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bare majority of twelve cantonal votes declared by twelve canons against the would have sufficed them for an excuse. seven of the Sonderbund, and the repreIn this diet the canton of St. Gall was sentatives of the latter withdrew from the equally divided, and so had no vote ; be- diet, after pronouncing a long and very fore the diet of 1847 had assembled, the able manifesto, in which, after summing up radicals had gained the power in this can their historical argument, they conclude :ton. There was then but one canton wanting to give them a majority, and it is in “ The governments of the twelve states of structive to read how it was gained.

The Berne, Zurich, Glaris, Solothurn, Shaffhausen, aristocratical canton of Geneva was nearly sino, Vaud, and Geneva, have drawn the sword

St. Gall, the Grisons, Argow, Thurgow, Tesequally divided between Catholics and Prot. for an unjust war. The governments and inestants; and again these were subdivided habitants of the states of Lucerne, Uri, Schwytz, into radicals and conservatives. Several | Unterwalden, Zug, Friburg, and the Valais, years before, the radicals were in power, will draw theirs in their legitimate defence. and the conservative party, which in this A sacred oath unites you to us-you, confedercanton was nearly coincident with the ates of the states whose authorities lead you to aristocratic, had regained their influence

a sanguinary war against us; you are sworn,

as well as we, to faithfully and constantly mainly by the zealous, though unorganized, maintain the confederated alliance, and to sacadhesion of a larger number

of the Catholics rifice for it, if necessary, your lives and your to their interest. But when this party had property. once more the reins of government in their "But your authorities tear up the alliance hands, they interfered officially with the and make war upon the confederates and the ecclesiastical appointments of the Catholics, founders of the confederation. You are called especially in the appointment of their upon to shed your blood to execute their de

cree against the confederation. You are called curate in the city of Geneva. The dis

upon to sacrifice your property to despoil that affection that this produced in the minds of your faithful confederates. You have taken of the Catholics in Geneva towards the with us a sacred oath to contribute to the prosgovernment was very great ; and therefore perity of our common country, and to protect it when the radicals on the 8th October, against all calamity; yet your authorities are 1846, raised the standard of revolt against plunging the country into civil war, not to prothe council of the canton, though the in

mote its prosperity, but to execute their decree

against confederates. They are precipitating surgents were inconsiderable in number, the confederation, which is the admiration of all and confined to the faubourg St. Gervaise, nations, into the abyss where it must meet with the government was yet astonished to find destruction, and instead of watching over the itself without support, and was forced to prosperity of each particular state, they desire abdicate. The next day the organ

of the to destroy the liberty and sovereignty of the

You have sworn to live with Catholics, after bitterly recounting the interferences of the late council with church

us as brothers in good and in bad fortune.

Have we not always kept our oath ? Have matters, concluded by expressing an en

we not always rejoiced when you were happy ? tire sympathy with any new state of affairs Have we not always shared your misfortunes ? whatever, which would only establish liber- Have we ever shackled your independence and ty in religious matters. This sufficiently your rights? Your authorities, however, in indicated the cause of the disaffection, and the midst of peace, have destroyed our Catholic while we cannot esteem it a large-minded, institutions, and it was from your territory that

came the attacks of the free corps against one or a wise policy, in such a position of the Swiss confederation, we must yet acknowl. Your authorities have kept up these bands, and

of our cantons, which they plunged in distress. edge that it was a result to be naturally wish now by civil war to carry out to the highexpected. However, it threw Geneva est point the offences of which they were guilty. into the hands of the radicals; and so by You have sworn, as well as we, to do all that this passiveness of the Genevese Catholics, honor and duty impose on faithful confederates. the radicals, in the diet of 1847, gained their Mention to us a duty which we have not fullong-sought majority of twelve cantons out arbitrary commands for the duties they owe us ;

filled towards you. Your authorities substitute of the twenty-two, for the forcible suppres- they support traitors and assassins ; they grant sion of the Sonderbunnd.

no protection to our innocent fellow-citizens, The result is well known. Last year, destroy our commerce, carry off our property, after a short and stormy session, war was invest our frontiers, and declare war against us

seven cantons.

in your name. You have taken the oath to us It is therefore not strange that as they apsolemnly in the name of the Almighty, adding, proached the town, the whole army was so help us God. Think of this. The confederation has existed 600 years with the aid panic-struck and looked on a defeat as of God; this all-powerful God, in His Holy certain. How then came the result to be Trinity, protects right and punishes perjury

so different ? We offer resistance, strong in our rights; and

Since commencing this article, we have you attack us with a conviction of error. In found opportunity to converse with an our affliction we put our trust in God, and to Italian gentleman, who happened to be in His will we submit ourselves.”

