Imagens da página
PDF
ePub

BEST BRITANNIA, for Spouts.—Tin, 1 GERMAN SILVER, for Bells and 140 lbs. ; copper, 3 lbs.; antimony, other Castings.--Copper, 60 lbs. ; zinc, 6 lbs.

20 lbs. ; nickel, 20 lbs ; lvad, 3 lbs.; BEST BRITANNIA, for Spoons.—Tin, iron (that of tin plate being best), 2 lbs. 100 lbs.; hardening, 5 lbs. ; antimony, In melting the alloy for German sil10 lbs.

ver it is difficult to combine a definite BEST BRITANNIA, for Handles. proportion of zinc with the compound Tin, 140 lbs.; copper, 2 lbs.; anti of nickel and copper previously premony, 5 lbs.

pared. In fusing the three metals BEST BRITANNIA, for Lamps, Pil together there is always a loss of zinc lars, and Spouts.—Tin, 300 lbs.; cop by volatilization, which may be lessened per, 4 lbs.; antimony, 15 lbs.

by placing it beneath the copper in the BRITANNIA, for Casting. — Tin, crucible. The best method is to mix 100 lbs.; hardening, 5 lbs.; antimony, the copper and nickel, both in grains 5 lbs.

first, place them, thus mixed, in the Lining Metal, for Boxes of Rail crucible, when melted add the zinc and road Cars.—Mix tin, 24 lbs.; copper, a piece of borax the size of a walnut. 4 lbs.; antimony, 8 lbs. (for a harden The zinc will gradually dissolve in the ing); then add tin, 72 lbs.

fluid copper, and the heat may be raised Bronze Metal. - (1.) Copper, as their fuidity increases. In this in7 lbs.; zinc, 3 lbs.; tin, 2 lbs. (2.) stance, as in all others of forming Copper, 1 lb.; zinc, 12 lbs.; tin, 8 lbs. alloys, it is profitable to mix the oxides

Artificial Gold. — Pure copper, of the various metals together, and 100 parts; zinc, or preferably tin, 17 reduce them under the protection of a parts; magnesia, 6 parts; sal-ammoniac, | suitable flux. The metal nickel can be 3•6 parts ; quicklime, 1.8 part; tartar produced only from pure oxide of of commerce, 9 parts. The copper is nickel; and, as purity of the alloy is first melted, then the magnesia, sal essential to good quality, the common ammoniac, lime, and tartar, are then commercial zinc is not sufficiently pure added, separately and by degrees, in for forming argentan. Copper cannot the form of powder; the whole is now | well be used in the form of oxide, but briskly stirred for about hałf an hour, grain copper or wire-scraps will serve so as to mix thoroughly; and then the equally as weiì. zinc is added in small grains by throw'- Imitation of Silver.— Tin, ing it on the surface and stirring till it | 3 oz.; copper, 4 lbs. is entirely fused; the crucible is then Pinchbeck.-Copper, 5 lbs.; zinc, covered, and the fusion maintained for 1 lb. about 35 minutes. The surface is then Tombac.—Copper, 16 lbs.; tin, skimmed and the alloy is ready for 1 lb.; zinc, 1 lb. casting. It has a fine grain, is malle Red Tombac.-Corper, 10 lbs.; alle, and takes a splendid polish. Does zinc, 1 lb. not corrode readily, and for many pur Stereotype Metal.-1 tin; 1 poses is an excellent substitute for gold. antimony; 4 lead. In using stereotype When tarnished, its brilliancy can be metal, brush the type with plumbago restored by a little acidulated water. or a small quantity of oil, then place

German Silver, First Quality for in a frame, and take a cast with plaster Casting.Coppei, 50 lbs.; zinc, 25 lbs.; of Paris. The cast is dried in a very nickel, 25 lbs.

hot oven, placed face downwards upon GERMAN SILVER, Second Quality for a flat plate of iron; this plate is laid Casting. -Copper, 50 lbs.; zinc, 20 lbs.; in a tray or pan of iron, having a lid nickel (best pulverized), 10 lbs.

securely fastened, and furnished with a GERMAN SILVER, for Rolling.Cop hole at each corner. Dip the tray in per, 60 lbs.; zinc, 20 lbs. ; nickel, 25 lbs. the fluid metal, which will flow in ai Used for spoons, forks, and table ware. | the four corners. When the tray is iemoved, dip the bottom only in water; | tin, 3 parts. Melts in boiling water and as the metal contracts in cooling, 3. Lead, 3 parts; tin, 2 parts; bismuth, pour in melted metal at the corners so 5 parts: 'mix.' Melts at 197° Fahr. as to keep up the fluid pressure, and ob Used for stereotyping; used to make talo a good solid cast. When cool open toy-spoons, to surprise children by their the tray; remove the cake of plaster melting in hot liquors; and to form and metal, and beat the edges with a pencils for writing on asses' skin, or mallet to remove superfluous metal. paper prepared by rubbing burnt hartsPlane the edges square, turn the back horn into it. Hat, in a lathe, to the required thick Fusible Alloy, for Silvering ness, and remove any defects. If any Glass. — Tin, 6 oz. ; lead, 10 oz. ; letters are damaged cut them out, and bismuth, 21 oz.; mercury, a small solder in separate types instead. Finally, quantity. fix upon hard wood to the required Muntz Metal.-6 parts copper; height.

