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be thus all the more reliable if the Staining Parchment.Blue.-1. Disvendor stated the percentage of mois- i solve verdigris in vinegar, and brush over ture in the pulp at a certain named with the solution hot till it becomes a temperature,

perfect green, then well brush over with STAINING PAPER. — Yellow. -- Paper | a solution of pearlash, 2 oz, to the pint, may be stained a beautiful yellow by until it becomes a good blue. 2. Use the the tincture of turmeric formed by in- | blue stain for wood, viz, copper filings fusing an ounce or more of the root, dissolved in aquafortis; the material powdered, in a pint of spirits of wine. must be well brushed over with it, and This may be made to give any tint o: then brushed over with a hot solution yellow, from the lightest straw to the of pearlash, same strength as above, full colour, called French yellow, and until it assumes a perfectly blue colour, will be equal in brightness to the best 3. Boil 1 lb. of indigo, 2 lbs. of wood, dyed silks. If yellow be wanted of a and 3 oz, of alum in a gallon of water; warmer or redder cast, annatto, or dra- | brush well over until thoroughly stained. gon's-blood, must be added. The best ! Red.-1. Boil 1 lb. of Brazil wood and manner of using these, and the following | 1 oz. of pearlash in a gallon of water, tinctures, is to spread them even on the and while hot brush over the work until paper, or parchment, by means of a of a proper colour. Dissolve 2 oz. of broad brush, in the manner of var-alum in a quart of water, and brush this uishing.

solution over the above before it dries. Crimson.—A very fine crimson stain 2. Use a cold infusion of archil, and may be given to paper by a tincture of brush well over with a pearlash solution, Indian lake, which may be made by in- 2 drams to the quart. fusing the lake some days in spirits of Incombustible Paper may be made by wine, and then pouring off the tincture mixing with the pulp a Huid obtained from the dregs. It may be stained red | by adding to an aqueous solution conby red ink. It may also be stained of a taining 14 oz. of pure tallow soap, just scarlet hue by the tincture of dragon's- enough alum to completely decompose blood in spirits of wine, but this will not the soap. The paper made with this be bright.

requires no size. Green.—Paper or parchment may be Bleaching Paper. — Paper which has stained green, by the solution of verdi- been very imperfectly bleached may be gris ja vinegar, or by the crystals of rendered thoroughly white by pouring verdigris dissolved in water.

upon it in succession, as dilute solutions, Orange.—Stain the paper or parch- 31 parts alum, 1 part chloride of barium, ment first of a full yellow by means of a little free hydrochloric acid, and the tincture of turmeric; then brush it } part calcined chalk - stirring well over with a solution of fixed alkaline during the operation. The fibres of the salt, made by dissolving 1 oz. of pearl- | paper become firmly coated with the ash, or salts of tartar, in a quart of brilliant white sulphate of barytes which water, and filtering the solution. is formed.

Purple.—Paper or parchment may be Pollen Powder, or Paper Powder.stained purple, by archil, or by the Boil white paper, or paper cuttings, in tincture of logwood. Brush the work water for 5 hours. Pour off the water, several times with the following log- pound the pulp in a Wedgwood mortar, wood decoction; -1 lb. of logwood and pass through a fine sieve. This chips, lb. of Brazil wood, boiled for powder is employed by the bird stuffers 11 hour in a gallon of water. When to dust over the legs of some birds, and dry, give a coat of pearlash solution, the bills of others, to give them a pow1 dram to a quart, taking care to lay it dery appearance; also to communicate on evenly. Th3 juice of ripe privet the downy bloom to rough-coated artiberries expressed will also give a purple ficial fruit, and other purposes of a simidye.

