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heat, polish with a hard brush after- | present an excellent appearance. If the wards.
varnish is not required to colour, but Browning Gun Barrels.-Chlo- only to preserve the actual tint pro. ride of antimony has been much used for duced on the metal surface by the brownbronzing gun barrels, is excellent in its ing fluid, leave out the dragon's blood. operation, and has been called, in conse Catgut, To Make - Take the quence, bronzing salt. It is used for entrails of sheep, or any other animal, bronzing, mixed to a thin creamy con procured from the newly-killed carcass. sistence with olive oil; the iron is slightly Thoroughly clean them from all imheated, dressed evenly upon its surface purities and from attached fat, and wash with this mixture, and left until the re them well in clean water; soak in soft quisite degree of browning is produced. water for two days, or in winter three The sharpening of the chloride of anti- days, then lay them on a table and scrape mony can be effected by adding a little them with a small plate of copper, harnitric acid to the paste of olive oil and ing a semicircular hole cut in it, the chloride of antimony, so as to nasten the edges of which must be quite smooth operation. Another formula is—Aqua- | and not capable of cutting. Now, after fortis, 1 oz.; sweet spirit of nitre, oz.; washing, put them into fresh water, and spirit of wine, 1 oz.; blue vitriol, 2 oz.; there let them remain till the next day, tincture of chloride of iron, 1 oz.; when they are again to be scraped. Let water, 40 oz. Dissolve the blue vitriol them soak again in water for a night, in the water, then add the other ma and two or three hours before they are terials, and the water is warmed to dis | taken out add to each gallon of water solve the blue vitriol; let it get cold 2 oz. of pearlash. They ought now to before adding the other materials. The scrape quite clean from their inner burnishing and marking can be effected mucous coat, and will consequently be with the burnisher and scratch brush. much smaller in dimensions than at first. The polishing is best effected by rub- | They may now be wiped dry, slightly bing with a piece of smooth, hard wood, twisted, and passed through a hole in a called polishing wood. It is lastly var- piece of brass, to equalize their size; as nished with shellac varnish, and again they dry, they are passed every two or polished with the hard wood polisher. three hours through other holes, each Some prefer the tone of brown produced smaller than the last. When dry they by blue vitriol, 1 oz.; sweet spirit of | will be round and well polished, and nitre, 1 oz. ; water, 20 oz. In any case, being oiled are fit for use. the surface of the iron must be well Cameos, To Carve.-Take the cleaned, and rendered quite bright; it is common helmet, or the red helmet shell then freed from grease by rubbing with (those shells whose inner surface is pink whiting and water, or better, with or dark coloured are most suitable), cut powdered quicklime and water. The them into squares with a lapidary's mill, browning composition is then placed on, round off the corners, and shape them and allowed to remain twenty-four into an oval on a wet grindstone. Fix the hours. It is then rubbed off with a stiff enamel side on a short stick with jewelbrush. If not sufficiently browned, re- ler's cement, grind off the brittle surface, peat the last process after browning. sketch the subject with a black-lead Clean the surface well with hot water pencil, cut the subject with engraver's containing a little soda or potash, and, tools, namely, a chisel tool to clear the lastly, with boiling water, and dry it. bare places ; a lozenge-shape for forming The surface can be burnished and po- the subject, and a scraper, made of a lished. Varnish with tismith's lacquer, three-angled file, ground off taper to the or with gum shellac, 2 oz. ; dragon's point, for cleaning the enamel surface blood, 3 drs.; methylated spirits of wine, round the subject, and also for forming 4 pints. The metal should be made hot the lineaments and other delicate parts before applying this varnish, and will | The colour on the cheeks and hair hom produced by leaving the layer of coloured and bottle and cork it until wanted for shell on those places. The stick must use, then mix it with boiled oil and be grasped in the left hanıl, and held dryers until as thick as putty. Mix the firmly against a steady bench, and with cement only in small quantities, as it the tool resting in the hollow of the dries quickly. 2. Mix boiled linseed oil, right hand, dig away the shell. A con- litharge, red and white lead together, venient length for the tools is three using white-lead in the largest proporinches and a half; they must be kept in tion, spread on flannel, and place on the good condition to work with accuracy. joints. 3. A solution of glue, 8 oz. to The cameos are polished with a cedar 1 oz. of Venice turpentine; boil together, stick, or a piece of cork dipped in oil of agitating all the time, until the mixture vitriol and putty powder, and cleaned becomes as complete as possible, the with soap and water. Mother-of-pearl joints to be cemented to be kept together is carved in the same way.
