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inind, during the inking, free from all! These principles do not apply to horithought of accuracy of the construction, 1 zostal views, as maps of surveys, where that it may be given to excellence in the title may be wherever the shape of execution. Therefore, the whole of the the plot affords the best place. pencil-construction should be most accu One quite essential element of beauty iately made in the finest faint lines with in a title is its arrangement, or the form a hard pencil.

of its outline as a whole. It should Finishing a Drawing. - embrace such variations in the length While “Finish a drawing without any of its lines of letters that the curve error or defect,” should be the draughts formed by joining the extremities of man's best motto, he should never be in those lines would be a simple and haste to reject a damaged drawing, but graceful one, having also a marked should exercise his ingenuity to see how variety of form. Also the greatest far injuries done to it may be remedied. length of the title should generally be 6 Never lose a drawing once begun," horizontal; or its proportions, as a should be his second motto; and since | whole, like those of the border of the prevention is easier and better than drawing. cure, let him always work calmly, in When the occupation of the paper spect all instruments, hands, and sleeves, affords only narrow blank spaces lying that may touch a drawing, before com lengthwise of the paper, the title looks mencing an operation; let the paper, well mostly on a single line at the instruments, and person be kept clean, bottom, the principal words being in and when considerable time is to be the middle, and the subordinate ones at spent upon a portion of the paper, let the two sides. the remainder be covered with waste Moreover, horizontal lines should paper, pasted to one edge of the board. prevail in the direction of the lines of

For the final cleaning of the drawing, | words in the title. Indeed, the title stale bread, or the old-fashioned black may be arranged wholly on horizontal india-rubber, if not sticky, is good ; lines with good effect, though an arched but, aside from the carelessness of ever or bow-shaped curve for the principal allowing a drawing to get very dirty, words may be adopted when the drawany fine drawing will be injured, more ing includes some conspicuous arching or less, by any means of removing a lines. considerable quantity of dirt from it. The size of the title should be apps

Another excellent means of prevent priate to that of the drawing. In paring injuries, which should be adopted ticular, the rule has been proposed that when the drawing is worked upon only the height of the largest letters in the at intervals, is to enclose the board, title should not exceed three-hundredths when not in use, in a bag of enamelled of the shorter side of the border. Also, cloth or other fine material.

the relative size of the different porLettering.--The title to a draw tions of the title should correspond to ing should answer distinctly the four their relative importance, the name of questions — What, Who, Where, and the object and its inventor being largest, WhenWhat, including the use and and that of the draughtsman, his locascale; Who, both as to designer or in tion, and the date of his work being ventor, and draughtsman; Where, both considerably smaller. as to the place, institution, or office Geometrical drawings are most apwhere the drawing was made, and the propriately lettered with geometrical locality of the object drawn; and When. letters, which, when neatly made, always

If the drawing is perfectly symme look well. Any letters, however, havtrical, its title should have the same ing any kind of sharply-defined and axis of symmetry as the drawing. If | precise form, as German text, are not the drawing is unsymmetrica., the title inappropriate to a geometrical drawing; may be at either of the lower corners. | but vag rely formed "rustic" or other free-hand letters are in bad taste on hand also; but should still be largely such drawings.

geometricai in its design, and should Letters should correspond in con represent a real border of substantial spicuousness or body of colour with the materials, corresponding to the subject rest of the drawing, not being obtrusive of the drawing. Thus, the mouldings from great heaviness of solid black and oruaments should represent ornaoutline, or unobservable from excessive mental metallic castings, carvings in faintness. Also, violent contrasts of wood, mouldings in plaster, or scrolls heaviness among neighbouring portions and leaves of rolled metal; but garof the title should be avoided ; though lands, tassels, and tendrils, &c., should there may be a gradual change, both of not be introduced. intensity and size, from the most to the The border to a geometrical drawing least important words of the title. should be like the drawing itself in be