| lar nature; it makes excellent pounce,

Papier-Mâché.--Two modes of being employed to make the cast nomaking articles of papier-mâche are thing more than a crust or shell, as in adopted ;--either by gluing or pasting plaster casts. In some manufactories, different thicknesses of paper together, instead of using cuttings of made paper, or by mixing the substance of the paper the pulp employed by the paper-maker into a pulp, and pressing it into moulds. is, after some further treatment, poured 1. The first mode is adopted principally | into the moulds to produce papierfor those articles, such as trays, in which mâché ornaments. a tolerably plain and flat surface is to Uses of Papier-mâché.-It has now, be produced. Common millboard, such in some cases, superseded the carved as forms the covers of books, may give and composition ornaments employed to some idea of this sort of manufacture. | decorate picture and glass frames; but Sheets of strong paper are glued to | it is in the ceilings and walls of rooms gether, and then so powerfully pressed and the interiors of public buildings that the different strata of paper become that papier-mâché is found most valuas one. Slight curvatures may be given able. Plaster and composition ornaments to such pasteboard when damp, by the are ponderous; carved ornaments are use of presses and moulds. Articles costly; but those of papier-mâché are such as snuff-boxes are made by gluing light and of moderate price. Maps in pieces of paper cut to the size of the relief are also occasionally made of top, bottom, and sides, one on another, papier-mâché, Paper roofs have been round a frame or mould, which is after- occasionally used. Sheets of stout paper wards removed.

are dipped in a mixture of tar and Polish.Articles made of pasteboard pitch, dried, nailed on in the manner have a fine black polish imparted to of slates, and then tarred again; this them in the following manner ;--After roof is waterproof, but unfortunately being done over with a mixture of size very combustible. and lampblack, they receive a coating Paper Casts from the Antique.-.This of a peculiar varnish. Turpentine is method of obtaining facsimiles of sculpboiled down until it becomes black; ture in basso-relievo is very easy. Stiff, and three times as much amber in unsized, common white paper is best fine powder is sprinkled upon it, with adapted for the purpose. It should be the addition of spirit or oil of tur- well damped ; and, when applied to pentine. When the amber is melted, sculpture still retaining its colour, not some sarcocolla and more spirit of tur- to injure the latter, care should be pentine are added, and the whole well taken that the side of the paper placed stirred. After being strained, this on the figures be dry—that is, not the varnish is mixed with ivory-black and side which has been sponged. The paper, applied in a hot room, on the papier- when applied to the sculpture, should mâché articles, which are then placed | be evenly patted with a napkin folded in a heated oven. Two or three coat- rather stify; and, if any part of the ings of the black varnish will produce figures or hieroglyphics be in intaglio a durable and glossy surface, impervious or elaborately worked, it is better to to water. 2. Papier-mâché, properly press the paper over that part with the so called, is that which is pressed into finger. Five minutes is quite sufficient moulds in the state of a pulp. This time to make a cast of this description ; pulp is generally made of cuttings of when taken off the wall, it should be coarse paper boiled in water, and beaten laid on the ground or sand to dry. in a mortar till they assume the con- COMPOSITION ORNAMENTS FOR PICsistence of a paste, which is boiled in a TURE FRAMES. — Mixing. — The pritsolution of gum arabic or of size, to cipal ingredients are glue, water, linseeul give it tenacity. The moulds are carved oil, rosin, and whiting, which are comin the usual way, and oiled, and a pulp bined in such proportions as to make a poured into them; a counter-mould | mixture soft enough for working, while, at the same time, it should be so tough | mon carving, mostly gouges, with vaas not to crack, and should harden in a rious degrees of curvature. The sharpfew hours if the ornament be thin, or in ening of them is a matter of great nicety, a day or two if it be more massive. The and in some cases requires files made of state in which it is used by the orna- very fine wire. The block of boxwood ment maker is that of a stiff dough; and is moistened with oil during the process the making of it resembles the process by of cutting, in order to facilitate the prowhich the baker makes his dough. The gress of the tool. The cuts are, in the proper amount of glue is steeped in water, frst instance, made perpendicularly from which is heated to dissolve the glue; the surface of the wood, and afterwards while the oil and rosin are melted in a varied into the necessary directions to separate vessel, and then poured into the produce the pattern. In order to know vessel containing the melted glue. The how to vary the depth of different parts whiting is pounded, and placed in a tub of the mould, the carver must either be or pan-being previously warmed if the guided by the accuracy of his eye ani! weather be damp and cold — and the the correctness of his taste, or he must hot melted glue, oil, and rosin is | have another mould of the same pattern poured upon the whiting, and then well before him. mixed up with it, and kneaded, rolled, | Cast Moulds. Sometimes moulds are and beat, until it becomes a smooth, made by casting, the material being brass, tough, elastic kind of dough or putty. copper, pewter, lead, or sulphur. A It may then either be used at once, or model, representing the object which it may be laid aside for future use; but, is desired to produce, is made of comwhenever it is used, it must be warmed, position or plaster, and is placed on a flat either before a fire or by admitting steam stone, and surrounded by a raised border to act upon it, because, when cold, it is or edging, so that it lies in a cell or too hard and stiff for use.

