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water, then dip in milk of lime, wash off , blue, 610 Fah., for saws, the teeth of the lime, dry by a gentie heat, rub over which are set with pliers; greenish equal parts of olive oil and turpentine, / blue, 630 Fah., for very soft temper. and finally brush over with powdered To obtain the proper temper lay the coke.
metal on a lump of iron heated to a Galvanic Method. — Well-wora sufficiently strong heat in the forge or files are first carefully cleaned by means other fire. The desired temper may be ot hot water and soda ; then placed in thus secured with the greatest facility connection with the positive pole of a l and exactitude, as the clean bright battery, in a bath composed of 40 parts metal shows the degrees of oxidation of sulphuric acid, 80 parts of nitric from the blue upwards most distinctly, acid, and 1000 parts of water. The which oxidation can be arrested at will. negative pole is formed of a copper spiral Cleanliness, or rather brightness of sursurrounding the files, but not touching face, is essential. them; the coil terminates in a wire Tempering Mill Picks and which rises towards the surface. When Chisels.-Heat the bill to a blood-red the files have been ten minutes in the heat, and then hammer it till nearly bath they are taken out, washed, and cold; again heat it to a blood red, and dried.
quench as quick as possible in three Softening Files. - Cover them gallons of water, in which is dissolved with oil and hold them over the fire 2 oz. of oil of vitriol, 2 oz. of soda, and until the oil blazes, as soon as the flame | 1 oz. of salt petre; or, 2 oz. of sal runs all over the file, plunge it in the ammoniac, 2 oz. spirit of nitre, 1 oz. oil water ; or put them in a moderate hot of vitriol. The bill to remain in the oven for half an hour if large files, but liquor until it is cold. 2. 1 oz. white if small the first plan is the best. | arsenic, 1 oz. spirits of salts, 1 oz. sal
Softening Cast Iron.-Heat the ammoniac, dissolved in four gallons of metal to a bright red, cool quickly in spring water, and kept in a tube or iron water, reheat, and then anneal by cooling phial for use. Heat the tool to a bloodslowly in ashes. Or, heat the metal to red heat, then quench it in this mixture, a red heat, let it lie a few minutes until | draw it gently over the clean fire till the nearly black, and then throw it into spittle fashes off it, then let it cool. soapsuds.
3. To 3 gallons of water add 3 oz. of Softening Castings.-Place the spirit of nitre, 3 oz. of spirits of hartscastings, surrounded by saw-dust, in an horn, 3 oz. of white vitriol, 3 oz. of sal iron box, close it up with clay to exclude ammoniac, 3 oz. of alum, 6 oz. of salt, the air, and subject it to a red heat for with a double handful of hoof parings ; several hours. The castings must be the steel to be heated a dark cherry red. cold before they are withdrawn.
Used to temper chisels for cutting French Hardening and Tempering burr stones. Tools and Metals.—The following Tempering Cast Steel.-Disis the colour and temperature required : solve a small quantity of sal ammoniac Pale straw, 430° Fah., for lancets, &c.; in water, make the metal red, drop it dark yellow, 470° Fah., for razors, &c.; into the mixture for a second or two, dark straw, 470° Fah., for penknives; and take it out, leaving enough heat in clay yellow, 490° Fah , for chisels and the metal to draw it back a bit. If left shears; brown yellow, 500° Fah., for till cold, the steel will be a great deal adzes and plane irons ; very pale purple, too hard. 520° Fah., for table-knives ; light pur Tempering Springs. - Get a ple, 530° Fah., for swords and watch- | piece of spring steel about the size of springs; dark' purple, 550° Fah., for spring wanted; when forged and filed to softer swords and watch-springs; dark tilt, make it warm-red, immerse in blue, 570° Fah., for small fine saws ; spring water (a little cow-dung imblue, 590° Fah., for large saws; pale proves it, mixed well with the water before using it). Dry the spring, then rubbing gently between the hands when tie a piece of wire fast to the spring in the heat will admit of it. When the any form, so as to hold it. Dip in clean water is cold renew the application till tallow or oil, put it on the fire till all any discoloration is removed, rinse in the grease is burut off, and swing round | lukewarm water ; lay them on white and round as swift as you can till cold. paper in a dark place to cool.
