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form, 10 in. diameter at the top, and of the pot and its contents while boiling 2 ft. 2 in. high, about fin. thick; the on the furnace plate. It ought to fit

the plate neatly, yet so easy as to lift of Fig. 4.

freely. Seven inches below the mouth of the pot fix on two strong iron handles, one on each side, riveted through each end with two strong rivets; the space for the hands to be 7 in., and 11 in. in diameter, and to project 4 in. from the pot sides.

Small Tools. In addition to the fur. naces the varnish manufacturer requires two copper ladles, made to hold two quarts each, with turned hardwood handles. Two good ladles for the iron set pot, made of sheet copper or sheet iron, with ash handles. For Fig. 5. a pot of 40 gallons, or upwards, o the ladle to hold 3 quarts. Two copper stirrers, Fig. 5, made from three-quarter diameter copper rods 3 ft. long, beat flat at the one end to 1} in. breadth, 8 in. up the rod; to be finished with

ferruled handles 7 in. in length. lower part of the cylinder is then riveted One large, strong, copper funnel, to the bottom with copper rivets, the with lapped seams, for straining heads of which are inside, and project boiling varnish or oil; tin or through the lappings of the copper, Hat soldered funnels would melt. tened on both sides. Previous to riveting One copper oil-jack, Fig. 6, which on the bottom, a flange of copper, of about will contain 2 gallons, for pourfin. in thickness, is fixed on to the ing in hot or boiling oil, with a large bottom part, urder the large rivets: it strong pitcher handle, and spout in front. is fixed horizontally round the pot. Also | One brass or copper sieve containing previous to riveting on the bottom, put 60 meshes to the inch, 9 in. diameter, on the iron hoop d, 14 in. in breadth, to for straining the first varnish. A brass which is welded an iron handle, made sieve, 40 meshes to the inch, 9 in. 1 in. broad by 1 in. thick, gradually in- | diameter, for straining gold size, tur creasing to 2 in. in breadth, but decreas- pentine, varnish, boiled oil, &c. A brass ing in thickness. The length from pot sieve, 40 meshes to the inch, and 9 in. to handle end 2 ft. 8 in.

Fig. 6.

FIG. 7. Boiling pot.—Procure a copper pot e to fit furnace, Fig. 8, the bottom to be beat out of the solid, as the gum pot, and of the following dimensions : Diameter across the bottom outside, 20 in.; height of bottom, 7 in.; the cylindrical or body part of the pot to be 2 ft. 10 in. in depth, and joined to the bottom part with strong, copper rivets, made to project through diameter, for straining japan and Brunsat least three-quarters of an inch, and to | wick black. A saddle, Fig. 7, which is be well hammered inside and out; for, a sheet of plate-iron or tin, 12 in. as there is no flange, the rivets must be broad, and turned up 14 in. at each side; large and strong to support the weight it is to lie from the edge of No. 1 pot on

the edge of the funnel, to prevent the quarter of an ounce of the best calcined spilling of the varnish during the time magnesia for every gallon of oil, occaof taking it out. A tin pouring pot, to sionally stirring the oil from the bottom. hold 3 gallons, made exactly like a

Fig. 9. garden watering pot, only smaller at the spout, and without any rose; this is never to be used for any purpose except pouring oil of turpentine" into the

Fig. 8.

When the magnesia is all in, let the oil

boil rather smartly for one hour ; it will proceso. ?

then be sufficient. Lay a cover over the oil to keep out the dust while the fire is drawn and extinguished by water; then uncover the oil, and leave it till next morning; and then, while it is yet hot,

ladle it into the carrying jack, or let it varuish. A 3-gallon tin jack, made out through the pipe and cock; carry it with a strong handle at back, and a away, and deposit it in either a tin or large broad spout in front; used for leaden cistern, for wood vessels will not receiving the washings when poured out hold it; let it remain to settle for at from the gum pot. A small broom, least three months. The magnesia will termed a swish, made from the waste | absorb all the acid and mucilage from cuttings of cane tied on a small handle, the oil, and fall to the bottom of the like a hearth broom, for washing out cistern, leaving the oil clear, transparent, the gum pot each time it is used ; to be and fit for use. Recollect, when the oil always kept clean, and left in oil of is taken out, not to disturb the bottoms, turpentine. An iron trevet, made with which are only fit for black paint. a circular top 14 in. diameter, with MAKING VARNISH ON A SMALL SCALE. four small cross-bars; the three feet of -First procure a gum pot, Fig. 4, or the trevet 12 in. high; it is used for smaller, if required; then a three-footed setting the gum pot upon, with its bot- iron trevet with a circular top, the feet tom upwards, for a minute between each | 16 in. in length, and made to stand wider running.