for forty-eight hours if required. 4. Take Cements, How to Use.—Take 1 a gill of gold size, 2 gills of red-lead, as small a quantity of the cement as 11 gill of litharge, and sufficient silverpossible, and bring the cement itself into sand to make it into a thick paste for intimate contact with the surfaces to be use. This mixture sets in about two days. united. If glue is employed, the surface Armenian, or Jeweller's Ceshould be made so warm that the melted ment.—Dissolve 5 or 6 bits of gum glue is not chilled before it has time to mastic the size of a large pea, in as much effect a thorough adhesion. Cements spirits of wine as will suffice to rende: that are used in a fused state, as resin or it liquid ; in a separate vessel dissolve as shellac, will not adhere unless the parts much isinglass (previously softened in to be joined are heated to the fusing water, though none of the water must point of the cement. Sealing-wax, or be used) in rum, or other spirit, as will ordinary electrical cement, is a good make a 2-oz. phial of very strong glue, agent for uniting metal to glass or stone, adding two small pieces of gum ammoprovided the masses to be united are i niacum, which must be rubbed or ground made so hot as to fuse the cement, but till they are dissolved; then mix the if the cement is applied to them while whole with a sufficient heat. Keep it in they are cold it will not stick at all. a phial closely stopped, and when it is 'This fact is well known to the itinerant to be used, set the phial in boiling vendors of cement for uniting earthen- water. The preceding is also effectual ware. By heating two pieces of china in uniting almost all substances, even or earthenware so that they will fuse glass, to polished steel. shellac, they are able to smear them with Acid Proof Cement.-Make a a little of this gum, and join the pieces concentrated solution of silicate of soda, so that they will rather break at any and form a paste with powdered glass. other part than along the line of union. | This simple mixture will sometimes be But although people constantly see the found invaluable in the operations of the operation performed, and buy liberally laboratory where a luting is required to of the cement, it will be found in nine resist the action of acid fumes. cases out of ten that the cement proves Cutler's Cement. — 1. Resin, 4 worthless in the hands of the purchasers, parts, to 1 part beeswax and 1 part of simply because they do not know how to brick-dust, or plaster of Paris. 2. Sisuse it. They are afraid to heat a delicate teen parts resin, 16 hot whiting, and 1 glass or porcelain vessel to a sufficient wax. 3. Pitch, 4 parts ; resin, 4 ; taldegree, or they are apt to use too much of low, 2; and brick-dust, 2. The opening the material, and the result is a failure. for the blade is filled with one of these
Cement for Aquariums. — 1. compositions. The lower end of the iron Take 1 gill of plaster of Paris, 1 gill of heated and pressed in. litharge, 1 gill of fine white sand, of a Cement for Bottle-Corks. – gill of finely-powdered resin. Mix well, The bituminous or black cement for bottle-corks consists of pitch hardened ping a little upon a cold stone you think by the addition of resin and brick-dust. it hard enough.
Cement for Ivory, or Mother- Indianite Cement.--1, 100 of-Pearl.-Dissolve i part of isinglass parts finely-chopped rubber, 15 resin, and 2 of white glue in 30 of water, strain 10 shellac, dissolved in a sufficient and evaporate to 6 parts. Add sth part quantity of bisulphide of carbon. Usea of gum mastic, dissolved in a part of for uniting pieces of india-rubber. 2. alcohol, add 1 part of zinc white. When India-rubber, 15 grs.; chloroform, 2 oz.; required for use, warm and shake up. mastic, i oz. The two first-named to
Cement for Jet.-Shellac is the be mixed, and after the rubber is disonly cement used by jewellers for jet solved add the mastic in powder ; ailow articles. The broken edges should be to macerate for a week. made warm before applying the cement. Cheap India-rubber Cement. Should the join be in sight, by smoking -Cut virgin or native india-rubber with the shellac before applying it, it will be a wet knife into the thinnest possible rendered the same colour as the jet slices, and with shears divide these into itself.
threads as fine as fine yarn. Put a Cement for Meerschaum. small quantity of the shreds (say both Take some garlic and crush it, in order or less of the capacity of the bottle) to form a kind of dough, rub over the into a wide-mouthed bottle, and fill it broken pieces of Meerschaum with it and three-quarters full with benzine of good reunite them by drawing very closely, quality, perfectly free from oil. The bind them with iron wire according to rubber will swell up almost immediately, the strength of the pieces, and finally and in a few days, especially if often make them boil during half an hour in a shaken, assume the consistence of honey. sufficient quantity of milk. Or use If it incline to remain in undissolved quicklime mixed to a thick cream with masses, more benzine must be added ; the white of an egg. These cements will but if too thin and watery it needs more also unite glass or china.
rubber. A piece of solid rubber the size Plumber's Cement.-Black resin, of a walnut will make a pint of the ? part ; brick-dust, 2 parts; well incor- cement. porated by a melting heat.