Malleable Iron.—2 oz. fluoric To Clean Marble, Jasper, acid, 1 oz. nitric acid, 1 oz. saltpetre, Porphyry, &c.-Mix up a quantity to 10 lbs. of metal. When the metal is of the strongest soap-lees with quickmelted, add the solution. It can be lime, to the consistence of milk, and lay made in a crucible in a brass furnace. it on the stone for twenty-four hours ; When you have cast off patterns, the clean it afterwards, and it will appear castings want keeping at red heat for as new. three or four days in iron boxes in a This may be improved by rubbing furnace.
afterwards with fine putty powder and Casehardening Iron.-Procu.e olive oil. a quantity of old boots, burn these until Cleaning Alabaster.- Strong they become charred, beat off the black soap and water is good for cleaning alaand charred portion with a hammer, baster; if too much discoloured make a until sufficient powdered carbon is ob- paste with quicklime and water, cover tained ; then place this powder with the the article well with it, and let it rearticles to be operated upon into a sheet- main all day; wash off with soap and iron box or a piece of wrought-iron gas-water, rubbing hard the stains. Or suppipe sufficiently large, taking care that ply dilute muriatic acid, having prethe articles are well covered and in the viously washed off dirt and grease. centre of the mass ; lute the ends or top To Clean Pictures.-Wash with of the box with clay, and place the a sponge or a soft leather and water, and whole into a fire made of coke, keeping dry by rubbing with a silk handkerchief. them there for an hour or more, taking When the picture is very dirty, take it care that the heat shall be equal (be- out of its frame, procure a clean towel, tween dark red and red); now plunge and making it quite wet, lay it on the face the contents into water. Should the l of the picture, sprinkling it from time to articles require to be blue, such as the time with clear soft water; let it remain barrels or chambers of pistols, repolish wet for two or three days; take the them on an emery wheel, and put them cloth off and renew it with a fresh one ; into a sand bath or powdered charcoal, after wiping the picture with a clean until the blue colour is attained, taking wet sponge, repeat the process till all the them out immediately this change takes dirt is soaked out; then wash it well place. The following are mixtures that with a soft sponge, and let it quite dry : will do instead of the burnt leather :- rub it with some clear nut or linseed oil. 3 parts of prussiate of potash to 1 sal Spirits of wine and turpentine may be ammoniac; or 2 parts sal ammoniac, 2 used to dissolve the hard old varnish, but bone-dust, 1 prussiate of potash. Bones, they will attack the paint as well as the urine, and night-soil, are also used for varnish if the further action of the spirits this purpose. A simple method of case- | is not stopped at the proper time by using hardening iron is to sprinkle powdered water freely. prussiate of potash over it at a red heat Cleaning the Hands.-For cleanand plunge into water; bicromate of ing the hands when stained with chemipotash, with the pith of rams' horns, cals : — Put į lb. glauber salts, 1 lb. may be used with good results, instead chloride of lime, and 4 oz. of water into of the prussiate.
a small wide-mouth bottle, and when To Clean Pearls.-Soak them in required for use pour some of the thick hot water in which bran has been boiled, sediment into a saucer, ani rub it well with a little salts of tartar and alum, l over the hands with pumice-stone or a
nail brush. Staius of nitrate of silver | of spirit of turpentine; wet a woollen may be removed from the hands by means rag with some of this and put on it of a solution of chloride of iron.
a little powder, made thus :Take To Clean Plate.—Take an ounce 2 oz. green copperas and } oz. subo each of cream of tartar, muriate of soda, carbonate of potash, burn these togeand alum, and boil in a gallon or more ther in a clay vessel for a quarter of water. After the plate is taken out of an hour in the fire, when it should and rubbed dry, it puts on a beautiful be reduced to an impalpable powder silvery whiteness. Powdered magnesia for use. Having put the powder in may be used dry for articles slightly tar- | the oiled part of the rag, well rub the nished, but if very dirty it must be used metal; wipe off with a soft cloth, and first wet and then dry.
polish with a dry leather and some more To Clean Brass or Copper.- powder. Take 1 oz. of oxalic acid, 6 oz. rotten- Cleaning Jewellery.-Common stone, oz. gum arabic, all in powder, jewellery may be effectually cleaned by 1 oz. sweet oil, and sufficient of water washing with soap and warm water, to make a paste. Apply a small por rinsing in cold water, dipping in spirits tion, and rub dry with a flannel or of any kind, and drying in warm borleather.
wood saw-dust. Good jewellery only Cleaning Brass Inlaid Work. needs washing with soap and water, and -Mix tripoli and linseed oil, and dip felt polishing with rouge and a chamois into the preparation. With this polish. leather. If the wood be rosewood or ebony, polish Cleaning Engravings. — Put it with finely-powdered elder ashes, or the engraving on a smooth board, cover make a polishing paste of rotten-stone, a it thinly with common salt finely pinch of starch, sweet oil, and oxalic acid, pounded; squeeze lemon-juice upon the mixed with water.