This should, first of all, not exceed in ing executed with the drawing pen and elaborateness the draughtsman's ability brush, as well as with the mapping pen. to execute it with perfect neatness and Free-hand pen borders, representing the clearness. Then it should agree with I products of the soil, with cornucopias, the character of the drawing. Plain little pen sketches of scenery, or similar and simple letters look best on a similar | agricultural or landscape devices, worked drawing, while a complicated and in as corner-pieces, are more appropriate highly-finished drawing may receive on topographical drawings. letters of more ornamental character. As to colour, primary colours should

Borders.-For line drawings the not be largely introduced into the border should be a geometrical design, border; first, since they, when obtruin lines, with curved or angular corners, sive, are adapted to ruder or less imor with combinations of straight or pressible tastes than the secondary hues, curved lines, forming geometrical cor shades, and tints, which are more gratiner-pieces. These borders may vary in fying to delicate tastes; and secondly, complexity from a rectangular border from the impertinent conspicuousness in single lines to borders which, though which they may give to the border. geometrical, may be elaborate and ele Drawings which are shaded only in gant. Thus: à plate of varieties of sepia or ink, or any dark neutral tint, straight horizontal lines may have a may the border done in the same, plain rectangular border; one including or in a dark complementary colour, oblique lines may include oblique lines Tinted ink drawings are best finished in the border, either as a little tuft in with a plain ink border. each corner, a truncated corner, or a | Indian Ink is used for producing square set diagonally, &c. Plates em the finished lines of all kinds of geomebracing curve lines may have quarter trical drawing. Being free from acid, circle borders, either convex or concave it does not injure or corrode the steel inwards-of which the former have points of the instruments. The genuine most decision. Such plates may also ink, as it is imported from China, varies have little circles for corner-pieces. considerably in quality ; that which Borders may sometimes conform in a answer's best for line drawing will wash pleasing manner to the general outline up the least when other colours are of a drawing. Thus, an arched bridge passed over it. This quality is ascermay have a semi-oval upper border and tained in the trade, but not with perfect a square-cornered border at the base certainty, by breaking off a small porof the drawing; and an ornamental tion. If it be of the right quality it device may crown the summit of the will show, when broken, a very bright Lorder.

and almost prismatic-coloured fracture. When the drawing is a shaded one, Indian ink should be used immediately containing, therefore, some free-hand after it is mixed ; if re-dissolved it bework, the border may be partly free- | comes cloudy and irregular in tone,

but with every care, it will still wash may be dissolved in the water with up more or less.

which the colours are mixed, and will Colours.-For colouring drawings, cause them to work freely. the most soluble, brilliant, and trans Shading.–For shading, camel or parent water-colours are used ; this sable hair brushes, called Softeners, are particularly applies to plans and sec generally used: these have a brush at tions. The colour is not so much each end of the handle, one being much intended to represent that of the mate larger than the other. The manner of rial to be used in the construction, as using the softener for shading is, to fill to clearly distinguish one material from the smaller brush with colour, and to another employed on the same work. thoroughly moisten the larger one with

The following table shows the colours water; the colour is then laid upon the most employed by the profession : drawing with the smaller brush, to re

present the dark portion of the shade, Carmine or Crimson For brickwork in plan or

and immediately after, while the colour Lake .. .

S section to be executed.
Flintwork, lead, or parts

is quite moist, the brush that is moistPrussian Blue

of brickwork to be re ened with water is drawn down the

moved by alterations. edge intended to be shaded off; this Venetian Red Brickwork in elevation.

brush is then wiped upon a cloth and Violet Carmine Granite. Raw Sienna .. English timber (not oak). drawn down the outer moist edge to Burnt Sienna.. Oak, teak.

remove the surplus water, which will Indian Yellow Fir timber.

leave the shade perfectly soft. Indian Red .. Mahogany

If very dark shades are required, this bepia .. .. ..

Concrete works, stone,
Burnt Umber
Clay, earth,

has to be repeated when the first is Payne's Grey..

SCast iron, rough wrought quite dry.