trough. The model is then oiled, and Moulding. The manner of using this the melted metal or sulphur is poured composition is to press it into moulds; on it, so as to entirely cover it. When the preparation of which is the most cold, the raised border is broken away, important part of the business : it is gene- the mould taken up, and the model rerally done by men who are not en- moved from within it. It is then ingaged in making the ornaments them- bedded in a wooden case to preserve it selves. The moulds are usually made from injury, and to fit it for the better or boxwood, which, by its smoothness of reception of the composition. Somegrain, admits very fine figures to be cut times brass moulds are made in this way, in it, and is very durable. The mould and afterwards chased; that is, the carver has to proceed with his work in minuter details of ornament are cut, or an opposite way to the ordinary carver ; | | rather scratched, by very fine tools. for he must make depressions or hollows When the mould, whether of wood, instead of raised projections, and pro metal, or sulphur, is to be employed to jections instead of hollows. The mould cast ornaments, it is brushed over with carver makes his mould look, in every oil, to prevent the adhesion of the compart, directly the reverse of what he position. A piece of composition, large wishes the ornament to appear.

enough for the intended purpose, is then Carved Moulds.--The block of wood taken up in a warm soft state, and being planed and smoothed, the carver pressed into the mould by the hand. A draws on its surface a representation of wet board is laid upon the surface oi the object which he wishes to carve, and the composition, and the whole is put then proceeds to work out the minute into a powerful screw-press, by which details. The tools used in this carving the composition is pressed into every part are exceedingly fine and sharp, some of of the mould, however deep and minute them not exceeding one-twentieth of an it may be The same pressure makes inch in width. These are, as in com. I the upper surface of the composition adhere to the wetted board, so that, / seldom more than about a quarter of an when it is taken out of the press, the inch at any part; thus the ornament is mould may be pulled off the ornament, of less weight, and there is a saving of leaving the latter adhering to the board. material. When the cast has become a little hard | To Make a Thermometer.ened, it is cut, or rather sliced off, with | Take a fine glass tube blown into a bulb a broad knife, to the required thickness. at one end. The bulb is heated, the air

Fixing.–The composition ornament, expands; it is then placed under merthus made, is exceedingly pliant and cury, which rushes in as the tube cools, supple, and may be bent into almost any and takes the place of the air which was form without breaking or injuring it : driven out by the heat. It is then mait is this property which makes these naged so that the mercury should be at ornaments so convenient; as they may a convenient spot at the common tembe applied to the round, the flat, or the perature. Apply heat to the mercury hollow parts of a frame, with almost until the column rises quite to the top equal ease. They are fixed on either with of the tube; then seal it by applying glue, or, if quite soft and warm, with heat, the mercury on cooling leaves a hot water, which, by softening the glue vacuum, which is essential to the percontained in the composition, produces a fection of the instrument. The great sufficiently strong cement; and, in a point is to graduate it. The freezingshort time, they become sufficiently firm point of water or the melting-point of and hard to be handled without injury. | ice is always constant; the boiling-point In modern frames which are intended of water is also con..tant. The baroto imitate antique carved frames, the | metric pressure being constant, dismanner of laying on the various pieces tilled water is made to boil, and the of ornament i

care in the thermometer surrounded with the steam workman. If an antique frame, or a produced ; the point to which the merdrawing from it, is given to the orna- cury rises is marked off with a file, and inent maker to imitate, he must have the freezing-point of water is also moulds carved of all the various parts, marked. It only remains to divide the so that, when united on the frame, the interval into degrees, which is arbitrary. assemblage of composition casts may | In England Fahrenheit is used, the space present a facsimile of the frame. If he between freezing and boiling being diwishes to produce a frame which shall vided into 180, 32 being the freezing, possess a general resemblance to old and 212 the boiling-point. Zero is 320 patterns, but without tying himself below freezing point. In the Centidown to any individual pattern, he has grade the interval is divided into 100. to depend on his taste and judgment, Žero is the freezing-point, and 100° the both in the cutting of moulds and in boiling-point. In Reaumur's scale the the disposition of the various pieces of interval is divided into 80. Zero is ornament on a frame. This composi- | again the freezi:g-point, whilst 80° is tion, being a compact substance, is heavy. the boiling-point. To change CentiIn this point carved ornaments have a grade into Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, great superiority over composition ; in- divide by 5, and add 32. To change deed, the heaviness of the latter was one Fahrenheit into Centigrade, subtract 32, reason which led to the adoption of multiply by 5, and divide by 9. Tó papier-mâché ornaments. When papier- | convert the degrees of Reaumur into mâché ornaments are used, they are cast Fahrenheit, multiply those of Reaumur in moulds, resembling those just de- by 9, divide by 4, and add 32; the sum scribed. The paper is in the state of a will be the degrees on the scale of Fahpulp; bilt there is this difference be- renheit. Spirit thermometers are the tween the two kinds of ornaments. The best where great cold is required, inaspulp is pressed between two moulds, so much as they are difficult to freeze, that the thickness of the ornaments is | Mercury is best for high temperatures,

