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To Bleach Sponge.-Soak it! Blue Black is a paste made of well iu dilute muriatic acid for twelve | ivory black and indigo, ground tohours. Wash well with water, to re- gether with water. move the lime, then immerse it in a Blue, Soluble.—7 parts oil of vitriol, solution of hyposulphate of soda, to place in a glass vessel, and set this in which dilute muriatic acid has been cold water, add gradually 1 part indigo added a moment before. After it is in powder, stirring the mixture at each bleached sufficiently, remove it, wash addition with a glass rod. Cover the again, and dry it. It may thus be vessel for twenty-four hours, then dilute bleached almost snow white.
with an equal quantity of water. To Whiten Lace.-Lace may be Boiler Incrustation.-The folrestored to its original whiteness by lowing remedies have been used with first ironing it slightly, then folding it varying success to prevent incrustaand sewing it into a clean linen bag, tion:which is placed for twenty-four hours 1. Potatoes, Loth of weignt of water in pure olive oil. Afterwards the bag prevents adherence of scale. is to be boiled in a solution of soap and 2. 12 parts salt, 2} caustic soda, k water for fifteen minutes, then well extract of oak bark, i potash. rinsed in lukewarm water, and finally 3. Pieces of oak-wood suspended in dipped into water containing a slight boiler and renewed monthly. proportion of starch. The lace is theu 4. 2 oz. muriate of ammonia in boiler io be taken from the bag and stretched twice a week. on pins to dry.
5. A coating 3 parts of black-lead, Alcohol' Barrels - Barrels or 18 tallow, applied hot to the inside of casks designed to be filled with alcohol, the boiler every few weeks. may be made tight by the application 6. 121 lbs. of molasses fed into ao of the following solution :-Dissolve in | 8-horse boiler at intervals, prevented a water bath 1 lb. of leather scraps and | incrustation for six months. 1 oz. of oxalic acid, in 2 lbs. of water, 7. Mahogany or oak sawdust in small and dilute gradually with 3 lbs. of warm | quantities. Use this with caution, as water. Apply this solution to the in the tannic acid attracts iron. side of the barrel, where, by oxidation, 8. Carbonate of soda. it will assume a brown colour, and 9. Slippery elm bark. become insoluble in alcohol. This coat 10. Chloride of tin. closes all the pores of the wood, and 11. Spent tanners' bark. does not crack or scale off.
12. Frequent blowing off. Paste Blacking.--Mix 1 part of Brightening and Colouring ivory black, 4 treacle, sweet oil, Brass.- The work to be brightened then add oil of vitriol and hydro and coloured is first annealed in a redchloric acid. Dilute each ingredient hot muffle, or over an open fire, allowwith three times its weight of water | ing the cooling to extend over one hour; before mixing.
the object of the heating being to reLiquid Blacking.-2 lbs. of ivory move the grease or dirt that may have black in fine powder, treacle 11 lb., & pint accumulated during the process of fitof sperm oil. Rub the black and oil ting. Soft soldered work, however, must well together, add the treacle and mix. be annealed before fitted together, and
Another Method. — 4 oz. of ivory | afterwards boiled in a lye of potash; black, 3 oz. coarse sugar, a table-spoonful this is also done with work having ornaof sweet oil, and 1 pint of weak beer ; mental surfaces. Next, it is immersed wix them gradually together until cold. in a bath of diluted oil of vitriol or
Black Reviver.-Take 2 pints of aquafortis, which may be made with vinegar, and infuse 1 oz. of iron filings, | two or three parts of water, and one of 1 oz. copperas, 1 oz. ground logwood, acid; but the old acid that contains i and 3 oz. bruised galls.