To tint large surfaces, a large camel-
Dark Cadmium Gun netal.
Gamboge .. .. Brass.

hair brush is used, termed a WashIndigo .. . .. Wrought iron (bright). brush. The manner of proceeding is, Indigo, with a little Steel (bright).

first, to tilt the drawing, if practicable, Lake .. . Hooker's Green.. Meadow land

and commence by putting the colour on Cobalt Blue .... Sky effects.

from the upper left-hand corner of the And some few others occasionally for special

surface, taking short strokes the width purposes.

of the brush along the top edge of the

space to be coloured, immediately folIn colouring plans of estates, the lowing with another line of similar colours that appear natural are mostly strokes into the moist edge of the first adopted, which may be produced by line, and so on as far as required, recombining the above. Elevations and moving the last surplus colour with a perspective drawings are also repre nearly dry brush. The theory of the sented in natural colours, the primitive above is, that you may perfectly unite colours being mixed and varied by the wet colour to a moist edge, although judgment of the draughtsman, who, to you cannot to a dry edge without showproduce the best effects, must be in ing the juncture. For tinting surfaces, some degree an artist.

it is well always to mix more than sufCare should be taken in making an ficient colour at first. elaborate drawing, which is to receive Colouring Tracings. - It is alcolour, that the hand at no time rest ways best to colour tracings on the upon the surface of the paper, as it is back, as the ink lines are liable to be found to leave a greasiness difficult to obliterated when the colour is applied. remove. A piece of paper placed under Mix the colours very dark, so that they the hand, and if the square is not very may appear of proper depth on the clean, under that also, will prevent ilis. other side. If ink or colour does not Should the colours, from any cause, run freely on tracing cloth, mix both work greasily, a little prepared ox-gall | with a little ox-gall.

Cutting Stencil Plates.-The l equally cut, and to be kept moderately perforations are made through the metal, clean. If indian ink is used, the largest either by engraving, by etching with ! surface of the cake should be taken to nitric acid diluted with about one-third rub the moist brush upon, to get it water, or, what is better, by both me equally diffused and softened with cothods combined. If engraving only is lour. A cheap kind of ink is sold with employed, the force necessarily applied stencil plates, which answers better to the graver will sometimes stretch the than indian ink, as it runs less upon plate unequally, whereas by etching the drawing and presents a larger suralone, the edges of the perforations are face to the brush. left rough, and the corners imperfect; After the plate has been in use some but if the line be lightly etched, and time, the fine lines and corners become afterwards cleared with the graver, it clogged with ink, which may easily be may be rendered perfect without any removed by soaking the plate a short risk of cockling the plate. If the back time in warm water, and afterwards of the plate is smeared with a little oil, 1 lightly brushing it upon a flat surface the cuttings will come out clean. A until quite clean. It must be partigood ground for the etching of these cularly observed that a cloth should at plates is made by rubbing on them, no time be applied to the plate either slightly heated over a spirit lamp, a to clean or to wipe it, as this would cake of heel-ball.

be almost certain to catch in some of Copper is much better than brass for the perforations, and probably spoil the stencil plates: the metal being softer, it plate. lies closer to the paper upon receiving If the plate by improper use becomes the pressure of the stencilling brush. cockled, it may be flattened, if laid upon This close contact is a very important a hard flat surface, by drawing a cylinconsideration, as it prevents the hairs drical piece of metal, as, for instance, of the brush from getting under the the plain part of the stem of a poker, plate, and producing rough edges. firmly across it several times on each

Plain stencil alphabets will not be side of the plate. necessary to a draughtsman, if he is a In using the stencil plate, hold it good writer, as they will only save him firmly to the drawing by one edge only, a little time. A greater saving may be in no instance allowing the fingers to effected by the use of words which are cross to the opposite edge. The general constantly recurring; as Ground plan, method is, to place the fingers of the Front elevation, Section; or of interiors, left hand along the bottom edge. When as Drawing-room, Kitchen.

