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little shaking from the hand of the will be better incorporated; use it about operator. It requires the heat of a china the same thickness as cream-coloured glazing oven, but to answer the earthen- giaze, and treat it the same. It will fire ware oven a small addition of white-lead almost in any part of the oven, in seggars most be made, according to the tempera- either washed with glaze or mixture of ture of firing. The materials must be lime and slip. mixed and calcined, and the ware fired ALKALINE GLAZE.–30 parts, borax; in lime and slip seggars, well washed. 30, flint; 18, Cornish stone; 2, oxide of
Brown COTTAGE GLAZE.—60 parts, tin. The materials must be calcined, litharge ; 32, flint; 8, brown slip. and particular caution observed in the This and the two following glazes re- course of chipping from the seggars, that quire using about the same consistency not the least particle of any colouring as the cream-colour glaze, and will stand matter be mixed with it, for it is very the highest temperature of heat in a susceptible of being materially injured common glazing oven.
in its colour ; when ground, a small CALCEDONY GLAZE. — 65 parts, li- quantity of muriatic or nitrous acid tharge; 40, Cornish stone; 20, flint; 6, should be added, and at the same time frit (for glazes, 2).
quickly stirred about, and the motion DRAB GLAZE. — 70 parts, litharge; continued for some time, in order to 30, Aint; 25, Cornish stone; 10, drab prevent it setting at the bottom of the
vessel ; in all other respects treated the BLUE GLAZE. — 50 parts, flint; 30, saine as common glazes, except with borax; 22, red-lead; 10, Cornish stone; regard to dipping, in which case it must 6, crystallized soda ; 6, oxide of tin; 3, be used very thin. blue calx. In preparing this glaze follow Colours under Glaze, with the the same directions as for porcelain glaze. exception of the green, should be mixed
GREEN GLAZE.—3 parts, blue vitriol, together and calcined in a reverberatory calcined ; 1, flint glass; 1, flint. When furnace or glazing oven, in seggai hillers, ground, take 4 quarts of this mixture or dishes lined with fint; then spread to 30 quarts of the following mixture, on the mixture about an inch in thickground :—35 parts, litharge, 20, flint; ness, observing that the hiller or dish 10, Cornish stone ; 10, frit, for glazes. have a sufficient access of air allowed, to This glaze is sufficiently fired in the prevent the metals from reviving again coolest part of the glazing oven. Parti- | in their metallic state : the green ingrecular attention should be observed as to dients only require grinding. the proper wash used for the secgars, for NAPLES YELLOW UNDER GLAZE.—12 much depends on that simple process. parts, white-lead ; 2, diaphoretic antiThe brightness and lustre of the glaze mony; 1, crude sal ammoniac; }, alum. will be secured by adopting the following Mix intimately, calcine in a crucible, over wash:-5 parts of the solution of quick a slow fire, for the space of three hours, lime; 1, of clay slip, free from the least stirring it nearly the whole of the time, particle of flint, and applied about the when the mass will be found of a beauthickness of common glaze.
tiful yellow or gold colour. YELLOW GLAZE. — 95 parts, white-| LINING BROWN UNDER GLAZE. — lead ; 35, flint glass ; 20, flint; 14, oxide | 7 parts, glass of antimony ; 3, raw of yellow; 10, Cornish stone; 16, frit, | litharge; 21, manganese ; i, nitre; for glazes.' The oxide of yellow must be 1, blue calx. very finely ground, and the other ma- | PAINTING BROWN UNDER GLAZE.—5 terials ground and sifted before the oxide parts, glass of antimony; 5, raw of yellow is added. It would be as well | litharge ; 2, manganese; , blue cals. first to mix the yellow and the frit' ORANGE UNDER GLAZE.–6 parts, raw together, then let them be passed through litharge; 4, crude antimony; 2, crocusa lawn into a vessel containing the other martis ; 1, oxide of tin. ingredients; by this means the materials | YELLOW UNDER GLAZE.-4 paris, ran litharge ; 3, crude antimony; 1), oxide | oxide of tin, when mixed with the blue cf tin.
calx, for that metal and arsenic are both GREEN UNDER GLAZE. – 12 parts, prejudicial to its colour. oxide of yellow ; 4, white enamel ; 2, | STRONG PRINTING BLUE. — 2 parts, frit (for glazes prepared without the blue calx ; 3, blue printed flux. oxide of tin); 14, blue calx.
WEAK PRINTING BLUE.—1 part, blue PRINTED BROWN UNDER GLAZE.—5 calx ; 4, blue printed flux (2). parts, raw litharge; 5, crude antimony; Printing Oil for Pottery.-1. 2}, manganese ; 1, blue calx.
