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told that, at the creation of man, God “ breathed into his
“ nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living
“soul.” This, as it relates a striking difference in the
creation of man from what had been recorded with regard
to other animals, is frequently insisted upon as an evi-
dence that man, in distinction from other inferior crea-
tures, was created with a view to perpetuity of existence.
But no inference of this kind could possibly be drawn
from any thing which has been said by the Jewish histo-
rian in relation to the same fact: for he simply records
that God “ infused into man breath and a souly.” We
have ourselves alleged the language of Balaam, when he
wishes to die the death of the righteous, and also the Mo-
saical law against necromancy, as passages in which a fu-
ture state is plainly recognised: but in regard to both
these particulars the history of Josephus is wholly silent.
The interview of Saul with the woman of Endor is in-
deed recorded : and this I believe will be found to be the
only instance in the progress of his history which affords
the slightest evidence either of the doctrine itself, or of its
reception among his countrymen, till he comes to record
the dream of Glaphyraz: in which passage the apparition
of Glaphyra's former husband is strongly insisted on by
him as evidence of the immortality of the soul. Thus
have we a copious history of the same people whose his-
tory is recorded in the Scriptures of the Old Testament,
in which, from the creation of the world down to a few
years after the commencement of the Christian era, (for
that is the date of the event relating to Glaphyra,) only
one incident is recorded which affords the slightest indi-
cation of a future state: and this history, the production
of a person who fully believed that doctrine himself, and
likewise declares it to have been believed, during every pe-
riod of their existence as a nation, by the people who form
the subject of his work.

287. 24.
Of Odin, the lawgiver of the Suevi, the same is re-
corded.] “ After he had finished these glorious achieve-

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* " Moses eam [sc. animarum immortalitatis doctrinam) e fundo eruit,
quum animam Dei imaginem, vel potius ad Dei imaginem factam, homi-

nique secus ac cæteris animantibus insufflatam docuit. Eusebius : • psy ys
«« Μωυσης πρωτος αθανατον ουσιαν ειναι την εν ανθρωπω ψυχην ωρισατο, εικονα φη-

rus úractiv auth sou." Witsii Ægyptiaca, Il. xv. 4.
Υ Πνευμα ενηκεν αυτω και ψυχην. 1 Ant, Jud. XVII. xiij. 4, 5.

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ments, Odin retired into Sweden; where, perceiving his “ end to draw near, he would not wait till the conse

quences of a lingering disease should put a period to “that life which he had so often brarely hazarded in the

field; but assembling the friends and companions of his fortune, he gave himself nine wounds in the form of a “ circle with the point of a lance, and many other cuts in “ his skin with his sword. As he was dying, he declared “ he was going back into Scythia to take his seat among “the other gods at an eternal banquet, where he would “ receive with great honours all who should expose them“ selves intrepidly in battle, and die bravely with their s swords in their hands.” Mallet's Northern Antiquities,

pp. 66, 67.

291. 12. I say then, in the words of bishop Bull, &c.) On the discourse from which these words are taken, Warburton has founded a most unwarrantable charge of inconsistency against this learned and venerable prelate. The state of the case is as follows. In a passage which, in a former part of this worka, we extracted from the Harmonia Apostolica, the author of that treatise expressly declares that no promise of a future state is to be found in the Lm of Moses. In the sermon here quoted, he argues, “ That

good men, even under the Law, or Old Testament, look“ed beyond this present vain transitory life, and believed “ and hoped for an everlasting happiness in the life to

come.” Surely no inconsistency can here be discovered; unless with unjustifiable temerity and precipitation of reasoning we infer, with Warburton, that because Moses employed not the sanction, therefore the Israelites were necessarily ignorant of the doctrine. But the memory of that great divine will be most effectually cleared of this imputation, if we subjoin another extract from the same sermon. After adducing arguments in proof of the proposi. tion stated above, he thus proceeds : “ By these testimo“ nies and instances it sufficiently appears, that good men “ under the Law did not live and die like swine, feeding

only on the husks of these earthly vanities, as some have

foolishly imagined. They had undoubtedly a future state “ in their eye, and lived by the faith of it, as well as we. “ This faith was first derived, not from the Law of Moses,

· P. 26,

(for that in the letter of it promised nothing beyond this

life, but from the gracious revelation of God to mankind “ from the beginning."

We cannot but lament that the writer of the Divine Legation should have so far forgotten the respect due to learning and virtue, as to have framed his very groundless accusation against this distinguished prelate in a manner which conveys an impeachment of his moral character. “ I should not,” says he,“ have illustrated this censure “ by the example of so respectable a person, but for the “ indiscretion of my answerers, who, to support their own ill logic, have exposed his moralsb.

