informer's and magistrate's tified punishing the disobedient in one case, pleasure. Other ministers condemned the were equally cogent in the other. Several mode adopted by the committee, thinking it ministers who were for the first applicato be levelled at the truth of the doctrines of tion, their honour nobly declared the former teft ; and if a test must be efta. against the second ; and befides the great blished, they were for the old one.

numbers through the kingdom, most of the The unhappy controversy among the body Effex minifters were firmly united in the great in 1719, 1720, &c. seemed to be quite for. common principle of religious liberty, and gotten ; when, manyof the most eminent mi.

declared against any application for relief nifters' refused to iubscribe what they verily clogged with a religious test. The second believed to be important truths, judging the bill was thrown out of the House of Lords, demand to be injurious to the rights of con according to its desert, and the general expecScience, and an act of treason against Chrift, tation. the only head of the Christian Church. Mr. March 23, 1774, the general body again Pierce, of Exeter (who well understood the met,when it was agreed that the great otjeet of subject of religious liberty, and suffered much the late applications to Parliament should not for it) told the chief subscribers to his fup be given up-the opposers of the former port, (how much more would he the magi. modes hoping that if the body were infustrate from whom he received nothing) « if enced to again apply, it would be for an efthey made it a religious teft that ebree and two fectual relief of all, and not as before, to made five, I would refuse to subscribe to it, *" leave hundreds of brethren, who underThe reasons he gave for his stiffness, the pre- stood, and conscientiously adhered to their rent subscription committee will do well to con principles, exposed to penal laws by an act of fider- refute them they cannot; nor shew their locking: by a vote, the committee were where Christ hath prescribed any such course also then restrained from proceeding in an apas they took. They proposed a religious teft plication, till the body had determined on to be imposed by the magiftrate on themselves the mode. The “ taking off the religious suband their brethren ; and some of them, who scription, required by the coleration act," was bad evenwritten againg his authority in facris, now not thought sufficiently explicit, espe.

cially Case of tbe minifters ejected at Excm. p 13. + Mr. Pickard's Circular Lefter of Feb, 1773

| Letter to sbe disenting minifters,

1774 Body of London Difsenting Ministers.

7 Gjally as, in the face of that resolution, the ed by fome, but the great pains which they committee had proposed another subscrip- themselves had been at sino' happily unsuccesstion, as the condition of preaching the Gospel ful) tu prejudice the characters of their brethren of Christ, with security from fines and im- who acted on principle, and to inflame their prisonment. The bedy met again, Nov. 30, friends against them, were forgotten. At to determine what should be the mode of laft, a question to this purport was moved for proceeding in a future application, and after by the chairman of the committee, a debate of three hours, adjourned to Dec. That the committee renew cheir application 7 ; on which

day, after another three hours to Parliament the first favourable opportunity, debate about the common principle of liberty, on the former ground, PROVIDED it shall not having yet discovered it, they adjourned appear to bem that there is no probability of to the sith of January, 1775;,

success without a declaration. The question was now acknowledged by

Anocber of the committee seconded it, and even the Secretary of the fubfcription come the brethren who had argued against the for. xittu, in a pompous circular "letter to the mer ground, were now charged with doing it body, “ to involve in it the safety of the merely for the sake of opposition ; and that present generation, and of generations yet while they objected to one plan, they did not unborn," and ibre days, with all the inter- intend to propose another. Dr. Mayo proved vening time of adjournments, were scarcely this charge to be groundless, as he had defufficient to determine what was first resolved fred a senior minifter to open the third day's en in about an bour, and to serve a mode, debate with the following motion : which the committee thought themselves en

“ That the mode of proceeding in a future titled to without their conftituents. Althe application to Parliament for the relief of opening of the first of these three days debate, Protestant Dilkenting ministers, tutors, and one of the confiftent fricads of religious li schoolmasters, be for a coral repeal of the berty moved,

penal laws now exifting against them." « That any country brethren, who Thall The gentleman declined the request, fearbe willing to attend any meeting of the ge- ing it might be construed as seeking to haneral body on the business of an application filen on a decisive resolution, before the moto Parliament, be permitted to attend to speak mentous affair was thoroughly difcuffed.and stie on chat bufiness.”

Thus, the other motion was first made, which But although the minifters in the country Dr. M_o wilhed might be withdrawn, for were equally interested in the affair with those his, which was then read. He urged, that of London, the previous question was infifted the former mode of proceeding was unfavourop by some of the committee, whether that able to the cause of religious liberty, and the question should be put or not; when, by the ground had been proved untenable and danvote of a majority, the impartial and reason. gerous ; that an application for the repeal of able motion was dismified, arid all the country ihe penal laws againt them, would prevent brethren could obtain was, admiffion, but be any fariber debate on the authurity of the mute.