at the bottom than at the top, which is BOILING LINSEED Oil.-Procure a to be made so that the pot will fit easily copper pan, Fig. 9, made like a common into it. Place the trevet in a hollow washing copper, set it upon the boiling in a yard, garden, or outhouse, where l'urnace, Fig. 8, and fill up with lin there can be no danger from fire ; raise seed oil within 5 inches of the brim. a temporary fire-place round the trevet Kindle a fire in the furnace underneath, with loose bricks, after the same manner and manage the fire so that the oil that plumbers make their furnaces; shall gradually but slowly increase then make up a good fire with either in heat for the first two hours; then coke, coal, or wood-charcoal, which is increase the heat to a gentle simmer, far preferable ; let the fire burn to a and if there is any scum on the sur- good strong heat, set on the gum pot face, skim it off with a copper ladle, with 3 lbs. gum copal; observe, that if and put the skimmings away. Let the the fire surround the gum pot any oil boil gently for three hours longer, higher inside than the gum, it is ic then introduce, by a little at a time, a great danger of taking fire. As soon as the gum begins to fuse and steam, stir to fill the pouring pot, begin and pour it with the copper stirrer, and keep out with a εmall stream, gradually incutting and stirring the gum to assist creasing, and if the varnish rises rapidly its fusion; if it feels lumpy and not in the pot, keep stirring it constantly at fluid, and rises to the middle of the pot, the surface with the stirrer to break the lift it from the fire and set it on the asho | bubbles, taking care not to let the stirrer bed, and keep stirring until it goes down touch the bottom of the pot, for if it (meantime let the fire be kept briskly should, the cil of turpentine would be in up); then set on the gum pot again, and part converted into vapour, and the kcep stirring until the gum appears varnish would run over the pot in a fluid like oil, which is to be known by moment; therefore, during the mixing, lifting up the stirrer so far as to see the keep constantly stirring as well as pourblade. Observe, that if the gum does ing in at the same time. Have also a not appear quite fluid as oil, carry it out copper ladle at hand, and if it should so whenever it rises to the middle of the far rise as to be unmanageable, let the pot, and stir it down again, keeping up assistant take the ladle and cool it down a brisk fire; put on the pot, and keep with it, lifting up one ladleful after stirring until the gum rises above the another, and letting it fall into the pot. blade of the stirrer. Then the copper As soon as the varnish is mixed put the pouring jack is charged with boiled oil, | varnish sieve in the copper funnel placed and held over the edge of the gum pot; in the carrying tin, and strain the when the gum rises within 5 inches of varnish immediately ; empty it into the pot-mouth, the assistant is to pour open-mouthed jars, tins, or cisterns ; in the oil very slowly until towards the there let it remain to settle, and the last, the maker stirring during the pour- longer it remains the better it will ing. If the fire at this time is strong and become. Recollect, when it is taken regular, in about eight or ten minutes | out, not to disturb or raise up the the gum and oil will concentrate and | bottoms. become quite clear; this is to be tested LINSEED OIL.—The choice of linseed by taking a piece of glass and dropping oil is of peculiar consequence to the a portion of the varnish on it; if it varnish maker, as upon its quality, to a appears clear and transparent, the oil great extent, depends the beauty and and gum are become concentrated or durability of the varnish. Oil expressed joined together. It is now to be further from green unripe seed always abounds boiled until it will string between the with watery, acidulous particles. The finger and thumb; this is known by quality of oil may be determined in the once every minute dropping a portion following manner :-Fill a phial with on the glass, and taking a little between oil, and hold it up to the light ; if bad, the foreninger and thumb; pinch it first, it will appear opaque, turbid, and thick; then extend wide the finger and thumb; its taste is acid and bitter upon the if it is boiled enough, it will stick strong tongue, and it sinells rancid and strong: and string out into fine filaments, like this ought to be rejected. Oil from fine birdlime, but when not boiled enough, full-grown ripe seed, when viewed in a it is soft, thick, and greasy, without phial, will appear limpid, pale, and being stringy. It is a safe plan to have brilliant; it is mellow and sweet to the ready a thick piece of carpet large taste, has very little smell, is specifically enough to cover the mouth of the boiling lighter than impure oil, and when pot should it catch fire during the pour boiled or clarified dries quickly and ing. The moment it is boiled enough, firmly, and does not materially change carry it from the fire to the ash-bed, the colour of the varnish when made, where let it remain from fifteen to but appears limpid and brilliant. twenty minutes, or until it is cold! SPIRITS OF TURPENTINE.—That which enough to be mixed ; have at hand a is used for mixing varnish ought to be sufficient quantity of oil of turpentine | procured and chosen as pure, strong and usual; mixed and strained hot, and put work or black japan, and is also used by into the former pot of African gum house painters for dark work. varnish. Put two pots of this anime | WAINSCOT VARNISH.-.8 lbs. of 2nd varnish to one of copal; it will dry sorted gum anime, 3 gallons of clarified quicker and harder than the best body oil, & lb. of litharge, & lb. of dried copcopal, and will polish very soon, but peras, { lb. of dried sugar of lead, 5} not wear either so well or so long. gallons of turpentine; to be all well