4 zinc. Can be rolled and worked at a Casting Stereo-Plates by the red heat. Paper Process.-Lay a sheet of Alloy for Cymbals and tissue paper upon a perfectly flat sur Gongs.-100 parts of copper with face, and paste a soft piece of printing about 25 of tin. To give this compound paper, which must be pressed evenly the sonorous property in the highest on, to the tissue. Lay the paper on the degree, the piece should be ignited after form, previously oiled, and cover with a it is cast, and then plunged immediately damp rag; beat with a stiff brush the into cold water. paper in evenly, then paste a piece of Alloy for Tam-Tams, or blotting paper, and repeat the beating Gongs.—80 parts of copper and 20 in; after which about three more pieces ot' tin, hammered out with frequent anof soft tenacious paper must be pasted nealing. An alloy of 78 of copper and and used in a similar way; back up 22 of tin answers better, and can be with a piece of cartridge paper. The rolled out. whole must then be dried with moderate Alloy for Bells of Clocks.heat, under a slight pressure. When The bells of the pendules, or ornamental thoroughly dry, brush well over with clocks, made in Paris, are composed of plumbago or French chalk. When this copper 72.00, tin 26:56, iron 1.44 in is done it is ready for the matrix. This 100 parts. is a box of a certain size for the work Bell Metal, fine.—71 copper, 26 required, the interior of which is type tin, 2 zinc, 1 iron. high. In it is what is termed a gauge, BELL METAL, for large Bells.-Copwhich lifts out to insert your paper per, 100 lbs.; tin, from 20 to 25 lbs. cast, and is regulated by hand to the BELL METAL, for small Bells.-Copsize of the plate required. This being I per, 3 lbs.; tin, 1 lb. placed inside, the lid is shut down and Cock Metal.—Copper, 20 lbs. ; screwed tight, with the end or mouth lead, 8 lbs.; litharge, 1 oz.; antimony, picce left open. By this orifice the 3 oz. metal is poured in, and, as it is mounted Alloy for Journal Boxes.to swing, the box is moved about so as Copper, 24 lbs.; tia, 24 lbs.; and antito well throw down the metal and make mony, 8 lbs. Melt the copper first, a solid cast. Then water is dashed on then add the tin, and lastly the antithe box, the screw-bar unshackled, the mony. It should be first run into inin lifted, the plate taken off, and the gots, then melted and cast in the form paper cast is again ready for work. required for the boxes.

Fusible Metal.-1. Bismuth, 8 Queen's Metal.-A very fine silparts ; lead, 5 parts; tin, 3 parts: melt ver-looking metal is composed of 100 lbs. iogether. Melts below 212° Fahr. of tin, 8 of regulus of antimony, 1 of 2. Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 5 parts ; | bismuth, and 4 of copper.

Chinese Silver.-35•2 parts cop- | material the rich appearance, it is not per, 19.5 cmc, 13 nickel, 2.5 silver, and unfrequently brightened up after “dip12 cobalt of iron.

ping” by means of a scratch brush, the Hard White Metal. — Sheet action of which helps to produce a very brass, 32 oz.; !ead, 2 oz.; tin, 2 oz.; brilliant gold-like surface. It is prozinc, 1 oz.

tected from tarnish by the application Metal for Taking Impres of lacquer. sions.-Lead, 3 lbs.; tin, 2 lbs.; bis Spanish Tutania.- Iron or steel, muth, 5 lbs.

8 oz.; antimony, 16 oz.; nitre, 3 oz. White Metal.-Tin, 82; lead, 18; Melt and harden 8 oz. tin with 1 oz. of antimony, 5; zinc, 1; and copper 4 this compound. parts.

Another Tutania.--Antimony, Metal for Tinning.–Malleable 4 oz.; arsenic, 1 oz.; tin, 2 lbs. iron 1 lb., heat to whiteness ; add 5 oz. Gun Metal. - Bristol brass, regulus of antimony, and Molucca tin, 112 lbs.; zinc, 14 lbs.; tin, 7 lbs. 24 lbs.

Rivet Metal.-Copper, 32 oz.; Frick's German Silver.-53.39 tin, 2 oz.; zinc, 1 oz. parts copper, 17.4 nickel, 13 zinc.