This cement dries in a few minutes, Turner's Cement.-1. Take of and by using three coats in the usual Burgundy pitch, 2 lbs.; of resin, 2 lbs.; manner, will unite leather straps, of yellow wax, 2 ozi; and of dried patches, rubber soles, backs of books, &c., whiting, 2 lbs.: melt and mix. 2. with exceeding firmness. Black resin, 1 lb.; yellow wax, 1 oz.; Cement, Elastic.--Bisulphide of melt together, and pour into a tin carbon, 4 oz.; fine india-rubber in canister. When wanted for use, chip shreds, 1 oz.; isinglass, 2 drachms; out as much as will cover the chuck gutta-percha, i oz.; dissolve. Used for to the both of an inch, spread it over | cementing leather or india-rubber. The the surface in small pieces, mixing it parts to be joined must be coated thinly with an eighth of its bulk of gutta- with the solution, and allowed a few percha in thin slices; then heat an iron minutes to dry, then hea: to melting: to a dull red heat, and hold it over the place the parts together and well hamchuck till the mixture and gutta mer the air bubbles out. are melted and liquid ; coil the iron a Cement for Mounting Pholittle, and with it stir the cement until tographic Prints. — Fine wheat it is homogeneous; chuck the work, starch, 4 drachms; beat into a paste lay on a weight to enforce contact, leave with cold water 1 oz. of best Russian it at rest for half an hour, when it will glue; dissolve in a pint of bcuiling water; be ready for the lathe. 3. Four parts resin while boiling pour on the starch ; put melted with i part pitch; while these the whole into a saucepan, and boil till are boiling add brick-dust until by drop- | as thick as treacle. When required for use a small quantity is to be melted in part of glue in 16 parts of water, and a little warm water.
when almost cool stir in saw-dust and Cement for Wood Vessels prepared chalk a sufficient quantity. required to be Water-tight. Or, oil-varnish thickened with a mixA mixture of lime-clay and oxide of iron ture of equal parts of white-lead, redseparately calcined and reduced to fine lead, litharge, and chalk. powder, then intimately mixed, kept in Cements for Joining Metals, a close vessel, and mixed with the re or Glass and Wood.-Melt l'esin quisite quantity of water when used. and stir in calcined plaster until reduced
Cement for Leather.-A good to a paste, to which add boiled oil a cement for splicing leather for straps is sufficient quantity to bring it to the gutta-percha dissolved in bisulphide of consistence of honey; apply warm. Or, carbon, until it is of the thickness of melt resin 180 parts, and stir in burnt treacle; the parts to be cemented must umber, 30; calcined plaster, 15; and first be well thinned down, then pour a boiled oil, 8 parts. Or, dissolve glue in small quantity of the cement on both boiling water to the consistence of ends, spreading it well so as to fill the cabinet-maker's glue, then stir in suffipores of the leather, warm the parts over cient wood ashes to produce a varnisha fire for about half a minute, apply them like mixture. While hot, the surfaces quickly together, and hammer well. The to be united must be covered with this bottle containing the cement should be compound and pressed together. tightly corked and kept in a cool place. Stonemason's Cement.-Clean
Marble Cement.-Take plaster river sand, 20 lbs.; litharge, 2 lbs.; of Paris, and soak it in a saturated solu- quicklime, 1 lb.; linseed oil, sufficient tion of alum, then bake in an oven, the to form a thin paste. This cement is same as gypsum is baked to make it applied to mend broken pieces of stone, plaster of Paris; after which grind the and after a time it becomes exceedingly mixture to powder. It is then used as hard and strong. A similar composition wanted, being mixed up with water like has been used to coat brick walls, under plaster and applied. It sets into a very the name of mastic. hard composition capable of taking a Fireproof and Waterproof very high polish, and may be mixed Cement.—To 4 or 5 parts of clay, with various colouring minerals to pro- thoroughly dried and pulverized, add duce a cement of any colour capable of 2 parts of fine iron filings free from imitating marble. 'I'his cement is also oxide, 1 part of peroxide cf manganese, used for attaching glass to metal.