free from acid as possible. Some tur-| 3 quarts of clarified oil, very hot, to pentine being drawn from green trees pour in. Afterwards let it boil until abounds with a pyroligneous acid, which it strings freely between the fingers; rises and comes over with the spirit in begin and mix it rather hotter than if it distillation; it is strong and bitter to the were body-varnish ; pour in 5 quarts of taste, and appears milky, particularly old turpentine, strain it immediately, towards the bottom, after standing to and pour it into an open jar or large settle. Therefore, the longer turpentine 1 glass bottle; expose it to the air and is kept before it is used, the purer it light, bat keep it both from the sun and will be.

wet, and from moisture, until it is of a COPAL VARNISHES FOR FINE PAINT- | sufficient age for use. This is the finest INGS.-Fuse 8 lbs. of very clean palu copal varnish for fine paintings or African gum copal, and when com pictures. pletely Auid, pour in 2 gallons of hot | CABINET VARNISH.-Fuse 7 lbs. of oil; let it boil until it will string very fine African gum copal, and pour in half strong; and in about fifteen minutes, or a gallon of clarified oil; in three or four while it is yet very hot, pour in 3 gallons minutes after, if it feels stringy, take it of turpentine. Perhaps, during the out of doors, and mix with it 3 gallons mixing, a considerable quantity of the of turpentine; afterwards strain it, and turpentine will escape, but the varnish put it aside for use. This, if properly will be so much the brighter, trans- | boiled, will dry in ten minutes, but if too parent, and fluid ; and will work freer, strongly boiled will not mix at all with dry quickly, and be very solid and | the turpentine ; and sometimes, when durable when dry. After the varnish boiled with the turpentine, will mix, and has been strained, if it is found too thick, yet refuse to amalgamate with any other before it is quite cold heat as much varnish less boiled than itself; therefore turpentine and mix with it as will bring it requires a nicety which is only to be it to a proper consistence.

learned from practice. This varnish is ARTISTS' VIRGIN COPAL.–From a | chiefly intended for the use of japanners, select parcel of scraped African gum cabinet painters, and coach painters. copal, pick out the fine transparent BEST BODY COPAL VARNISH FOR pieces which appear round and pale like COACH MAKERS. — Fuse 8 lbs. of fine drops of crystal; break these small; African gum copal; add 2 gallons of dry them in the sun, or by a very gentle clarified oil; boil very slowly for four fire. Afterwards, when cool, bruise or five hours, until quite stringy; mix or pound them into a course powder ; off with 34 gallons of turpentine ; strain then procure some broken bottles or flint off, and pour it into a cistern. glass, and boil the same in soft water | QUICK DRYING CARRIAGE VARNISII. and soda, then bruise it into coarse -8 lbs. of fine pale gum anime, 2 gal. powder like the gum ; boil it a second lons of clarified oil, 37 gallons of ture time, and strain the water from it, pentine; to be boiled four hours. This, washing it with three or four waters, after being strained, is put into the two that it may be perfectly clean and free former pots, and well mixed together; from grease or any impurity; dry it its effect is to cause the whole to dry before the fire, or upon a plate; set it in quicker and firmer, and enable it to take an oven. When it is thoroughly dry, the polish much sooner. mix 2 lbs, of it with 3 lbs. of the pow- COMMON BODY VARNISH FOR CABdered copal ; after mixing them well, RIAGES.—8 lbs. of the best African copal, put them into the gum pot and fuse the 3 gallons of clarified oil, 34 gallons of gum; keep stirring all the time; the turpentine ; boiled four hours, or until glass will prevent the gum from adhering stringy ; mixed and strained, will pro together, so that a very moderate fire duce about 5 gallons. 8 lbs. of the will cause the gum to fuse. When it best gum anime, 2 gallons of clarified appears sufficiently run, have ready oil, 37 gallons of turpentine; toiled a

