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bonourable birth, their power peer, can safely be entrusted on
would be nugatory, their insignia to one who is altogether indepen
ridiculous. Luxury, that hane to dent of the smiles of the prince, or
national prosperity, by causing the the minister, as to his fortune; and
extinction of old families, incurably if the house of lords is, as it always
vitiates, to a certain degree, the has been esteemed, the firmest
confiitution of the house of lords. support to royalty, and a necessary
A new-created peer will never be refuge to the constitution againil
refpected as much as one who de- the fickleness and violence of the
rives his honours from a long line of people, it is the interest both of the
ancestors. This evil would not, people and of the crown to unite,
however, be very considerable, if as formerly, political power and
the vacancies were supplied as they honorary fplendour to hereditary
ought to be; but of late years, in- opulence and personal authority.
stead of selecting those commoners Whatever may be his abilities and
who are moft diftinguithed by their merits, however fplendid his fer-
family and fortune, peerages have vices, a new man, (novus homo,)
been lavished on profeffional men, particularly if he has his fortune to
often of the most obscure birth, make, is not competent to fulfil
and who formetimes have not even all that is required of a peer.'
attained an independence, but are Then, criticising the famous paf-
compelled still to follow their pro. fage in Goldsmith,
fethions, or truft to places and pen-
fons for a maintenance. This

“ Princes and peers may flourish practice partly arises from the

or may fade, indol-nce and effeminate frivo

A breath can make them, as a lity of ihose who are born to opu breath has made; lence, and who defert the service

But a bold peasantry, their coun-of the public, or at least consider

try's pride, it as subordinate to their pleasures

When once defroy'd, can never and amusements ; they therefore

be supplied :" not only have n claims to any recompence froin government, but, from the degradation of their per- he says—The sentiment is false, for fonal character, are of little im- it would be still more difficult to portance in the eye of the mini- re-ettablish a reerage than a peafier. It proceeds. however, ftill fantry; and he is certainly right, more from the necesity ihe mini- if it be true that hereditary nobles tter lies under, of attaching to him- are useful inasmuch as they are self as many men of professional venerated by the public, and that eminence as posible, who, know- antiquity of descent is one of the ing their own importance, make causes, if not the principal one of the their own terms ; and allo of se- veneration in which they are held curing a devoted inajority in the by the people.' He then proceeds upper as well as in the lower house. to shew that, notwithstanding the

* It behoves all parties at pre- many additions made to the list Tent to recollect themselves. Pow- of peers, the power of the aristoer, such as is vetted in an English cracy is rather on the wane, and

that

1 1

that the influence of the democra- which the hunters pursue him, and cy has long been gaining ground submits to be mained in order to in our conftitution. He insists that save his life. The upper rank cannot the monarchy, deprived as it is of long retain an exclusive right to the legal power necessary to its de- the lucrative offices of the state. fence, cannot maintain itself with. The greedy multitude will at first out influence : but at the same insist on having a share ; they will time he admits that a government then take the whole, and the priof influence is baneful in its na vate pofseflions of the rich will soon ture; and that the resources of no follow. Before it is too late, all faftate whatever can for a continu- laries and profits arising from ofance support it: he is therefore an fices of state should be infinitely advocate for a reform, though, as reduced, and neither the populace we have already said, on principles nor their leaders will then be very different from any yet recommende keen in the pursuit of barren hoed to the public.

nour and unprofitable labour.' • Unless (says he a radical ame. After the last chapter, are given lioration of legislative policy takes 101 pages of notes, illustrating place, anarchy will triumph, or de- various propositions laid down in spotism will crush every remnant of the body of the work; to which is liberty. This horrid alternative can be subjoined an Appendix of 3! pages, prevented only by active and strenu. containing many very judicious obous exertions of the advocates for or- servations on agriculture, incloder and rational freedom. Whoever sures, &c. values his property and his honours, Such is the outline of a work, muft owe their preservation to which, we are convinced, cannot be himself: he can no longer enjoy read without benefit by any class them in indolence under the pro or description of thinking men. te&tion of laws, or a conftitution, for It contains undoubtedly much which the contending parties feel no that will be condemned, or at least reverence, whichthe one endeavours disputed, by many, on the subje&s to destroy, and the other to abuse.' of the army, militia, religion, gará