the brush is diffused with ink, so that it For railway or public works, head is just moist, lightly brush it upon a ings of plans may be cut in suitable cha book-cover or pad, so as to free the racter and style; also words which are points from any excess of colour. In frequently repeated on any particular applying the brush to the plate, it should works, as the name and address of the be held quite upright, and moved, not architect or engineer.

too quickly, in small circles, using a Besides letters and words, there are constant, equal pressure, as light as ap. many devices by the use of which a pears necessary. The stencilling should superior effect may be produced, and be commenced at one end of the plate much time saved ; of these may be men and proceeded with gradually to the tioned, north points, plates for the re other, moving onwards as the perforapresentation of surface of country, as tions appear filled with colour, being plantation, wood, or marsh, corners and particularly careful not to shift the borders for finished plans, and many fingers placed upon the plate during the other devices.

operation. If the plate is very long, Using Stencil Plates. - The after each word the fingers may be hrush requires to be squarely and I shifted, if the plate be held down during the time firmly by the other hand. The Frame for a Drawing Should there not be quite sufficient ink is to afford a suitable protection to in the brush to complete the device, the the finished drawing, and hence should plate may be breathed upon, which will be so subordinate in design and colour moisten the ink attached to the plate. as not to distract attention from the If, after the plate is removed, the device drawing. appears light in parts, the plate may For geometrical drawings, a gilt frame be replaced and the defects remedied, if is, in general, preferable to a darkvery great care be taken to observe that coloured wooden one. Occasionally the the previous stencilling perfectly covers latter style of frame may be appropriate, the perforations.

as in case of a very darkly-shaded In stencilling words or numbers with drawing on tinted paper, or of a the separate letters of the alp.habet, drawing which very completely fills the draw a line where the bottoms of the

paper. letters are intended to come, take the It hardly need be said that a frame of separate letters as required and place plain mouldings is more appropriate for them upon the line, so that the line just a geometrical drawing than is a carved appears in the perforations. That the or stucco-moulded frame. For ordinary letters may be upright, it is best that geometrical drawings, nothing is pretthe next letter on the slip used should tier than an Oxford frame of light oak, also allow the line to appear in it. The or a plain gold frame. required distance of the letters apart Vegetable Parchment is made must be judged of by the eye, a pencil by dipping ordinary paper, for a few mark being made, after each letter is seconds, into a solution, containing one completed, to appear in the perforation part water to six sulphuric acid ; then on the near side of the next letter to be washing it carefully, to remove every stencilled.

trace of acid. With care, a stencil plate will last in Indelible Pencil Writing.constant use for many years; without Lay the writing in a shallow dish, and care, it is practically spoilt by taking pour skinmed milk upon it. Any spots the first impression.

not wet at first may have the milk Kemoving Drawings from placed upon them lightly with a feather. the Board.—Make a pencil line round When the paper is wet all over, with the paper with the tee-square at a suf the milk, take it up and let the milk ficient distance to clear the glued edge, drain off, and remove with the feather and to cut the paper with a penknife, the drops which collect on the lower guided by a stout ruler. In no instance edge. Dry carefully. should the edge of the tee-square be Pencil Drawings, To fix.-Preused to cut by. A piece of hard wood, pare water-starch, in the manner of the half an inch thick by two inches wide, laundress, of such a strength as to form and about the length of the paper, forms a jelly when cold, and then apply with a a useful rule for the purpose, and may

broad camel - hair brush, as in varnishbe had at small cost. The instrument ing. The same may be done with thin, used for cutting off, in any important cold isinglass water or size, or rice draughtsman's office, is what is termed water. a stationer's rule, which is a piece of Mounting Engravings. — hard wood of similar dimensions to that Strain thin calico on a frame, then cares just described, but with the edges covered fully paste on the engraving so as to be with brass. It is necessary to have the free from creases; afterwards, when dry, edge thick to prevent the point of the give two coats of thin size (a piece the knife slipping over. Either of the above size of a small nut in a smail cupful rules will also answer to turn the edge of hot water will be strong enough), of the paper up against when glueing it | finally, when dry, varnish with white to the board.

hard varnish.

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