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QUICK DRYING BODY COPAL VARNISI. boiled until it strings very strong, and --8 lbs. of the best African copal, 2 then mixed and strained. Where large gallons of clarified oil, ib. of dried quantities are required, it will always sugar of lead, 37 gallons of turpentine ; be found best to boil off the three runs boiled till stringy, and mixed and in the boiling pot. This varnish is prinstrained; 8 lbs. of fine gum anime, 2 cipally intended for house painters, gallons of clarified oil, lb. of white grainers, builders, and japanners : it copperas, 34 gallons of turpentine ; will dry in two hours in summer, ard boiled as before ; to be mixed, and in four in winter. strained while hot, into the other pot. Mahogany Varnish is either made in These two pots mixed together will dry the same proportions, with a little darker in six nours in winter, and in four in gum; otherwise it is wainscot varnish, summer; it is very useful for varnishing with a small portion of gold size. old work on dark colours.

Japanners' Gold Size. — To BEST PALE CARRIAGE VARNISH. make 40 gallons of gold size, put 10 8 lbs. of 2nd sorted African copal, 21 gallons of oil into the iron set pot, Fig. gallons of clarified oil; boil till very | 2, make a good fire under it, and boil stringy. } lb. of dried copperas, 4 lb. for two hours; then introduce 7 lbs. of of litharge, 57 gallons of turpentine ; dry red-lead, 7 lbs. of litharge, and 3 lbs. strained. 8 lbs. of 2nd sorted gum of copperas, by sprinkling in a little at anime, 2} gallons of clarified oil, lb. a time; let the oil keep boiling all the of dried sugar of lead, { lb. of litharge, time, not in too great a heat. During 54 gallons of turpentine; mix with the the time of putting in the driers, keep first while hot. This varnish will dry stirring them from the bottom of the hard, if well boiled, in four hours in pot, and have the large iron ladle ready summer, and six in winter. As its name to cool it down, if it should appear to denotes, this is intended for the var- rise too high ; have also at hand an nishing of the wheels, springs, and empty pot—the copper boiling pot will carriage parts of coaches, chaises, and do-into which immediately ladle part so on; also it is that description of of the boiling oil, if it cannot otherwise varnish which is generally sold to and be kept in the pot, while the assistant is used by house painters and decorators, damping the fire with wet sıfted ashes, as from its drying quality and strong of which there always ought to be a gloss it suits their general purposes wheelbarrowful at hand, in case of an well.

accident. When the oil has boiled about SECOND CARRIAGE VARNISH.—8 lbs. three hours, and the driers are all in, of 2nd sorted gum anime, 2 gallons of fuse in the gum pot 10 lbs. of gum fine clarified oil, 5 gallons of turpentine, anime; and during the time of fusing, 7 lb. of litharge, lb. of dried sugar of heat 2 gallons of raw linseed oil in the lead, { lb. of dried copperas ; boiled and copper pouring jack, by placing it on mixed as before. When three runs are the plate of the gum furnace. After poured into the boiling pot, the re- | the oil has been poured to the guia, and gular proportion of driers put in, and as soon as it appears boiled clear, take well boiled, this varnish will dry hard the gum pot from the fire ; let it cool and firm in four hours in winter, and in for a few minutes, then pour it into the two in summer : it is principally in- oil in the set pot. Wash out the gum tended for varnishing dark carriage- | pot, and proceed with another run in

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