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by the unrighteous, and the honour of your religion, as to not by the saints ? be judged by the heathens, and not by

the saints ? 2 Do ye not know? 2 Do ye not know that the inspired that the saints ? judge the teachers among you, judge the world world ? 3 and if the world by the laws of the gospel, which is judged (ev) by you, are they promulgate? And if the world ye unworthy of the least is thus judged by you, are ye, who seats of judicature ? are so well enlightened, unworthy

to fill the least seats of judicature ? 3 Do ye not know that 3 Do ye not know, that we declare we judge. angels?: (wento the judgment of the evil angels, 76 Gowtime) why not then whereby we are strongly impressed things pertaining to this with a sense of the justice of God? life ? (see v. 4. note 1.) Why may we not then determine

things pertaining to this life?

ment; and particularly to our Lord's own account of that great event, Matth. xxv. where the righteous are represented as all standing before his tribunal, along with the wicked, and as receiving their sentence at the same time with them. Besides, for what purpose are the saints to be Christ's assessors at the judgment? Is it to give him council ? or only to assent to the sentence he will pass on the wicked ? Surely not the former: and for the latter, wby should their assent be necessary, more than the assent of the holy angels ? To found a doctrine of this magnitude, merely on two obscure passages of scripture, which can easily admit of a different and better interpretation, seems not a little rash.

4. Are ye unworthy of the least seats of judicature ? Kgetugicov eneXusw. See James ii. 6. where the word ugstupid, is translated judgment seats. It is used in the same sense often by the LXX, and by the best Greek authors, as Wetstein hath shewn. To understand the propriety of the apostle's rebuke, the reader should know, that the Jews in the provinces, were al. lowed by the Romans, to hold courts of judicature for determining, according to their own jurisprudlence, such controversies about secular affairs as arose among themselves ; because their laws and customs being different from those of all other nations, the heathen jurisprudence could not be used in regulating their affairs. See Joseph. Ant. lib. xiv. p. 487. Genev. Edit. The same privilege, I doubt not, was enjoyed by the Christians. For as there were many Jews among them, and as they agreed with the Jews in abstaining from the worship of the heathen gods, they were in the first age considered as Jews, and enjoyed their immunities.

Ver. 3.-1. That we judge angels? This, many commentators under. stand of the power which some of the first Christians possessed of casting out devils, and of the efficacy of the preaching of the gospel, in destroying the usurped dominion of evil angels over the children of disobedience. And it must be acknowledged, that the phrase, judgment of this world, hath 4 If then ye have judg- 4 Βιωτικα μεν ουν χριτηments of things pertaining ρια εαν εχητε τους εξουθενηto this life, set them to μενους εν τη εκκλησια τουτους judge who are least cs

st CS- καθιζετε.

και teemed in the church.

5I speak to your shame. 5 Προς εντρόσην υμιν λεIs it so, that there is not a γω: ουτως ουκ εςιν εν υμιν wise man amongst you ! σοφος, ουδε εις, ος δυνησεται no not one that shall be s Able to Godore between hiς διακρίναι (ανά μέσον του αδελbrethren?

φου αυτου; 6 But brother goeth to 6 Αλλα αδελφος μετα law with brother, and that αδελφου κρινεται, και τούτο before the unbelievers.

επι ασιςων ; 7 Now therefore there is 7 Ηδη μεν ουν ολως ηττηutterly a fault among yoυ, μα εν υμιν εςιν, ότι κριματα because ye go to law one εγετε μεθ' εαυτων, /Διατι with another; why do ye

ουχι μαλλον αδικείσθε; διατι not rather take wrong?" why do ye not rather sufer ουχι μαλλον απος ερείσθε ;) yourselves to be defrauded ?

8 Nay, you do wrong 8 Αλλα εμεις αδικειτε and defraud, and that your και απος ερειτε, και ταυτα brethren.

αδελφους. 9 Know ye not that the 9 Η ουκ οίδατε, ότι αδιunrighteous shall not in- και βασιλειαν Θεου ου κληροherit the kingdom of God? vo

νομησουσι; Μη πλανασθε ουBe not deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolators,

τε πορνοι, ουτε ειδωλολατραι,

that signification, John xii. 31. But such a sense of juiging, is foreign to the apostle's argument.