Friburg during the whole affair; and his

report fully confirms the idea that we had As was anticipated, the first attack of already formed, and which was openly adthe free corps and their auxiliaries was di- vanced in l' Universe, l'Union Monarchique, rected upon Friburg, which was isolated and some other papers. It is impossible from its allies, and exposed in its situation. to doubt that the Friburgers were betrayed, The number of the radical troops was over and the past history of Maillardoz, who on 30,000 men; the army of Friburg, includ- account of his superior rank was put at ing boys of fourteen years, who bore the the head of their army, gives full reason fatigues of the campaign with the valor of for believing that he was the wretched men, did not exceed the third of the traitor. No amount of cowardice seems number; yet, singular to say, the opinion capable of otherwise explaining his conamong the private soldiers on each side duct. The officers next in command dewas the same, namely, that the invaders sired to have met the invaders on the conwould be defeated. The Friburgers united fines of the canton, and were sure of chasthe impetuosity of religious enthusiasm to ing them at all points. He kept them in the obedient discipline of German coolness. inaction around the walls of the city. The Whilst preparing for the attack, after labor- dispositions that he made relatively to the ing all day long in a cold rain in throwing defence of the outworks, show that he was up redoubts, when the different companies in communication with the enemy, and bad returned to their quarters, they did not meant them to take these by surprise. lie down for the repose of the night, till And the brilliant action which prevented old and young, with their officers as leaders this, by the valor of the merest handful of of their devotions, had with many prayers Friburgers, was commenced by a private invoked the blessings and protection of soldier, contrary to his orders, firing a piece God on themselves and on their country of artillery from one of the redoubts on the The superior of a religious community in advancing column of the enemy, because Friburg happening to behold a company common sense told the man that treason of them so engaged, assembled the mem- alone could permit them to march thus bers of his convent and took them to the into their encampment unopposed. And spot, to learn there a lesson of fortitude and when Maillardoz came from his quarters at faith. And when, at length, the enemy the sound of the skirmish, his first order were in sight, and the moment of combat was to withdraw his troops from following imminent, their martial music, which was up an advantage, which would otherwise attuned to religious hymns, in which the have put to the rout the whole body of entire army joined, would cease, only to the invaders. give place to shouts of joyful defiance, and Persons in the radical ranks afterwards unbounded confidence.

told our informant that the slightest show On the side of the invaders, according of resistance would have checked and deto their own after-account, the case was feated them, for that they had no confiprecisely contrary. One would say: It is dence in their cause or in their men. But in vain to attack Friburg,-every man of Maillardoz sent to them demanding a truce, them is anxious to die in its defence. And and to treat of a capitulation. He then another would answer: The Friburgers summoned a council of war, declared bis have right on their side; we ought not to despair of resistance, and resigned his comattack them nor to succeed. And many mission. There were others, either corexpressed their firm resolution of firing rupted or weak-minded, who were struck over the heads of their Friburg brethren. with alarm. Discord appeared in the VOL. II. NO. I. NEW SERIES.

6

was

now

council; they had no leader, and so they | their grief, to the God of their fathers. We fell without resistance. When the troops know that people who pray never despair, of Friburg saw themselves thus betrayed, and moreover, we believe as they do, that their mortification was intense. Some of there is a God who hears them, and who them refused to lay down their arms; others will get vindicate his justice. Switzerland, broke their guns to pieces and tore off their which afforded the brightest example of libmilitary dress, as a disgraced badge. erty, by preserving always her original con

The fall of Friburg inexplicably dismayed stitution, while during the fifteenth, sixthe other cantons of the Sonderbund. The teenth and seventeenth centuries, all around radicals marched unopposed into them, one her, France, Germany and Northern Italy, after another; and in each one, they have suffered theirs to be swallowed up in monaroutlawed those who have been engaged in chical despotism, will not now be lost. the defence of cantonal sovereignty, that Before radical fury had desecrated the is, the inhabitants proper of these cantons ; hospitable valley of Einsiedlen, a traveller they have constituted the army of radical stopped one day at “Our Lady of Heroccupation as the recognized voters, and mits.' The heat of summer proceeding thus from one canton to another, passed, and the richness of the fields was they have forced a new government on already touched by the finger of the decaynearly all of the conservatives.