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INDEX.

Ashes, treatment of electro waste 223.
Ash, soda, 374.
Asb vat, 38.
Asphalte varnish, 66.
Attrition metal, Babbitt's, 9.
Autogenous soldering, 367.
Awnings, waterproofing, 368.
Axles, lubricating composition for, 334.
Azure blue, 96.

ACETATE OF COPPER, 235.

of lead, 235.
Acetic acid, 235.
Aceto-nitrate bath, 283.
Acid-proof cement, 22.

-, tannic, 326.
Ageing liquor, 40.
Alabaster, cleaning, 27
Alcohol barrels, 16.
Alkali testing, 374.
Albumen, 284.

lodized, 283.
Albumenized paper, 255.
Alloy for bells of clocks, 12.
- cymbals and gongs, 12.

journal boxes, 12.
- tam-tams, 12.
Alloys, 9-14.

fusible, 12.
Almond soap, 384.
Aluminium bronze, 13.
Alum white, pigment, 93.
Amalgamating salt, 244.
- gilding by, 307.
Amalgam, gilding copper by, 311.

- gold, 238, 307.
Amber, to dye silk, 32.
- to dye woollen, 35,

to mend, 14.
- to work, 14.

- varnish, 67.
Ammonia, 238.
Aniline colours, 33.
Animal fats, 373.
Annealing glass, 57.

steel, 338.
Anodes, 246.
Antimonial soap, 385.
Antimony deposits, 221.
Anti-friction grease, 333.
- metal, Belgian, 334.
Anti-rust varnish, 359.
Apparatus, impervious cement for, 24.
Aquafortis, 13.
Aqua regia, 14.
Aquariums, cement for, 22.
Architectural cemert, 25.
Argentometer, 250,
Armenian or jeweller's cement, 22.
Arsenic, flux for, 349.
Artificial gold, 11.

grindstone, 403.

gums, 340.
- ivory, 371
- light, photography by, 287.

mother-of-pearl buttons, 339.

BABBITI'S ATTRITION METAL, 9.
Background in photography, 290.
Backing positives, varnish for, 72.
Balsam of sulphur, 52.
Band-saws, brazing and resetting, 366.
Bark decoction, tanning by, 322.
Barometer scales, silvering for, 318.
Baths and silver solutions, reducing old, 290.
Baths for magic-lantern slides, 288.
Bedsteads, red stain for, 418.
Beech, to stain mahogany colour, 417.
Beef tallow, 373.
Bell metal, 12.
Bells of clocks, alloy for, 12.
Belts, driving, 328.
Bending glass tubes, 60.
Benzine, 243.
Best Britannia, for handles, 11.
- for lamps, pillars, and spouts, 11
- for spoons, 11.

for spouts, 11,
Best red brass, 10.
Bicarbonate of potash, 239.
Bichloride of platinum, 240.
Bird-skins, preservative for, 333.
Bird's-eye maple, graining, 422.
- carriage, graining, 83.

ground, 419.
Birds, to skin and stuff, 330.
Bishulphide of carbon, 246.
Bisulphite of soda, 245.
Bitartrate of potash, 239.
Black brasswork for instruments, 19.
- bronze for brass, 19.

cotton, to dye, 36.
- enamels, 48.

flux, 349.
Geneva, to dye woollen, 34,
house painting, 105, 109.

japan, 67.
- jet, to dye woollen, 33.

ivory, 97.
– leather varnish, 69.
- liquor, 40.
- marble on wood, 425.
pigments, 97.

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