293. 20. On this fact, and on these words, it is hardly necessary to offer any other comment than that which is supplied by Warburton himself.] But this comment, however natural, was not intended by that great writer to have any such application. The words quoted in the text relate to a passage in the Laws of Zaleucus,“ where wicked men are

bid to set before themselves the dreadful hour of death." On this occasion, Warburton justly remarks on the affectation of those who pretend that they cannot find the doctrine of a future state in these words. How strange then that he cannot himself find that doctrine in the wish of Balaam to die the death of the righteous ! But we shall meet with something still more strange when we advert to the ground on which the inference, thus insisted on as good and valid in the case of Zaleucus, is rejected as good for nothing at all in the case of Balaam. Having observed that the words of Balaam are “ understood as a wish that “ he might be partaker with the righteous in another life,” he thus proceeds: “ Had the apostate prophet said, Let me live the life of the righteous, it would have had a “ much fairer claim for such a meaning.” What a strange expression of contempt for an opinion in which he had previously expressed his own concurrence, and in relation to which he had censured the affectation of those who pretended that they did not agree with him! He goes on: “ As it is, both the force of the words, and their relation “ to the context, restrain us to this literal meaning, Let “ me die in a mature old age, after a life of health and

Div. Leg. Note [A] on book vi. p. 445. vol. v. • See Div. Leg. b. ii. 9. 3. and note [C] at the end of the section, vol. i.

“ peace, with all my posterity flourishing abont me: as 16 was the lot of the righteous observers of the Lawd."" The Law! What Law ? Surely the style of expression will not allow us to understand here any other law than that which is preeminently so called, namely, the Law of Moses. What then had Balaam to do with that Law, with its peculiar sanctions, or with the lot of its righteous observers, when he was in no way bound to the observance of it himself?

It is true that Warburton contends for the prevalence of an equal or extraordinary providence (still confusing the ideas of two things of which the one is essentially inconsistent with each other : for, as we have shewn, an extraordinary providence must in its own nature be unequal) not only among the chosen seed of Jacob under the Mosaic Law, but also universally among all mankind during the earlier ages of the world. But this cannot be alleged in vindication of his consistency with regard to the passages we have been considering. For on his own view it will appear, that this extraordinary providence, if it ever existed, was extinct before the time of Balaam, and therefore could not have been in his contemplation when he spoke these words. The following extracts from the ninth book of his work will prove the truth of the foregoing statement, and will moreover furnish a full exposition of his views respecting the providential government of the world in those early ages.

“ At what time soever God's providence hath been dis

pensed equally to the sons of Adam, living under the “ direction of natural law, they could expect their reward s only here. But, whenever they began to observe that “ God's providence was grown unequal, and that rewards " and punishments were not regularly dispensed here, they “ would look to have the disorder rectified hereaftere.",

“But that distribution of reward and punishment, which “ God, under every mode of his moral government, makes, “ with supreme justice, either here in this world, or here“ after in another, was, (when the sentence of death was “ denounced on man's transgression) at first made here in “this world, so long as he continued to be favoured with “the administration of an equal or extraordinary provi“dence. Which, AS WB LEARN FROM THE MOSAIC AIS“ TORY,” (where?) “ continued from the fall down to the

d Div. Leg. b. vi. §. 3. p. 399. vol. x.

"iye Ibid, b. ix. c. 1. p. 250. vol. vi. i Rom. i. 23–28. & Div. Leg. b. ix. c. 1. p. 266. vol. vi. b See the following page of the Div. Leg.

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“ time when polytheism universally prevailed. For, when “the world, by reason of the vices and corruptions of its “ inhabitants, did not like to retain God in their know“ledge, but changed the glory of the incorruptible God “ into an image made like to corruptible mans, that first “ dispensation of Providence was withdrawn."

“ Yet, as soon as God bad selected a chosen race, and " bad separated it from the rest of mankind, to place his “ name there, we see with astonishment this equal proyi“ dence revive in Judea; for man was still under the curse “ or doom of death. And this existed till repeated idola“tries, the crime which first caused the equal providence "to be withdrawn from the nations at large, did at length

deprive the chosen people likewise of their share of this “ blessings.

From the foregoing passages it is apparent, that, though we were to admit the doctrine of the early, and extraordinary providence which is therein contended for, such a state of things could not have been in the contemplation of Balaam when he wished to die the death of the righteous; since it is acknowledged, that such providence, if it ever existed, was then extinct.

As I have been led to the citation of the above passages, it would be improper to dismiss them without some further remark, in addition to that for the sake of which they were adduced.

It is here said, that an equal or extraordinary providence continued in the world from the fall down to the time when polytheism universally prevailed; or, as we find it otherwise expressed, while the world retained the memory of the true Godh. As the period is not precisely defined, it may be requisite for the purpose of argument that its limits should be more exactly fixed. If we suppose then that the equal providence here spoken of must have ceased before the call of Abraham, we shall hardly be accused of any injastice to the meaning of the writer. The authority of Moses is then alleged, as proof of the existence of this equal and extraordinary providence during a period, which cannot come down later than the call of Abraham. But where do the writings of Moses give the least support to such a position ? So far are they indeed from affording it the slightest countenance, that, in fact, they furnish the

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