ing year. An Alpine mist was settling Such has been Swiss liberalism! Such over all the valley. The next day the travhas been its radical reform! The horrors eller walked hither and thither among the it has committed against religion and hu- granges, and saw in the landscape nothing manity are fresh in the minds of all. Our but obscure and watery clouds. But on intention has been to give not a narration the third day, as he walked on the top of of these, but a view of the principles and a neighboring hill, the sun came forth party from which they have sprung: that above, and favorable winds assisted to disthey are not accidental excesses, but the pel the cloudy vapors, and as he rested substantial reforms of the progressive de- there for a little while, the vision of the mocracy of Switzerland. And we cannot valley became clear. And as far as his close without again respectfully commend eye could reach flocks were peacefully ing a deep study of the entire history of feeding on the sides of the mountains, and Switzerland to republican statesmen and rich orchards dropping with mellow fruit politicians. Too little attention has been spread continuously through all the valpaid to it in our country, and indeed, to ley. And the traveller noticed that the the extent of our own knowledge, no able mist had refreshed the valley, though the and true history of it has anywhere been ravages of the year and the autumn spots written. The view we have taken, we are were still visible. persuaded, will commend itself the most Einsiedlen is given to the spoiler, and to men who are best acquainted with the the peaceful cloisters that gave

the travelsubject; and if it tend to fix in any minds ler welcome are now the haunt of the a deeper conviction that liberty is never

robber and the debauchee. But these lawlessness, and change never progress, clouds of moral darkness cannot long rest nor always its necessary antecedent, we upon Switzerland. They may leave mournshall be contented with our task.

ful memories and ruined glories behind As respects Switzerland herself, we have them, but at the same time the pulses of the profoundest conviction that the days life that still remain will be quickened, and of her glory are not all passed. By refu- the assoilments of their political wayside, gees from the radical despotism that op- in other days, will be washed away. presses her we have heard of her desola

NOTE.-For such facts made use of in the above, tion and her tears. But we have heard as are of later date than the French Revolution, we also of the heroic fortitude by which she political periodicals of the last thirty years. The

can refer our readers only to the newspapers and despairs not of a regeneration. We have facts of an earlier date are stated, we believe, less heard that now, as before the conflict, her

or more clearly in most of the professed histories of

Switzerland. In the above sketch, however, we people, whether gathered before their have not made use of these, except very incidenaltars, or uniting around their humble tally, and therefore we cannot refer to them in par

ticular-it has been our fortune to have access to hearths, pray with hearts greater than more living sources.

TWENTY SONNETS;

WITH A PREFACE AND NOTES,

THE PREFACE.

The want of a sufficient number of son spect assumed that attitude of defiance nets, local in their imagery and national in towards the rest of the world, which is their thought and melody, has long been becoming in a country enjoying so many a source of serious inconvenience to a large advantages over every other. Our poets portion of our productive poetic popula- have not yet produced sonnets to which a tion. Of pieces in this form in the writ- citizen of the United States in a foreign ings of all our poets, the number has been land, might proudly turn when taunted seen to be comparatively small, and very with the names of Plutarch and Laura. few even of these have those marked char- In sculpture and painting, if we may beacteristics which stamp them of genuine lieve our newspapers, our artists have in a native growth-the pure legitimate off- few years surpassed Pericles and Zeuxis, spring of Man in the Republic.

and all their successors; but where is the Various of our younger Bards have ac American SONNETTEER ? Echo only recordingly from time to time laudably es peats the indignant query. sayed to supply this deficiency, but hith To fill this aching void in our poetic literto with a success by no means commen erature, while it must be admitted to be a surate with the intrepid perseverance praiseworthy undertaking, by no means which has in many instances distinguished holds out for those who enter upon it the their endeavors. The aid of the Muse has encouragement of sanguine hopes. The been, and still is, frequently importuned repeated failures in it remind new aspirants through the columns of newspapers and very forcibly of the fine exclamation :the pages of magazines and yellow-covered duodecimos, with but little apparent effect, “How hard it is to climb the steeple of Fame's though in terms which would seem suf

proud temple!" ficiently powerful to draw tears of pity from a heart of stone, and propitiate therefore, in the writer of these ensuing