A great blessing attending our risons, royal prerogative, commerce, government, he observes, is, that and reform : but the parts which need

disorganize in may be condemned by some, will order to regenerate, and that be infinitely overbalanced by those a complete reformation may be ob- that must be praised by all. tained by adhering to the spirit, without departing from the fornis, of our present conftitution :--but, The Hiflery and Antiquities of the in order to proceed with effect, he

County of Lricefier, compiled from thinks the legislature ought to be

Yhe best and moji anti·nt Hiftorians, gin in time. To those who have

&c. Including alo, Mr. Burton's property,' and to those who have Description of the County, published hitherto pofsefled a kind of mono

in 1622; and the later Colle&tions poly of places, he gives very whole

of Mr. Slewkley, Mr. Cárut, skr. fome advice in the following words:

Peck, and Siri 1 honas lave. • The rich would do well to imi.

John Nichols, F. S. A. Edinburgh tate the fabled policy of the beaver,

and Perth. In 4 vols. folio. who is said to bite off che part for Vel. 1. l'art. 2. Contaiving IntroVOL, XXXVIII.

M m

duttory

we

not

now

before us:

honours, &c. A copy of the Tefta The writer (an anonymous friend

duetsry Records; Illustrations, &c. Leicester in 1220, a rotula of the and the Early History of the Town churches of Leicestershire in 1344, of Leicester.

and other tables relating to eccleVol. 2. Part 1. Containing Framland fiaftical matters, come next. These Hundred.

are followed by a variety of papers, Common Paper, 51. 55. Royal Paper, containing taxations, lists of free

71. 75. boards. Nichols. 1796. holders, knight's fees, tenants in

WE cannot fufficiently admire capite, &c. &c. Mr. Leman's treaor applaud the extraordinary per- tise on the Roman roads and ftaseverance and asliduity of research tions in Leicestershire, with additiwhich our estimable author muft onal observations by the bishop of have bestowed on so dry but useful Cork, and remarks on Roman a publication as the one

roads by other writers, together

with a learned essay on a Roman We have no hesitation in placing milliary found near Leicester, by the history of Leicestershire at the the Rev. George Athby, form the head of all the county biftories succeeding set of papers. The riwhich have yet appeared, for extent vers and navigations of Leicesterof information and minuteness of Mire are the subject of the next arinvestigation, and though from its ticle, chiefly consisting of copies of bulk and locality, its' merit is not the acts obtained for the purposes likely to be fufficiently appreciated of navigati:

of navigation, mostly of very late by the present generation, yet pof- date. Dr. Pulteney then contriterity will consider it as an inva- butes a catalogue of rarer plants luable legacy, and be grateful to found in the neighbourhood of its difinterefted author for so com- Leicester, Loughborough, and in plete a collection of antient records, Ch«rley foreft, drawn up with the authentic documents, and original judgment and accuracy that might information.

he expected from so able a botanist. The introductory volume begins The returns made to parliament of with an account of Leicester hire charitable donations within the extracted from Domesday book, county till a large number of sucwith a translation. It is fucceed ceeding pages. All the remainder ed by a curious and valuable dise of the volume is composed of the sertation on Doniesday book, closed history and antiquities of the town by a tabulary description of Leicef- of Leicester, with a series of its tershire as it was in the time of bishops, of the kings, dukes, and William the conqueror. Then fol- earls of Mercia, and their successors, lows an etay on the Mint at Lei- earls of Leicester.

A great porcolierfliire, with views of coins. tion of this trenches deeply on The names and arms of knights of the general history of England, in the county of Leicetier who served which the Montfort family, with under Edward I. are next given, others who bore the Leicester title, with other lists of persons who bore made fo conspicuous a figure.

de Neville, as far as it relates to of Mr. Nichols) has also contrived this county, a matriculus of the to bring in the whole story of churches of the archdeaconry of Thomas á Becket, who scems to

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be a favourite character with this pleford, has a minute account of memorialist, who certainly displays the noble families of Rutland and an intimate acquaintance with Harborough, the latter of which many nice historical points ; though is peculiarly rich in genealogical few, we imagine, will follow him illustrations, decorated with many through all his narrations anu dif- fine engravings. Other diftin. quisitions, which are however lit- guished families, and not a few tle enlivened by the beauties of men of letters and divines of note, composition. An appendix of are recorded in the course of the charters, deeds, and other legal work. We shall present our reapapers, concludes this first part of der with the tranicript of one artithe introductory volume.