small quantity of copper, in solution, is
frequently preferred. The work is strong vinegar, 1 oz. of sal ammoniac, allowed to remain in this liquid for one oz. of alum, & oz. of arsenic; dissolve or two hours, according to the strength them in the vinegar, and the compound of the acid ; it is then well rinsed in is fit for use. We know brass-founders water, and scoured with sand, which is who have been in the habit of using this applied with an ordinary scrubbing for several years, and, where the metal brush, and washed. The pickling bath is good, it is seldom found to fail. is made by dissolving one part of zinc | Bronze Powders, Aurum Musiin three parts of nitric acid of 360 | | vum.—Melt together, in a crucible over Baume, in a porcelain vessel, and adding a clear fire, equal parts of sulphur and a mixture of eight parts of nitric acid, the white oxide of tin. Keep them and eight parts of oil of vitriol. Heat continually stirred with the stem of an is then applied, and when the liquid is earthenware pipe or glass rod, till they boiling the work is plunged into it for assume the appearance of a yellow flaky half a minute, or until the violent de- powder. velopment of nitrous vapour ceases, and An iron rod must not be used in stirthe surface is getting uniform. Then ring up any mixture of sulphur when it is plunged into clean water, and well melted, or the sulphur and iron will rinsed, to remove the acid. The ordi- unite. Aurum Mwsivum, or Mosaic Gold, nary, dark greyish, yellow tint, which is used as a cheap bronze powder. It is is thus very often produced, is removed rubbed on with the finger. Another on immersing the work again in aqua- way to prepare it is to take quicksilver, fortis for a very short time. Then it is tin, sulphur, and sal ammoniac, equal plunged into clean or slightly alkaline parts. First melt the tin, theu pour water, well rinsed to remove the acid, the quicksilver into it, afterwards grind and plunged into warm dry beech or up with the amalgam thus made the boxwood saw-dust, and rubbed until sulphur and sal ammoniac. Place the quite dry. To prevent the action of mixture in a crucible, and heat until the the atmosphere it is lacquered ; if a powder in the crucible becomes goldgreen tint is to be produced, the lacquer coloured, and also until no fumes of is coloured with turmeric. A dark, quicksilver arise. greyish, but agreeable tint, is obtained Copper-coloured Bronze may by immersing the work previously in a be obtained by dissolving copper in solution of white arsenic in hydrochloric aquafortis until it is saturated, and then acid, or in a solution of bichloride of putting into the solution some small platinum, under addition of some vine- pieces of iron, when the copper will be gar, or rubbing with plumbago.
precipitated in the metallic state; the Bronze for Statuary.-1. Cop- Auid must then be poured off, and the per, 88 parts; tin, 9 parts; zinc, 2 powder carefully washed, dried, and parts; lead, 1 part. 2. Copper, 881 levigated, when it may be put by for parts; tin, 5 parts; zinc, 101 parts; use. lead, 2 parts. 3. Copper, 90 parts; Bronze powder is sometimes made tin, 9 parts; lead, 1 part. 4. Copper, from Dutch gold, which is sold in books 91 parts; tin, 9 parts.
at a very low price. All these inferior For Medals.-1. Copper, 89 parts ; | bronzes require to be covered with a tin, 8 parts; zinc, 3 parts. 2. Copper, coat of clear varnish, or they will very 95 parts; tin, 5 parts.
soon lose their metallic appearance, nor For Cutting Instruments. — Copper, will the varnish entirely prevent, al100 parts; tin, 14 parts.
though it will greatly retard, this For Ornaments.-1. Copper, 82 parts; | change. tin, 3 parts; zinc, 18 parts; and lead, Cheap Bronze.-Verdigris, 8 oz.; 2 parts. 2. Copper, 83 parts; zinc, flowers of zinc or tutti powder, 4 oz.; 17 parts; tin, 1 part; lead, ; part. borax and nitre, of each 2 oz.; corrosive
Bronze Liquid.-Take i pint of sublimate, 2 drachms, made into a pasto
with oil, and melted together. Used in go over the figure with it, allowing po the commoner kinds of tea-boards, &c. more to remain than causes it to shine.
Silver Bronze.—Bismuth and tin, Set it aside in a dry place free from of each 2 lbs.; melt together and add smoke, and in forty-eight hours the figure 1 lb. of quicksilver. Pound all together is prepared to receive the bronze. into a powder.
After having touched over the whole This soft fusible amalgam is used as figure with the bronze powder, let it an imitation of silver bronze for plaster stand another day, and then with a soft figures and other common purposes, in dry brush rub off all the loose powder, the same way as the aurum musivum is particularly from the points, or more for gold-coloured articles. It may be prominent parts of the figure. used as spangles in sealing-wax; it | Bronzing Wood.—The wood is must then be mixed when the resinous first covered with a uniform coating of part of the wax is getting cold.
glue, or of drying oil, and when nearly . Gold Powder for Bronzing. dry the bronze powder, contained in a Leaf gold is ground with virgin honey small bag, is dusted over it. The suron a stone, until the leaves are broken face of the objects is afterwards rubbed up and minutely divided. The mix- with a piece of moist rag. Or the ture is removed from the stone by a bronze powder may be previously mixed spatula, and stirred up in a basin of with the drying oil, and applied with a water, whereby the honey is melted | brush. and the gold set free; the basin is then Bronzing Paper.-Gum is subleft undisturbed until the gold subsides ; stituted for drying oil in bronzing paper the water is poured off, and fresh quan- | When dry, the paper is submitted to the tities added until the honey is entirely action of the burnisher, which imparts washed away ; after which the gold is great brilliancy to it. collected on filtering paper, and dried Bronzing small Brass Artifor use.