part of sea salt, and } part of borax. Impervious Cement for Ap-| | Mingie these thoroughly and render paratus, Corks, &c.—Zinc white, them as fine as possible, then reduce rubbed up with copal varnish to fill up them to a thick paste with the necessary the indentures; when dry, to be covered quantity of water, mixing thoroughly with the same mass, somewhat thinner ; | well. It must be used immediately and lastly, with copal varnish alone. After application it should be exposed to
Chinese Cement.--Finest pale heat gradually increasing almost to a orange shellac, broken small, 4 oz.; white heat. This cement is very hard, rectified spirit (the strongest 58 o.p.) and presents complete resistance alike to 3 oz.; digest together in a corked bottle a red heat and boiling water. Another in a warm place until dissolved ; it method :—To equal parts of sifted pershould have the consistence of treacle. oxide of manganese and well-pulverized For wood, glass, ivory, jewellery, and all zinc white, add a sufficient quantity of fancy works, used.
commercial soluble glass to form a thiu Cements for Cracks in Wood. paste. This mixture, when used imme-Make a paste of slacked lime, 1 part; diately, forms a cement quite equal in" rye mcal, 2 parts; with a sufficient hardness and resistance to that obtained quantity of linseed oiļ. Or, dissolve 1 | by the first method.
Electrical or Chemical Ce- | with, the urine of any animal does quite ment.-A good cement for chemical as well. Now mix the borings with and electrical apparatus may be pre- / sufficient of the fluid to cause them to pared by mixing 5 lbs. of resin, 1 lb. of adhere together in lumps when com. wax, 1 lb. of red ochre, and 2 oz. of pressed in the hand. It is now ready for plaster of Paris, and melting the whole use. By means of the calking iron, anul with moderate heat.
the piece of board or plate, stuff the Engineers' Cements for Mak- moist material into the joint to a depth of ing Joints.-1. Mix ground white- | 1 in. or so from the bottom, all round; lead with as much finely-powdered red- now calk it down with the iron and lead as will make it the consistence of hammer until it sounds perfectly soliu, soft putty. 2. Mix equal parts of white- as though it struck against solid iron. lead and red-lead, and add as much boiled Repeat the process of filling, then the linseed oil as is required to give it the calking, and so on, until the joint is proper consistence; or boiled linseed oil filled to the surface. The joint shoull and red-lead mixed into a putty. These rest for at least ten hours before being cements are used for making metallic put under pressure. joints sound.
Cement to Mend Iron Pots Iron Cements, or Rust and Pans.—Take 2 parts of sulphur, Joints,-1. 1 lb. clean iren borings, and 1 part, by weight, of fine black-lead; pounded fine in a mortar, 2 oz. sal am put the sulphur in an old iron pan, moniac in powder, 1 oz. flour of sul holding it over the fire until it begins to phur. The whole' mixed by pounding, melt, then add the lead; stir well until and to be kept dry. For use, mix i all is mixed and melted; then pour out part of the above with 20 of iron borings on an iron plate, or smooth stone. When pounded, adding water to the consistence cool, break into small pieces. A sufficient of mortar. 2. 2 lbs. clean iron borings, quantity of this compound being placed 1 oz. flour of sulphur, 1 oz. sal am- | upon the crack of the iron pot to be moniac. 3. 98 parts of fine iron borings mended, can be soldered by a hot iron in through a sieve, i four of sulphur, the same way a tinsmith solders his 1 sal ammoniac. Mix and dissolve in sheets. If there is a small hole in the boiling water when required for use. 4. pot, drive a copper rivet in it and then Mix 1 lb. fine borings, į oz, sal ammo solder over it with this cement. niac, pounded small, } oz. spirits of salts, London Cement.-Boil a piece of and a little water. Prepare the joint by Gloucester cheese three times in water, bringing the inner joint rings of the each time allowing the water to evaAanges together-screwing up the bolts porate. Take the paste thus left and Srmly; in this condition there should be thoroughly incorporate with dry quickan annular space between the flanges of lime. It will mend glass, wood, china, from in. to s in. in width ; a strand of | &c., very effectually. rope-yarn or any soft fibre should now be Architectural Cement. stuffed to the bottom of the joint, so as Strong rice-water size and paper pulped to prevent the jointing material from in boiling water are mixed together ; being driven through in the process of enough whiting is then added to make it calking. A good hammer, a calking iron of a proper consistence. rather thinner than the joint, and a flat Renovating Files.--The file to piece of wood or sheet iron should be ip be first cleansed from all foreign matter, readiness. Take a suitable quantity of and then dipped in a solution of 1 part fine cast-iron borings, free from dust, and nitric acid, 3 parts sulphuric acid, and 7 which may be passed through a sieve to parts water; the time of immersion will remove large pieces ; next dissolve a very be according to the extent the file has small piece of sal ammoniac in water, say been worn and the fineness of the teeth, a drachm to a quart. In the absence of varying from 5 seconds to 5 minutes. sal av monjac to mix up the borings On taking it out of the mixture, wash in