magiftrate in facris, or respecting religious Tbe two firft days debate were cool and doctrines and opinions; that it plainly appeared Solid; Dr. Price and Ms. John Palmer dir. to be the only mode in which the body of city singuished themselves, and did great ho- and country min, fters could possibly unite; pour to the cause of religious liberty: they a mode that would also produce a fair trial of bathed round and suund the miserable circle of our friends in Parliament, and of the good their opponents occasional arguments and will of adminiftration towards Protestant Dir. temporary expedients: invention was ex senting minifters, with the affurance of which hausted, reason fasigued, and experience, is from two regium donum men, the first minute might bave been expedied, would have given for the late applications was ushered into the judgment; but predilection and self-will were body. not to be conquered. The leaders of the late As the last motion could not obtain ad. applications would not face about, nor stop mittance, the proviso in the chairman of the thort and do no more. The disgrace of yield committee's motion was ftrongly objected to, ing, or retreatinge was too much : they as wjeless, and calculated for a decoy : the chose to continue in their swamp, and mover honourably declared, that he did not the poor pretence of " getting what thcy think himself or the conmittee obliged by could," made them continue the fight, for á it to carry in a bill to Parliament to try phantom to themselves, but a real Trojan the probability of success without a declaberje to all their non-subscribing brethren. ration; besides, the budy muß know, that he The third and last day's debate was very

had in a circular letter, dated May 220, 1773, unlike the two former ; To that some present informed all the country minifters, in the concluded, that the preceding calmness was a j»int names of the commimee, “ that ro apfineffe to foothe those who were against a reli- ply witlom a declaration would not only be gious subscription ; but they adhered to their ineffe&tual

, but difta: the whole design." principles, whether men frowned or smiled: What the committee o ukole e fign was, tiny personal complaints and reproaches were utter. can bitt ex lain; but the nhw.e design of iné


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of which are so accurately delineated London, it appears that the current of here anys Graves

its way. The Aat sands on each side of tum Trottis chat per feveral other rivers and waters Wallingford, Thames at London, is in the year 1017.mbridgeileston with vast numbers of ships, of all burthens river from its junction with the sea eastward Pember Stills course to the sea, it increases to a great breadth Thames. The jurisdiction hath been ofterel Hronchley ?

kody of ministers should be « to obtain effec upon the former ground, a case is prema Tabli

Tolle tual relief for ALL," and not countenance' to be given to each member of the it own security, and


, at the peril of minifters, praying on the boy or email moderiven their brethren. This wbole and only come and a large number befides, for that relic

Den Duns fiftent design is entirely defeated, by applying legal security, which their own bre with a declaration; surely, they who build their would not seek for them. It will certair own toleration on what is subversive of the

too late, when sufferings come on the rights of human nature, the headship of scientious non-subscribers, for them to Chrift, and the peace and safety of the magistrate that or they were not ind richiestorp Rediya their Christian brethren, ought to conhder in the new toleration act," and the lurt si arden Rolini whether they are confiftent Protestant Dir might then be justly reproached with a fenters, or do love their neighbour as them- claring their melancholy ftuation whitening

Kacant retang selves.

bill was depending. All the world a Not being able to expunge the useless pro men to justify themselves, and, if poflit" prikoose viso, the words “to iben" were strongly ob save their character, liberty, jected in, as devolving the whole on the

consciences from oppression, tho' in dolara

Clipping committee, and precluding the body from ex they lay open the condu&t of those who ercising any wildom, judgment, or authority fo expose them.

Hlackierele in the affair. The following amendment was The Apostle Peter, because he was, proposed, “ Provided it all appear to the ge- blamed, was with food to the face, ex rand

th neral body, &c." infead of to ibera" (the and reproved, by committee). But numbers are oftentimes

Carma superior to arguments; the first question P.S. Please to record the names of all was repeatedly called for, and on a divifion respectable fixteen in the minority. TOATE thirty-three were for, fixteen againft it. The with a * (poke in the debate.


Ran interesting affair was thus decided, with only * Drs. Fleming,

Met. Olding, Banten balf the body of minifters present; of those


S. Palmca

Burste who were absent, some of the most aged and


Bulkely, Warley, Heriteris respectable were againīt the partial mode; and


fundo several who did attend met with such treat



Halvan ment, that it is expected they will no more Meff. White,


Hornd give their opinion, advice, or prelence.

J. Palmer, Reynolds

for a Should the committee, however, apply


Skelton. Addir

HE THAMES (the rise and source tion of St. Paul's church, after the fire
in the annexed, expensive engraving) is the river originally extended where now the
principal river in Great Britain ; and the' is on which the cathedral ftands : and Chr-
it is not to be compared for the length of Wien was opinion, that the whole corytrepo
its course to the Danube and Rhine, yet try between Camberwell hill, and the hi
for its various windings it equals them in of Effex might have been a great frith, 64.
beauty, and for the excellency of its water, finus of the sea, leaving a large plain of fated
its navigableness for Mips of large burthen, at low water through which the river fou.
and the vast siches conftantiy passing upon
it, conveyed from all parts of the world, it river above and below London, now gok
far exceeds all rivers of the universe.

meadows, were gained by large banks, raihan Its name is derived from the Thame and probably by the Romans, and that stille Ifis which join in one stream at Dorchester main, which reduced the river into its pais in Oxfordshire ; from thence the united sent channel, stream continues its course, and is joined by The firft mention of a bridge over th

, Marlow, Windsor, Staines, King, when Canute king of fon, where the tide reaches it, and other siege the city.. King Richard I. anno 119 places, in its way to Westminster and London. granted the city of London a charter, K

Paldimda Below the old bridge, it is covered for miles which the city claims the conservancy of th Pridad and from all nations — and continuing its so far westward it is known at Gravesend, and receives the Medway contested. Howevera long series not far from its mouth.

time, the extent hath been admitted from Its magnitude about London was formerly Colne-ditih a little westward of Staines-bridge much beyond what it is at present. As fea to Jendale eart, by the Medway, including 2.1$ were turned in digging for a fuunda. part of that river and the Lea.


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