Rivet METAL, for Hose. -Copper, Best Pewter.–5 lbs. tin to 1 lb. 64 lbs. ; tin, 1 lb. of lead.

Bullet Metal.-98 lead to 2 ar. Common Pewter.—82 parts pure senic. For round shot the fused metal tin, 18 parts lead.

is dropped from a high elevation in a Speculum Metal.- Equal parts shot tower into a basin of water ; or of tin and copper form a white metal as thrown down a stack of limited height, hard as steel. Less tin and a small in which a strong draught of air is proquantity of arsenic added to the alloy duced by a blast machine. forms a white hard metal of high lustre. Pipe Metal for Organs.-Melt 2 lbs. copper, 1 lb. tin, 1 oz. arsenic, equal parts of tin and lead. This alloy form a good speculum metal. An alloy of is cast instead of rolled in the desired 32 copper, 16.5 tin, 4 brass, 1.25 arsenic | form of sheets, in order to obtain a is hard, white, and of brilliant lustre. crystallized metal, which produce a finer

Type Metal.—9 parts lead to 1 | tone. The sheets are formed by casting antimony forms common type metal; the metal on a horizontal table, the 7 lead to 1 antimony is used for large thickness being regulated by the bright and soft type; 6 lead and 1 antimony of a rib or bridge at one end, over which for large type; 5 lead and 1 antimony the superfluous metal flows off. The for middle type; 4 lead and 1 anti- | sheets thus obtained are planed with a mony for small type; and 3 lead to 1 carpenter's plane, bent up, and soldered. antimony for the smallest kinds of type. Aluminium Bronze.—100 parts

Statuary Meial.-91•4 parts copper and 10 aluminium, measured by copper, 5.53 zinc, 1.7 tin, 1.37 lead; weighing, when combined is a durable or copper 80, tin 20.

alloy, which may be forged and worked Metal for Medals.—50 parts in the same inanner as copper, and is the copper, 4 zinc.

sarne colour as pale gold. 80 parts ccpOr-Molu.-The or-molu of the per, 19 zinc, and 1 aluminium, form a brass-founder, popularly known as an good durable alloy. imitation of red gold, is extensively Aquafortis.- Simple or Single.used by the French workinen in metals. Distil 2 lbs. of salt petre and 1 lb. of it is generally found in combination copperas. with grate and stove work. It is com Double.-Salt petre, 6 lbs., copperas, posed of a greater portion of copper 6 lbs. in its usual crystallized state, toand less zinc than ordinary brass, is gether with 3 lbs. calcined to redness. cleaned readily by means of acid, and is Strong.–Copperas calcined to whiteburnished with facility. To give this ness, and white saltpetre, of each 30 lbs.

mix, and distil in an iron pot with an , dissolved and separated. The silk is earthenware head.

then put into bags of coarse cloth and Spirit of Nitre. — White salt petre, boiled in a similar ley for an hour. By 6 lbs.; oil of vitriol, if Ib.: distil into these processes it loses 25 per cent. of 1) pint of water.

its original weight. The silk is then Dilute.-Strong aquafortis, 1 oz. by thoroughly washed and stecped in a hot measure, and water 9 oz. by measure. ley composed of 1} lb. of soap, 90 gal

Proof.The same as Assayer's Acil. lons of water, with a small quantity of

Compound.- Double aquafortis, 16 oz.; litm.us and indigo diffused. After this, common salt, 1 dram: distil to dryness. it is carried to the sulphuring room :

Aqua Regia. — Distil together 2 lbs. of sulphur are sufficient for 16 oz. of spirit of nitre, with 4 oz. of 100 lbs. of silk. When these processes common salt; equal parts of nitric acid are not sufficiently successful, it is and muriatic acid mixed, or nitric acid washed with clear hard water and sul2 parts, and muriatic I part.

phured again. Amber, To Work.-Amber in Bleaching Wool.-The wool is the rough is first split and cut rudely first prepared according to the purposes into the shape required by a leaden for which it is intended, by treating it wheel worked with emery powder, or

with solutions of soap. By this process by a bow saw having a wire for the it is cleared of a great quantity of loose blade, Tripoli or emery powder being impurity and grease which is always used with it. The roughly - formed found in wool, often losing no less than pieces are then smoothed with a piece 70 per cent. of its weight. The heat of of whetstone and water. The polish the ley must be carefully attended to, ing is effected by friction with whiting as a high temperature is found to fix and water, and finally with a little the unctuous matter or yolk of the olive oil laid on and well rubbed with a wool. After washing, it is taken to a piece of flannel, until the polish is com sulphur chamber, where it is exposed to plete. In this process the amber becomes | the fumes arising from the slow comhot and highly electrical ; as soon as | bustion of sulphur, for from five to this happens it must be laid aside to re twenty hours, according to circumcover itself before the polishing is con stances. It is again washed, and then tinued, otherwise the article will be apt immersed in a bath composed of pure to fly into pieces.