1 quart linseed oil, 1 pint rape oil, 2 oz. PRINTED BLACK UNDER GLAZE.—3 balsam capivi, 1 oz. pitch, oz. amber parts, red-lead; 14, antimony; \, man- oil, 1 oz. white-lead. 2. 1 quart linseed ganese. After these ingredients have oil, 1 pint rape oil, į pint common tar, been calcined, add the following, and 1 oz. balsam sulphur, 1 oz. balsam capivi. calcine again: 2 parts, blue calx; $, The linseed oil should be boiled for some oxide of tin. This black under glaze, time alone, then add the rape oil and the in the last stage of preparation, must balsam capivi, allow the boiling to be be calcined in the highest heat of a continued until it begins to approach the biscuit oven, and crystal glaze is the proper consistency, and add the remain. most suitable to it. The ware must ing ingredients. The mixture should be be fired in an easy part of the glazing allowed to cool a short time, after which oven; the brown calcined in the usual the whole mass may be boiled slowly until way, and dipped in the common printed it has assumed the proper thickness; the glaze.
vessel must be generally covered during PRINTED MULBERRY UNDER GLAZE. the process, and the sulphur previously -4 parts, manganese ; 2, blue calx ; to being mixed with the oil should be 1, nitre; , borax, Calcine this colour | perfectly pulverized, as by that means it in the usual way, either in a dish or is less liable to curdle the oil. seggar hiller, and after the mixture is | Stains for Pottery. - In pre. spread on the dish or hiller, a small paring these stains the ingredients must quantity of pounded nitre should be be ground remarkably fine, and then so scattered thinly over, and when calcined, | perfectly dried as not to leave the least add 2 parts of flint glass; 1, flint; then humidity, after which they must be grind all the ingredients up together ground again with oil prepared for the for use.
purpose, composed of 2 parts of balsam of GREEN FOR EDGING UNDER GLAZE.— sulphur, 1 part of amber oil, and as 3 parts, oxide of copper ; 3, flint glass; much turpentine as will render them of 2, Aint; 2, oxide of tin; 1, enamel blue. a proper consistency; they may then be Grind these ingredients together, after used with ease for painting various dewhich add 8 quarts of earthenware | vices on biscuit ware. printed glaze, and 4 quarts of cream BLUE STAIN.—5 parts, blue calx ; 2, colour glaze, mix well together, and sift frit, for glazes, without' oxide of tin; them through a fine lawn. Lay this | 1, flint glass; 1, enamel blue. green on the ware after it is dipped, and YELLOW STAIN.—3 parts, yellow under fire it in the coolest part of the glazing glaze; 1, frit, for glazes ; , chromate oven.
of iron. BLUE PRINTED Flux. - 1. 2 parts, GREEN STAIN.—3 parts, blue stain; flint; 1 frit, for glazes; \, flint glass. 1, yellow stain; i, enamel blue green. 2. 5 parts, flint ; 1), borax; }, nitre. | Gold Flux.-11 parts, borax; 5), 3. 3 parts, flint glass; 23, flint ; 1, nitre; | litharge; 1, oxide of silver. In these 1, borax.
| enamel fluxes the materials are to be PAINTING AND EDGING BLUE. — 2 made very fine, particularly the flint, parts, blue calx ; 3, frit, for glazes ; ) and mixed well together, so that the 1}, flint glass ; 1, fint; }, white-lead. particles may more easily concrete when The frit should be prepared without the ) in a state of fusion; then calcined in an air furnace or an earthenware glazing | when the whole mass is in a state of oven, when the whole mass, by means of fusion increase the fire quickly, and the proper temperature of fire, will be there will soon be produced a fine white changed into a brittle resplendent and enamel ; in the time of fusion it will be transparent glass.
requisite to keep stirring the whole Enamel Flux.-1. 8 parts, red together with an iron spatula or rod. lead; 6, flint glass ; 3, borax; 3, fint. VENETIAN WHITE ENAMEL. — 31 2. 7 parts, red-lead ; 4, borax; 27, flint. parts, flint; 3, borax calcined ; 1, Cornish 3. 4 parts, borax; 3, red-lead; 3, Aint stone; }, oxide of tin. glass; 2, flint. 4. 3 parts, red-lead; COMMON WHITE ENAMEL.—8 parts, i, Aiut glass ; 1, flint.