cles.-1 part oxide of iron, 1 part Gold Size is prepared from 1 lb. white arsenic, 12 parts hydrochloric of linseed oil with 2 oz. of gum animi; acid. Clean the brass well to get rid the latter is reduced to powder and of lacquer or grease, and apply with a gradually added to the oil while being | brush until the desired colour is obheated in a flask, stirring it after every tained. Stop the process by oiling well, addition until the whole is dissolved; when it may be varnished or clear lacthe mixture is boiled until a small quered. quantity, when taken out, is somewhat Bronzing Gas Fittings.-Boil thicker than tar, and the whole is the work in strong ley, and scour it strained through a coarse cloth. When free from all grease or old lacquer; used, it must be ground with as much pickle it in diluted nitric acid till it is vermilion as will render it opaque, and quite clean (not bright), then dip in at the same time be diluted with oil of strong acid, and rinse through four or turpentine, so as to make it work freely five waters : repeat the dip, if necessary. with the pencil.
till it is bright; next bind it very loose Bronzing Plaster. - Lay the with some thin iron wire, and lay it in figure over with isinglass size, until it the strongest of the waters you have holds out, or without any part of its used for rinsing. This will deposit a surface becoming dry; then, with a coat of copper all over it if the water brush, such as is termed by painters a or pickle be not too strong; if such is sash tool, go over the whole, taking care the case the copper will only be depoto remove, while it is yet soft, any of sited just round where the wire touches. the size that may lodge on the delicate When the copper is of sufficient thickparts of the figure. When it is dryness wash it again through the waters, take a little very thin oil gold size, and and dry it with a brush in some hot with as much as just damps the brush, / saw-dust; box-dust is best, but if this is
not at hand, oak, ash, or beech will do. add turpentine, about twice its own It is now ready for bronzing. The volume, to the whole, mix with a bronze is a mixture of black-lead and camel-hair brush, and apply to the red bronze, varied according to shade brass work. required, mixed with boiling water. | Black Bronze for Brass.-Dip The work is to be painted over with the article bright in aquafort:s; rinse this and dried, then brushed until it the acid off with clean water, zad place polishes. If there are any black spots it in the following mixture until it or rings on the work, another coat of turns black :-Hydrochloric acid, 12 lbs.; the bronze will remove them. Lacquer sulphate of iron, 1 lb.; and pure white the work with pale lacquer, or but very arsenic, 1 lb. It is then taken out, slightly coloured, for if it is too deep it rinsed in clean water, dried in saw-dust, will soon chip off.
polished with black-lead, and then lacAnother method is to mix vinegar or quered with green lacquer. dilute sulphuric acid (1 acid 12 vater) i Bronzing Iron.—To one pint of with powdered black-lead in a saucer or methylated finish add 4 oz. of gum shelopen vessel; apply this to the brass with lac and oz. gum benzoin; put the a soft plate brush by gentle brushing. bottle in a warm place, shaking it occaThis will soon assume a polish, and is fitsionally. When the gum is dissolved let for lacquering. The brass must be made it stand in a cool place two or three days slightly warmer than for lacquering to settle, then gently pour off the clear only. A little practice will enable the into another bottle, cork it well, and keep operator to bronze and lacquer with it for finest work. The sediment left in once heating. The colour, black or the first bottle, by adding a sufficient green, varies with the thickness of quantity of spirit io make it workable, black-lead.
will do for the first coat or coarser work Green Bronze.—Dissolve 2 oz. of when strained through a fine cloth. nitrate of iron, and 2 oz. of hyposulphite Next get } lb. of finely-ground bronze of soda in 1 pint of water. Immerse green, the shade may be varied by using the articles in the bronze till of the a little lampblack, red ochre, or yellow required tint, as almost any shade from ochre; let the iron be clean and smooth, brown to red can be obtained; then well then take as much varnish as may be wash with water, dry, and brush. One required, and add to the green colour in part of perchloride of iron and two parts sufficient quantity; slightly warm the of water mixed together, and the brass article to be bronzed, and with a soft immersed in the liquid, gives a pale or brush lay a thin coat on it. Wheu deep olive green, according to the time that is dry, if necessary lay another coa, of immersion. If nitric acid is saturated on, and repeat until well covered. Take with copper, and the brass dipped in the a small quantity of the varnish and liquid, and then heated, it assumes a touch the prominent parts with it; bedark green. If well brushed, it may be fore it is dry, with a dry pencil lay on a lacquered with pale gold lacquer, or else small quantity of gold powder. Varnish polished with oil.