whiting and blue. It is then exposed a Amber, To Mend.-Smear the second time to the fumes of the sulphur, parts which are to be united with lin and washed with a solution of soap, seed oil, hold the oiled part carefully which renders it of the proper whiteover a small charcoal fire, a hot cinder, ness. or a gas-light, being careful to cover up Paper Bleaching.–For bleachall the rest of the object loosely with ing rags, and other materials from which paper; when the oiled parts have begun paper is at first fabricated, rags, when to feel the heat, so as to be sticky, pinch grey or coloured, are to be separated or press them together, and hold them and ground in the paper-mill in the so till nearly cold. Only that part usual way, till brought to a sort of uniwhere the edges are to be united must form consistence, having been previously be warmed, and even that with care, macerated according to their quantity lest the form or polish of the other parts and tenacity. The mass is then treated should be disturbed ; the part joined with an alkaline ley. It is next treated generally requires a little re-polishing. with a solution of chloride of lime. If

Bleaching Silk.-A ley of white this immersion do not produce the desoap is made by boiling in water 30 lbs. | sired effect, which does not often happen of soap for every 100 lbs. of silk in- | if the colours are tenacious, such as red tended to be bleached, and in this the | and blue, let the treatment with the silk is steeped till the gum in the silk is alkalin; ley be repeated, and follow it

with another bath of the chlorine pre- | regard to the acid liquor, that the water paration. Then sour the whole in a bath may touch both sides of each leaf. The of sulphuric acid, much diluted and water must be renewed every huur, to cold, for when hot its action will be less extract the acid remaining in the paper, effectual. Water is then to be run upon and to dissipate the disagreeable smell. it till it comes off without colour or in Printed paper may also be bleached by dication of acidity. Black is the most sulphuric acid, or by alkaline or soap easily discharged colour, and will seldom leys. require being treated with ley or steep Bleaching Ivory. - Antique of sulphuric acid, one bath of alkali and works in ivory that have become disanother of chloride of lime being suffi coloured may be brought to a pure cient to produce a good white. Old whiteness by exposing them to the sun printed or written paper is first to be under glasses. It is the particular prosorted according to its quality, and all perty of ivory to resist the action of the the yellow edges cut off with a book sun's rays, when it is under glass; but binder's plane. One hundredweight of when deprived of this protection, to bethis paper is to be put sheet by sheet come covered with a multitude of minute into vats sufficiently capacious, with 500 cracks. Many antique pieces of sculpquarts of hot water. The whole is to ture in ivory may be seen, which, albe stirred for about an hour, and as though tolerably white, are, at the same much water gradually added as will time, defaced by numerous cracks; this rise about three inches above the paper, defect cannot be remedied; but, in order and to be left to macerate for four or to conceal it, the dust may be removed five hours. It is then ground coarsely by brushing the work with warm water in the mill, and boiled in water for about and soap, and afterwards placing it an hour, taking care to add before it under glass. Antique works in ivory begins to boil, thirteen quarts of caustic that have become discoloured, may be alkaline ley. After boiling, it is mace brushed with pumice-stone, calcined and rated in the ley for twelve hours, when diluted, and while yet wet placed under it is pressed, and, if sufficiently white, glasses. They should be daily exposed made into paper.

to the action of the sun, and be turned To Bleach Prints and Printed from time to time, that they may beBooks. — Simple immersion in oxy come equally bleached ; if the browu genated muriatic acid, letting the article colour be deeper on one side than the remain in it, a longer or shorter space other, that side will, of course, be for of time, according to the strength of the the longest time exposed to the sun. liquor, will be sufficient to whiten an Bleaching Powder, or Chloengraving; if it be required to whiten ride of Lime, is prepared by passing the paper of a bound book, as it is chlorine gas into boxes of lead in which necessary that all the leaves should be a quantity of slaked lime is laid on moistened by the acid, care must be shelves. The stuff to be bleached is taken to open the book well, and to make first boiled in lime water, wash, and the boards rest on the edge of the vessel, without drying boil again, in a solution in such a manner that the paper alone of soda or potash ; wash, and without shall be dipped in the liquid; the leaves drying steep in a weak mixture of chlomust be separated from each other, in ride of lime and water for six hours ; order that they may be equally moist wash, and without drying steep for four ened on both sides. The liquor assumes hours in a weak solution or mixture of a yellow tint, and the paper becomes sulphuric acid and water ; wash well white in the same proportion; at the and dry; upon an emergency chlorate end of two or three hour's the book may of potash mixed with three times its be taken from the acid liquor, and weight of common salt, and diluted in plunged into pure water with the same water, may be used as a bieaching care and precaution as recommended in | liquid,

« AnteriorContinuar »