Ver. 4.-1. Secular seats of judicature. So Eιωτικα κριτηρια literally signifies. See ver. 2. note 4.-Secular seats of judicature, are those where questions relating to the affairs of this life are judged. Thus Luke xxi. 34. Μεριμναι βιωτικαι, signifies the cares of this life.

2. Those wbo are least esteemed in the church. Whitby translates the verse in the following manner : If ye use the heathen secular judgment seats, je constitute those who are despised in the church, your judges. But the translation I have given, is more literal, and more agreeable to the apostle's design. For as the faction boasted of their knowledge, to shew them how

4 Well then, when ye4 Well then, when ye have seats of have secular seats of judi- judicature for trying secular causes, cature,' make to sit on make to sit on them as judges, those THEM, those who are least spiritual men among you, who are esteemed in the church. 2 least esteemed in the church for their

gifts. 5 For shame to you I say: 5 For shame to you, who boast so So then, there is not among much of your wisdom, I say, So then you a wise man,' not even there is not among you a knowing pruone, who shall be able to dent upright man, not even one, who decide between his bre- is fit to decide between his brethren, thren?

in those disputes which they have

about their secular affairs ? 6 (AM ) But brother 6 But one Christian contending with brother is judged, and with another, is judged, and that by that by infidels.

heathens ; to the great discredit of

the Christian name. 7 Now, therefore, in 7 Now, therefore, indeed, there is deed, there is plainly a fault plainly a fault in you, that ye have law (ev) in you, that ye have suits with one another in the heathen law suits with one another courts; why do ye not rather bear Why do ye not rather injury? Why do ye not rather bear bear injury? why do ye the being defrauded, if the injury not rather bear the being done you and the fraud are small ? defrauded ?

8 (Artsy 81.) But ye 8 But, ye are so far from bearing injure, and defraud ; and injuries and frauds, that ye injure and that too, your brethren. defraud even your Christian brethren.

9 Do ye not know, that 9 Do ye, who pretend to be wise the unrighteous shall not men, not know that the unrighteous inherit the kingdom of shall not inherit the kingdom of God ? God? Be not deceived, Be not deceived by the false teacher, neither fornicators, nor nor by your own lusts: Neither foridolators, ' nor adulterers, nicators, nor idolators, nor adulterers,

far superior the gifts of the Spirit were to the philosophy and learning of the Grecks, the apostle ordered the Corinthians to appoint the lowest order of spiritual men, as judges in secular causes.

Ver. 5.-1. So then, there is not among you a wise man? As the Greeks called those, copos, wise men, who were remarkable for their knowledge and genius, and as the faction were very vain of their own talents, this was a severe sarcasm on them.

Ver. 9.-1. Nor irlolaters. Idolaters are put at the head of this catalogue of gross sinncrs, because among the heathens, idolatry was not only a great

Catacles nor adulterers, nor effemi- OUTE Moixol, OUTE uamaxol, nate, nor abusers of them- OVTE aposvoXOLTAI, selves with mankind,

10 Nor thieves, nor co- 10 OUTE wental, OUTE vetous, nor drunkards, nor REOVEXTA., Oute uesvool, ov revilers, nor extortioners, 2odopol, oux &prayes, Paolshall inherit the kingdom delav Oɛov ov xanpovouna of God.

OOVỚl. 11 And such were some 11 Kai ), TAUTA TIVES YTE* of you : but ye are washed, aaaa ané ovoao Je, ni jamaa but ye are sanctified, but hoiao Inte, ana' edixdiwInte, ye are justihed in the name EV TẬ ovouati TOV Kuplov of the Lord Jesus, and by

Ιησου, και εν τω πνευματι

Inco the Spirit of our God.