salt so as to dissolve a considerable porSilver Cleaning Liquid.-Pre- tion of it; elevate one end of the board, pared chalk, 8 oz.; turpentine, 2 oz.; alco- so that it may form an angle of about hol, 1 oz.; spirits of camphor, 4 drachms; 45 or 50 degrees with the horizon. liquor of ammonia, 2 drachms. Apply Pour on the engraving boiling water with a sponge and allow to dry before from a tea-kettle, until the salt and polishing. Or use a solution of cyanide lemon-juice be all washed off; the enof potassium, 12 oz. cyanide to 1 quartgraving will then be perfectly clean, water; immerse the silver, brush it with and free from stains. It must be dried a stiff brush until clean, wash and dry. I on the board, or on some smooth surface,
Cleaning Steel Articles.-Un- gradually. If dried by the fire or the sun, slacked lime is a capital thing to clean it will be tinged with a yellow colour. steel articles with. If steel ear-rings, Crayons, Method of Making. brooches, &c., are kept in powdered quick -White paste, used for white crayons lime they suffer very little from rust. or for a body for other colours :They should be carefully cleaned when Washed pipe-clay and washed chalk put away, to remove any moisture that I equal parts, mix them into a paste with may have collected on them by handling. sweet ale made hot, and with a chip or
To clean swords, &c., rub them with two of isinglass dissolved in it. powdered brick-dust and oil, rub dry with 2. Take the finest powder of calcined brick-dust, polish with crocus and leather. oyster-shells, sifted through muslin, mix
Cleaning Hats.--The stains of it up with water in which a little rice grease and paint may be removed from and a little white sugar-candy has been hats by means of turpentine, and if the boiled ; according to the quantity of turpentine leaves a mark finish with a rice, so will be the hardness of the little spirits of wine.
crayon. The quantity of sugar-candy Cleaning Metals.-Mix half a should not be more than the size of a pint of neat's-foot oil, and half a gallon | filbert-nut to a pint of water.
3. Take common pipe-clay in powder, , an allowance must be made for this mix it up into a paste with very strong effect. soapsuds, made thus :—Cut up an ounce Crayons, COLOURS FOR.— White.of white soap into small shavings, dis- The best whites to employ are whiting solve it over the fire in ) pint of water, or prepared chalk, pipe-clay, alum white stir into the mixture while hot the or alumina, oyster-shell white, calcined powdered pipe-clay as long as you can bones, &c. stir it. Spirits of wine added before Carmine and Lake.-Crayons of these the powders to render the soap-watercolours are generally hard; when made transparent, is an improvement.
with powdered colours, the proper way 4. Take 3 oz. of spermaceti, dissolve of mixing is to dissolve the colour first it in 1 pint of water, stir into it a in water or spirits of wine, and add it to quantity of fine-sifted or washed white nearly-dry white colour, grinding the colour till of a proper consistence. If to whole well together. There should be be mixed with dark powders, a very four or five shadesmadder is not used. little ox-gall is an improvement.
Vermilion and Red Lead, Red Ochrc, 5. Melt 3 oz. of shellac in 2 oz. of Indian Red. Each of these may be well spirits of wine, this will form a thick ground in water, and when wet, mixed liquid; to this add 6 parts of pipe-clay well with the white in different shades. and 1 part of oil of turpentine; grind | These will make various reds, as well as all well together. The lighter the salmon colour, flesh colour, orange colour of the shellac the better; also if Hæmatite or crocus, of itself, ground colours are to be added they should be and mixed with a little size, forms av ground up with the turpentine, before excellent crayon. this is added to the rest.
The square chalks, or crayons, are The great object of attention is to made of The mineral red chalk, or ochre procure the white chalk or pipe-clay cut into slips with a saw. The same without grit. To accomplish this, take material is used in pencils for carpenters a large vessel of water, put the whiting | and others. into it and mix well, pour off the top | Yellows.- Dissolve the colours, which into another vessel, and throw the gritty are Naples yellow, King's yellow, and sediment away; repeat several times. yellow lake, in spirits of wine, and mix When this is done, let the whiting settle, as for carmine. The chrome yellows and then pour the water from it and dry are not so useful, because less durable. it for use.
Gamboge, Indian yellow, and gall stone The compositions for white crayons are not employed, but the various yellow and the requisite colours being prepared, ochres make good crayons. and that chosen made up into a stiff Blue.-A good soluble colour is Pruspaste, it is to be placed upon a smooth sian blue, but it is hard to grind. Disslab of marble slightly oiled. The paste solve it in water, then put the solution is rolled out with a rolling pin, then cut in a hole cut in a piece of chalk, this into slips and these rolled into cylinders will absorb the water, and leave a great by the aid of a little flat piece of wood, | portion of the colour ready for mixing. then cut to the length of 3 inches each, Blue verditer is a good bright colour, and placed in a slow oven or drying but is so gritty as to require washing, stove to become hard.
as recommended for whiting. The same Instead of rolling the composition, it may be said of smalts or cobalt. may be forced through the nozzle of a Browns.—These are Cologne earth, tin funnel, this is better for the delicate umber, raw and burnt; sienna, raw and colours than rolling them; when dry burnt; treated as the blue. they may be pointed.