over all. Black Brasswork for Instru-l Bronzing Copper Utensils.ments. – Take lampblack, about a If the article is not new take it to thimbleful, and put it on a flat stone pieces, wiping off all the solder with a or smooth slate; add four or five spots wisp of tow, and taking care not to let of gold size, and well mix with a palette any of the metal in the fire; then twist knife, make the whole about as thick as a little tow on the end of a stick, and putty; well mix. The less gold size pickle with spirits of salts all those there is the better, so that the lamp- parts that are tinned, pickling the outblack just sticks together; if too much side as well as the in, rinse in water, gold size be added, the effect will be a and scour outside with wisp of tow and bright black and not a dead black. Now sand, fine coke-dust is best for the remove the sal-ammoniac from the sur- | markable influence on the colour, and face, placed immediately on the former particularly on the tenacity of the alloy. and lined at the same heating.
The former becomes more red, and the Blanched Copper.-Fuse 8 oz. latter stronger. The scum forming on of copper and } oz. of neutral arseni the surface by this addition ought to cai salt, with a flux made of calcined be removed before the metal is cast. borax, charcoal dust, and powdered Tin and copper are liable to separation glass.
in cooling; this can be prevented, at Yellow Brass.--30 parts of zinc least partly, by turning the mould conand 70 of copper in small pieces. taining the fluid metal, and keeping it
YELLOW BRASS, for Turning. in motion until it is chilled. (Common article.) — Čopper, 20 lbs.; Copper and lead unite only to a zinc, 10 lbs.; lead from 1 to 5 oz. certain extent: 3 lead and 8 copper is Put in the lead last before pouring off. ordinary pot metal. All the lead may
Red Brass, for Turning.–Copper, be retained in this alloy, provided the 24 lbs.; zinc, 5 lbs.; lead, 8 oz. Put object to be cast is not too thick. in the lead last before pouring off. When the cast is heavy, or much lead
RED BRASS, free, for ľurning. is used, it is pressed out by the copper Copper, 160 lbs.; zinc, 50 lbs.; lead, in cooling. 1 lead, 2 copper, separates 10 lbs.; antimony, 44 oz.
lead in cooling-it oozes out from the Another Brass, for Turning. porcs of the metal : 8 copper and 1 lead Copper, 32 lbs.; zinc, 10 lbs.; lead, i lb. is ductile, more lead renders copper
Best Red Brass, for fine Cast brittle. Between 8 to 1 and 2 to 1 ings.-Copper, 24 lbs. ; zinc, 5 lbs.; is the limit of copper and lead alloys. bismuth, 1 oz. Put in the bismuth All of these alloys are brittle when hot last before pouring off.
or merely warm. Rolled Brass. -32 copper, 10 Equal parts of copper and silver and zinc, 1.5 tin.
2 per cent. of arsenic form an alloy Common Brass, for Castings.-- similar to silver, a little harder, how20 copper, 1.25 zinc, 2.5 tin.
ever, but of almost equal tenacity and Hard' Brass, for Casting.–25 malleability. Antimony imparts a peparts copper, 2 zinc, 4.5 tin.
culiar beautiful red colour to copper, Brass Melting.–The best plan varying from rose-red in a little copper of smelting brass is to melt the copper and much antimony, to crimson or in a black-lead crucible first, dry and violet when equal parts of both metals cool the zinc as much as possible and are melted together. immerse the whole of the zinc into the Hardening for Britannia.copper when the latter is not hotter (To be mixed separately from the other than barely to continue fluid. Drop a ingredients.)-Copper, 2 lbs.; tin, 1 lb. piece of borax the size of a walnut into Good Britannia Metal.—Tin, the pot. When the surface of the hot 150 lbs.; copper, 3 lbs.; antimony, metal is covered by fine charcoal, or 10 lbs. borax, which is prevented by renewal Britannia Metal, 2nd quality.from burning, the smallest loss of zinc Tin, 140 lbs.; copper, 3 lbs.; antimony, is sustained.
9 lbs. The melting together of tin and cor BRITANNIA METAL, for Casting.per is less difficult than that of zinc Tin, 210 lbs.; copper, 4 lbs.; antiand copper, because tin is not so liable mony, 12 lbs. to evaporate as zinc, and little metal is BRITANNIA METAL, for Spinning.lost. The appearance of the alloy may | Tin, 100 lbs. ; Britannia hardening, be improved by covering the melted 4 lbs.; antimony, 4 lbs. metal with about one per cent. of dried BRITANNIA METAL, for Registers. potash; or, better still, a mixture of Tin, 100 lbs.; hardening, 8 lbs.; antipotash and soda. This flux has a re- | mony, 8 lbs.