Tov Okov nuov. x 12 All things are lawful 12/Tlavta uou eğeçiv, ała?

unto me, but all things are ov Cavta Ovupepel TAVTO not expedient: all things

crime in itself, but because it was the parent of many other crimes. For the heathens were encouraged in the commission of fornication, adultery, sodomy, drunkenness, theft, &c. by the example of their idol gods.

2. Nor Catamites. Manaxol. This name was given to men, who suffered themselves to be abused by men, contrary to nature. Hence they are joined here with a prevoxorta, Sodomites, the name given to those who abused them. The wretches who suffered this abuse, were likewise called Pathics, and affected the dress and behaviour of women. For the origin of this name, see Col. iii. 5. note 2.

Ver. 10.-1. Shall inherit. In this expression there is an allusion to the covenant with Abraham, in which God promised to him and to his seed by faith, the inheritance, or everlasting possession of a heavenly country, under the type of his natural seed inheriting the earthly Canaan.-The repetition of the negative particles in this verse is very emphatical.

2. The kingilom of God. The apostle calls the heavenly country promised to the righteous, the kingdom, or country of God, because in the description of the general judgment, our Lord had so named it : Matth. xxv. 34. Come ve blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you.

Ver. 11.-1. But ye are washed, &c. This being addressed to the Corinthian brethren in general, it is not to be imagined that the apostle, by their being washed, sanctified, and justified, meant to say that they were all boly persons, in the moral sense of the word, and that they were all to be justified at the day of judgment. Among the Corinthians there were many unholy persons, whom the apostle reproved sharply for their sins, 2 Cor. xii. 20, 21 and whom he threatened to punish severely if they did not repent, 2 Cor.

nor Catamites, nor Sodo- nor (reseraxos) Catamites, nor (activo mites,

Xolta) Sodomites, 10 nor thieves, nor co- 10 nor thieves, nor covetous pervetous persons, nor drunk- sons, nor drunkards, nor those who ards, nor revilers, nor ex- give opprobious names to others to tortioners, shall inherit their face, nor extortioners, (See the kingdom of God. ? chap. v. 10. note) shall inherit the

kingdom of God, Ephes. v. 5. 11 And such were some 11 And such persons, were many of you; (see Pref. sect. ii.) of you formerly. But ye are washed but ye are washed,' but with the water of baptism, in token ye are sanctified, but ye of your having vowed to lead a new are justified, ' (ev, 165.) by life ; and ye are consecrated to the the name (51) of the Lord service of God; and ye are delivered Jesus, and (cv) by the Spi- from heathenish ignorance, by the rit of our God. *

power of the Lord Jesus, and by the influences of the Spirit of the God of

us Christians, given to you. 12 All MEATS (from 12 Sensualists justify luxury in ver. 13.) are lawful for eating and drinking, by saying, all

xiii. 1, 2.-The Corinthians having been washed with the water of baptism, in token of their having renounced idolatry with all its impurities, they were under the obligation of a solemn vow, carefully to study purity of heart and life.

2. But ye are sanctified. By their profession of the gospel, the Corinthi. ans were separated from idolaters, and consecrated to the service of God; a meaning of the word sanctified, often to be found in scripture. See Ess. iv. 53.

3. But ye are justifet. The word, justified, hath various significations in scripture. Besides the forensic sense, justified signifies the being delivered, or freed from some evil simply, and is so translated in our common English version, Rom. vi. 7. He that is dead, (dedixalatdi ano, is justified from,) is freed from sin. See also Rom. iv. 25. note 2.

4. By the Spirit of our God. Because justification, in the forensic sense, is never ascribed to the Spirit, some are of opinion, that the apostle's meaning is, Ye Corinthians, by the gifts of the Spirit conferred on you, are justified in the eyes of all men, for having renounced heathenism and embraced the gospel.

If the terms washed, sanctified, and justified, are understood in their moral sense, the Corinthians may be said to have been washed, and sanctified, and justified, because under the gospel, they enjoyed all the means neces. sary to their being wasbed, sanctified and justified, though perhaps many of them had not made a proper use of these means. See Ess. iv. 1.-Or the passage may be restricted to those who were true believers, and really holy persons.

VOL. II. 12

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