Greens.—These may be either simple It will always happen that except in colours, as emerald green, Prussian green, black or white crayons, the colour alters green carbonate of copper; or better very much in drying, so that in mixing | formed by adding the compositions of the yellow and blue crayons together. | logwood, put off the boil, and decant the Raw and burnt sienna may also be used clear liquor into a large tub; add 1 lb. in combination with Prussian blue or of white soap; enter, and winch for 30 indigo. Good green crayons are more or 40 minutes in this ; lift; wash in 2 difficult to make than those of any other waters, and you will have a brilliant jet colour.
black. Black.—Chalk or charcoal is first to JET BLACK from Nitrate of Iron.bc sawed in 3-inch lengths, free from For 200 yards. After being cleaned, knots; then saw them longitudinally in prepare in a cold solution of nitrate of narrow strips. Procure à tin trough iron, 50 Twaddle (this is strong enough about 4 inches by 3, and partly fill it for light silks, 4° or 41° will do for dark with white wax; and after properly and dipping silks); 30 minutes in this; melted, the pieces of charcoal are to be lift; boil 14 lbs. fustic; put off the boil; saturated for forty-eight hours, and after enter, and winch 30 minutes; lift; wash draining they are fit for use. When white in 3 waters, blood-warm; then boil 16 lbs. paste is employed the only powdered | logwood ; decant as before; give the same colour to be used is lampblack, all the quantity of soap, and finish in the same others are apt to get mouldy.
way. Mixed Colours.—Mixed or half colours | BLACK from Sulphate of Iron.-For are produced by an admixture of the 200 yards. After being cleaned or scalded, colours required in the paste. Thus a discharge in a hot vitriol sour; a cold combination of blue and carmine pro- and then a warm water out of the sour; duces a purple; the yellows and red run through another scald, and 2 warm united form orange; black and carmine | waters; then boil 14 lbs. fustic; put off is a beautiful tint for shading; ver- the boil; winch 30 minutes, and lift for milion and black form a fine rich saddening; make up a solution with some brown; green and brown form an olive of the fustic left in the last process, and colour; and red and brown a chocolate. | 1 lb. copperas; winch in this for half an
CRAYONS FOR DRAWING ON GLASS.— hour; wash in 3 waters; dye with 16 lbs. Melt together equal quantities of asphal- | logwood and 1 lb. of soap. tum and yellow wax; add lampblack, | HAT BLACK.-Work 5 lbs. silk in a and pour the mixture into moulds for mixture of 2 lbs. fustic chips; 1 lb. crayons. The glass shoukl be well wiped quercitron bark; lift; then add 6 oz. with leather, and in drawing be careful verdigris, 6 oz. copperas; work for not to soil the glass with the fingers. quarter of an hour, and hang up all In trimming these crayons, if the edge night; wash and dye with a decoction of be bevelled, like scissors, the point may 5 lbs. logwood with as much white as easily be rendered very fine.
will make a lather. Dyeing Silk.- For dyeing pur DYEING SHOTS.- When satins, satiposes we may consider that a pound of nets, sarsenets, or silks of any kind are silk woven into common sarsenet, mea found to contain shots, that is, warp und sures about 13 yards : this multi 'weft of different qualities, they must be plied by 16, gives 208; or for a more prepared as follows :-For 100 yards. convenient standard, we may calculate Dissolve 11 lb. salt of tartar in a cop200 yards at 16 lbs., 100 at 8 lbs., and per containing 150 gallons boiling water; so on.
winch in this one hour; lift, and wash JET BLACK from Nitro-Sulphate of in 2 waters; and then prepare for any Iron.-For 200 yards or 16 lbs. Prepare colour. If, after dyeing black, brown, or in a hot solution of nitro-sulphate of any colour, the silk is found to contain a iron, 5o Twaddle, 150° Fahrenheit ; shot of different silk, it must be diswork 30 minutes in this; lift, and wash charged to the bottom, and put through well in 3 warm waters; then boil 18 lbs. | the stuff as directed above; then prepare of fustic; put off the boil ; enter, and a new, for whatever colour required. winch for 30 minutes; lift • boil 16 lbs. | CINNAMON BROWN.- For 100 yards.