cle, as a neat model of topograThe first part of the second vo- phical description, unattended lume, containing an account of with antiquities. It is an account Framland Hundred, is a specimen of the natural history of the parish of what is to conditute the proper of Little Dalby, communicated by matter of the work. Every town. professor Martyn. ship in the hundred is separately • This Jordship is remarkably hil. treated in an alphabetical order. ly, being thrown about in small The author's general method is to swellings in such a manner, that give the name, situation, and con- in the greater part of it, it is diffitents of the district; then to trace cult to find a piece of flat ground. all the owners of the manor and The largest portion of it is an anthe landed property of the place, cient enclosure ; and none of the from the earliest records, down to inhabitants know when it took the present time: with this are in- place. I thought at first to have troduced genealogies of all the discovered the date of it from the principal families, as well as a- age of the trees in the hedge rows; necdotes, biographical and litera- but none of them which I have ry, of all extraordinary persons had an opportunity of examining connected, by birth or otherwise, are more than about 120 years old; with the township. Ecclefiaftical but if the enclosure went no furmatter comes next, such as ,notices ther back than this, we should of all religious and charitable foun- have learnt the date of it from tradations, account of the church- dition. I then searched the parish living, its nature and value, pa- register, to find whether any depotrons, and incumbents; monu- pulation had taken place since the mental inscriptions, extracts from time of Elizabeth ; but could find the parish register, population, and none, and therefore concluded that bills of mortality at different peri- the enclosure was at least as early ods, &c. Very few details of na as her reign. That there has been tural history or economical matter a depopulation I conclude, not onare to be found; and, indeed, lit- ly from the natural confequence of tle occurs for the amusement of a enclosing, but from the foundacommon reader, except the bio- tions of buildings which are dilgraphical relations, some of which covered in the closes near the are curious. The present volume, church. comprising Belvoir castle and Sta • The whole lordfhipisiv pasure,

M m 2

except

except here and there a small piece rich, because they mix among the which the landlords permit the te new milk as much cream as it will nants to break up occasionally, bear. It requires much care and when it becomes very mosly; but attendance ; and, being in great then this is laid down again usual. request, it fetches iod. a pound on ly at the end of three or four years. the spot, and is. in the London There are no woods; but there are market. some small plantations of oak, ash,

· There is no stone, gravel, or and elm of no very long date. sand, in this lordship, except a lit There is abundance of ash in the tle sand stone on the side of Burhedge rows, and scarcely any other row-hills: it is mostly a strong blue tree. The soil is a strong clay; clay; and in some parts of it is a there is no watte ground in the lord- good brick earth. There is only thip; but it is not cultivated, in my one spring, and that a chalybeate; opinion, to the best advantage. it lies high,

it lies high, in a close belonging to They depend chiefly on their dain the vicar, known by the name of ries; they breed, however, very the spring close; it runs over a fine theep, famous for the white- great part of the year, and disness of their feeces, which weigh charges itself into the valley, where from leven to nine pounds: they the village lies. Nobody ever atbreed also fine horned cattle; but tempted to link for a well in this the lordthip, in general, is not parish, till, in the winter of 1777 good feeding ground.

and 1778, Edward Wigley Hartop, • This lordship is remarkable for Esq. dug and succeeded. He pehaving first made the best cheese netrated through a bed of ftiff blue perhaps in the world, commonly clay; and at the depth of 66 feet known by the name of Stilton the water gushed in, when, I apcheese, from its having been origi- prehend, the workmen were comnally bought up, and made known, ing to the limestone rock, by their by Cooper Thornbill, the landlord having thrown out some fragments of the Bell inn at Stilton. It began of blue fione. To the depth of 10 to be made here by Mrs. Orton, feet were frequent nodules of about the year 1730, in small chalk; at that depth the clay was quantities ; for at firit it was fup- full of small selenites. At 30 feet posed that it could only be made deep the clay was found to be full from the milk of the cows which of pectens, and other thells very fed in one close, now called Orton's perfect, but extremely tender. clote; but this was afterwards Nodules of ludus belmontii were in. found to be an error. In 1756 it terspersed; ammonites of difierent was made only by three persons, and species in great quantities, giythat in small quantities; but it is phites, and other thiells; and plates now made, not only from one, of a clear foliaceous mica, relembut from a mott every close in this bling Muscovy glass. I am informparish, and in many of the neigh- ed that the water did not prove bouring ones. It is well known good, and that little or no use is that this sort of cheele is made in made of this well. be thape, and of the size, of a • I have not found any natural collar of brawn. It is extremely productions, either animal, vege,

table,

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