Aint glass ; 2, red-lead; }, nitre; }, Smalts.-32 parts, sand; 32, potash; arsenic. 10, borax; 1, blue cals. These smalts, | BLUE ENAMELS.-For these the mathe materials of which are calcined in terials must be calcined in an air furnace the usual manner, when finely pul- or glazing oven, and caution should be verized will produce a fine rich-looking observed that they are not too finely blue powder.
ground at the mill, in order to prevent Enamels for Porcelain Paint- them from crazing or chipping after ing.–The enamels, after being finely being burnt on the pieces of ware. 1. ground, should be thoroughly dried; theu 16 parts, flint glass; 5, red-lead ; 2, mixed up with turpentine, and used like white enamel ; 2, blue calx; 1, common other colours with a pencil; after which salt; 1, potash. 2. 16 parts, Alint glass ; fused again, and vitrified by fire. Spirits 5, red-lead ; 2, nitre; 2, potash; 2}, of tar may be substituted instead of blue calx. turpentine in all enamels, with the ex- BLACK ENAMELS.—Copper black is a ception of blue and colours prepared very fine colour, the obtaining of which from chrome. With regard to the burn- altogether depends upon a proper teming, the lustres will bear the highest perature of heat being applied, for temperature of an enamelling heat; the nothing is more fickle and uncertain; it rose colour, cornelian red, and pomona in the least degree overfired the colour green require a less degree of heat, and is destroyed, and becomes of a dirty are generally placed in the middle of the green. The other blacks are called kiln or muffe, as well as burnish gold; umber blacks, and will stand any degree other colours are not so susceptible of of heat which is required in an enamelbeing destroyed by heat, and will fire ling kiln or muffle. The umber to be in any part of the kiln or muffle. The highly calcined in a biscuit oven, but even surface of the various coloured particular caution should be observed grounds on china is produced by first that it is the real Turkey umber, and laying the space wanted with linseed oil, not the English, which is of an inferior previously boiled with a little red-lead quality. The two first enamel blacks to and a small portion of turpentine; the be calcined in the usual way; the enamel colour is then ground fine, and materials of the two latter only want dusted on the oiled part with cotton grinding. wool, or laid on with a large camel-hair ENAMEL PAINTING BLACK.-4 parts, pencil. The component parts of the borax; 2, umber calcined ; 21, red-lead; different colours are as accurately stated | 2, enamel blue; 1, Aint; 1, blue cals. as possible, but the preparation princi A superior black enamel is composed by pally depends on observation, therefore | uniting with 8 parts of this compoexperiments will be necessary that a sition, 1 enamel; 1 enamel purple. proper judgment may be formed.
ENAMEL PRINTED BLACK. — 1 part WHITE ENAMELS.—These require the umber calcined ; 14, borax calcined ; materials to be made very fine and cal- | 1, blue calx. cined in air furnace, the heat at first COPPER BLACK ENAMEL.—1 part, cop to be generated very gradually; and I per calcined ; 3, enamel flux (1).
RED ENAMEL.—1 part, green copperas flux prescribed is the only one which is calcined 3, enamel flux (3). The greatest susceptible of yielding its proper colour, diłficulty in preparing red is the calci- as those fuxes which contain a large nation of the copperas; calcine the cop- proportion of borax are very prejudicial, peras in a vessel exposed to the heat of destroying the colour, and with the an open fire, by which means it will greatest difficulty forming any affinity dissipate all its volatile contents, and at all, therefore should be avoided. The leave a residue of oxide of iron in powder; | flux used should be highly calcined until when it attains an orange or light red, it assumes a dark orange-coloured glass. the calcination is sufficiently accom Mix up with spirits of turpentine when plished ; the residue is then washed dry. repeatedly with boiling water, until the Pomona GREEN ENAMEL. — 1 part, water becomes insipid and free from oxide of green chrome; 2}, enamel flux vitriolic acid.
(1); 11, enamel flux (4). This green is Brown ENAMEL, Dark.—1 part, cop-|| prepared by simply grinding the inperas calcined brown; 2, enamel flux (4); gredients, and produces that dark colour 3, enamel flux (1). Brown enamel only re equal to the French green, provided the quires grinding before it is fit for use; oxide is genuine; and by adding a prothe copperas for the purpose of making portion more of flux and white enamel, dark brown will require calcining in there still will be a rich tint, though the most intense heat of a biscuit oven ; weaker and lighter in colour.. the colour of it varies according to the Burnish Gold from Brown temperature it undergoes, first white, Gold.-12 parts, brown oxide of gold; then orange, red, and lastly brown. 8, quicksilver; 2, oxide of silver; 1,
Light.—1 part, umber calcined; 1, white-lead. Put the whole of these in. yellow under glaze; }, copperas calcined gredients into an earthenware mortar, red; \, white enamel; 53, enamel flux and triturate them until the whole is (2); 3, enamel flux (3).
amalgamáted; the mercury being the sol. BLUE GREEN ENAMEL.—42 parts, red vent fluid, very readily combines with the lead; 15, fint; 12, borax; 28, blue rest, to which it communicates more cr vitriol calcined. To these materials, after | less of its fusibility, after which grind being calcined in an air furnace or them very fine with spirits of turglazing oven, must be added 12 parts of pentine. white enamel, then grind them all BURNISH GOLD FROM GREEN GOLD.together.