It would be exceedingly presumptuous, or at least exasperate the inexorable daughters of Nox and Erebus.* The

sonnets, to hope that bis labors have comportion of sonnets has, in consequence, in- pletely supplied the desideratum. Nevercreased very considerably, it is true ; but

theless, he has the vanity to flatter himself, in respect of quality the recently manufac

feeble as his efforts may have been, that tured article has manifested no superiority though he may have made but little imover late importations,-a circumstance provement on the attempts of his predeparticularly depressing, when it is remem

cessors and cotemporaries, he has, at all bered how lamentably, since the retirement events, avoided some of their most serious of Wordsworth and Company, the English Some of our writers appear to have read the

errors. He has at least been intelligible. sonnet has deteriorated. Notwithstanding the increase in quantity, therefore, the old close-packed sonnets of the great poets, conviction still painfully forces itself upon imitated them from that point of observa

without understanding them, and to have the intelligent observer, that the American continent has not yet in this important re

tion; thereby, consequently, rendering their productions incomprehensible to readers

not in the same opacous condition with Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos.

themselves, Others have depicted them-.

selves in lukewarm states of feeling, which things shall be found deficient in point of it requires a severe effort of charity on the gravity. But the intense seriousness of part of intelligent readers to believe unaf- others may, possibly, counterbalance this fected.

defect and restore the whole to an agreeaBoth these faults the present writer ble equilibrium. hopes he has avoided. That he has fallen With these remarks, he ventures to subinto no others, however, he would be far mit his works to the judgment of a discernfrom being understood as asserting. In ing public, deprecating deliberate deprecispite of his efforts to the contrary, he is ation, but courting candid criticism. greatly apprehensive lest many of his

THE SONNETS.

“Souning in moral vertue was his speche
And gladly wolde he lerne and gladly teche.”—CHAUCER.
“To hear the lute well touch’d, or artful voice
Warble immortal notes and Tuscan air:
He who of those delights can judge, and spare

To interpose them oft, is not unwise.”—Milton. “ Poetry, especially heroical, seems to be raised altogether from a noble foundation, which makes much for the dignity of man's nature."-Bacon.

“ Begin, murderer ;-leave thy damnable faces and begin. Come ;-"-HAMLET.

on

I.

length of many of them, and the amount

of productive capital invested in this speAs timid boys that walk through woods at night,

cies of property, all conspire to render the A lonesome road, when all is dark and still, subject one in which large numbers of in

Except the humming sound of distant mill, telligent readers may be supposed to have Grow deadly wide awake and quick of sight,

a personal interest ; though the poet himAnd faint with dread of meeting ghostly sprite, self must confess he has only looked upon To keep their spirits up and other spirits off

, it in the light of an occasional passenger. Do whistle, aye, not stopping save to cough, Strange tunes unnatural , with all their might; to the subject of the following :

Precisely similar are the facts in relation
E'en so doth he, that boy of larger size,
The locomotive, who with lungs of iron,

II.
And breathing vapor hot, the rail goes by
He fills the darkened air with hideous cries,

My love she has blue eyes and auburn hair,

And like the light of Heaven are her eyes, As through the far-off hills, for many a league,

The clear, calm radiance of unclouded skies; He speeds away and never feels fatigue.

And her rich ringlets blowing everywhere The writer's idea in this sonnet has been,

Round her white neck, when oft with footfall

light it will be perceived, to bring forward and

She hurriedly o'ertrips the windy mall, develop a single feature in the imagery They seem like banners at a festival — of our age and country—the locomotive. Like golden banners fluttering in the sight Remembering that the triumphs of the Of setting sunbeams. For they kindle still steam engine had called forth the eloquence

Within my heart the fire of old romance, of a Jeffery, he saw no reason why this

As banners did my boyish soul entrance

With dreams heroic. Blow, sweet curls ! ye most picturesque form of that wonder

fill working, though still infantile Power, With frolic youth the winds that with ye play, should not be deemed a topic suited to the And make them seem to keep love's holiday. requirements of verse. The number of railroads in the United States also, the vast All the occurrences of daily life are sus

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