12 parts, green gold; 7), quicksilver ; GRASS GREEN ENAMEL. — 33 parts, 1}, oxide of silver ; 1), gold flux. Place blue green frit; 1, enamel yellow. the gold in an earthenware vessel on an
YELLOW GREEN ENAMEL.—21 parts, open fire, and when heated red hot, take blue green ; l, enamel yellow.
four times its weight of mercury, and YELLOW ENAMEL. — 1 part, Naples pour it in; the mixture to be stirred yellow; 2, enamel flux (1); 1, enamel with a little iron rod; the gold will be flux (3).
dissolved; it is then thrown into a vessel ORANGE ENAMEL. — 1 part, orange | full of water until it coagulates and beunder glaze ; 2, enamel flux (1); 1, comes manageable; much of the mercury enamel flux (4).
is then pressed through a piece of PURPLE DISTANCE ENAMEL.—2 parts, leather, and the rest dissolved by a enamel purple ; 3, oxide of manganese ; l quantity of nitrous acid; the acid is 12, enamel flux (3).
afterwards poured off, the gold remainCORNELIAN RED ENAMEL. — 1 part, ing is repeatedly washed with boiling chromate of iron; 31, enamel flux (4). water as often as needful; it is then This fine colour is produced from the dried and mixed up with the other chromate of iron, or the yellow oxide of ingredients, and ground with spirits of chroma, which has a greater affinity for turpentine for use. lead than an alkali, consequently the PURPLE ENAMEL. -4 parts, gold in
solution ; 1, tin in solution. Procure a liquor off, and still add boiling water vessel to contain 50 parts of water about repeatedly to the precipitate until the the temperature of blood-heat, to be water is perfectly insipid; in the next well mixed with the solution of gold, place put it on a plaster bat to dry, and then add the solution of tin by after which it must be mixed up with dropping it into the menstruum, at the book silver and fux, according to the same time constantly stirring it with a proportions given above, and well tritustrong feather, which will produce a fine rated in a mortar; then send it to the purple-colour liquor; but it will be neces- | mill to be ground, when it will be in a sary to add a few drops of the solution proper state for use. This colour is of silver, which will much assist to raise supposed to be best when of a purple the colour and beauty of the purple; tinge, which may be produced by merely to help the precipitation of the gold calcining the preparation to the heat of from its solvent (provided the precipi- ignition previous to being ground ; if tation does not immediately take place) the colour be too dark, the mixture does add a large proportion of boiling water not possess a sufficient quantity of silver; or a small quantity of sal ammoniac, and if it is too light, the silver must have a precipitate will instantly be procured; been very plentifully added, therefore the clear liquor must then be decanted the operator must add or diminish off, and the boiling water repeated until accordingly. Great caution must be it is completely insipid. The residue observed with this receipt, as the gold consists of the oxides of gold, tin, and precipitated by the sal ammoniac will silver in combination, and is the only 1 unite with it, and then has the property substance which has the property of com- | of fulminating; and when gently heated municating the purple colour to enamel or smartly struck with any hard instrugiass; after the precipitate is prepared ment will immediately detonate; this the Aux must be added ; the proper can only be obviated by a plentiful use quantity will solely depend on the fusi of boiling water; a caution which ought bility or softness of the flux, and as the to be strictly attended to, as it removes operation in a great measure depends on the dangerous quality by depriving the observation, a few experiments by the gold of its salt. operator will be found useful, inde- GOLD LUSTRE.- Take grain gold and pendent of the accuracy of the receipt. dissolve it in aqua regia, as in the To the purple precipitate may be added receipt for solution of gold; add 5 grains from 30 to 45, flux, enamel flux (3), of tin; an effervescence takes place when according to the strength of colour in the solution is completed and in a proper tended to be made.
condition to be mixed ; take balsam of ROSE-COLOUR ENAMEL.—3 dwts., gold sulphur 3 parts, spirits of turpentine in solution ; 60 leaves, book silver ; | 2 parts, mix them well together over a 21 lbs., enamel flux (1). Procure a vessel slow fire, then gradually drop the to contain 10 parts the quantity of hot solution of gold into the menstruum, water, then mix the water and gold and keep stirring until the whole solutogether while the water is at the tem- tion be added; provided the mixture perature of 190° F.; add pulverized sal should appear too thick, add more ammoniac rather copiously, at the same turpentine till of a proper consistency. time briskly stirring the mixture with a 1 oz. of gold dissolved in the manner strong feather, until the appearance of a described will make upwards of 2 lbs. decomposition takes place, which will weight of prepared lustre, and must be soon be observable by the gold being used with turpentine, for all other precipitated from the menstruum in the spirits are injurious. form of a fine yellow powder; when that PERSIAN GOLD LUSTRE.—Take any is accomplished, let the vessel stand quantity of the precipitate of gold, first undisturbed a short time to allow the mixed with a small portion of fat oil precipitate to subside, then decant the on a flat piece of earthenware, then