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ble. This was Mr. Monroe, who acts of partiality, amply justified the was received with great respect and mea!ures taken by the directory. cordiality. But when this gentle- When the United States thought man was recalled, and Mr. Pinkney proper to enforce the respect due to appointed his fucceflor, which was their flag by the English, the French in November, 1796, the directory would also treat it with the same refused to admit him in that capa- degree of respect. city, and fufpended, at the same These remonftrances of the French time, their own ambassador in Ame- resident were answered by stating, rica, Mr. Adet, who was ordered to him, that according to the terms to lay before that government the of the treaty of 1778, neutral procomplaints of the republic against perty had been declared secure in its proceedings, and the determina- American veilels: but that no such tion to issue orders to the French fiipulations were contained in the hips of war to act towards the present treaty between England and trading veliels of neutral states in America. But the propriety of this the same manner that those states answer was pronounced inadmissible permitted themselves to be treated by the French. It was absurd, they by the British navy:

said, that any state should aflent to In support of this determination, the continuance of a treaty, when the directory alleged the seizure of they found it was to be converted French property, by the English, on into an instrument of the deepest board of American vellels in the injury to their interests. For the very ports of the United States, and Americans to insist on the validity through the connivance of their go- of such a treaty was an insult to vernment. Such had been the re- the understanding of the French, to gard paid to America, by the con- which it could not be expected they Fention, at the commencement of were cither so unwise, or so pulillathis war, that while it declared law. nimous, to submit; nor could the fal prize all English property found Americans reconcile to any princiin neatral vesiels, the ihipping of ple of justice, or of honour, the the United States was excepted breach of that article in the treaty from this declaration. But the con with France, by which they had duct of the English, in seizing the bound themselves to guarantee the American fhips laden with provi- French colonies, in the West Indies, fons on French account, had com- against the attempts of the Englifa. pelled the convention, through mere The reciprocal jealogfies excited necellity, to rescind this act of in- by these various transactions were dulgence and to use the right of re- greatly heightened by the motives taliation, by seizing English pro- which were understood in France perty in American vessels.

to have influenced the recall of Mr. It was farther stated by Mr. Adet, Monroe from his embally, and the that American failors were presled nomination of Mr. Pinkney in his into the service of the English, with- stead. These were the reputed out reclamations being made, or partiality of the one to the French, even marks of disapprobation being and the contrary difpofition of the manifested on the part of the Ame- other. When the former tock leave rican gorernment. These and other of the directory, they did not omit

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CH A P. XII.

The Haughtiness of the Directory towards different Nations. - Particularly

towards the Dutch, whom they consider, not as Confederates, but a conquered People.--Moderation of the Republic and prepondering Party in the United Provinces.--Batavian Convention. Its Proceedings.--Affairs of Geneva. --Meeting of the National Institute of France.-Confidered as an auspicious Omen of the Return of Peuce und Reign of the Arts - And Liberty of Thinking and Publishing on all Subje&s.--The Alliance between the Church and Monarchy of France, in the End, ruinous to both. The nex', or confitutional, Clergy avou their Afent to the Separation of the Church from the State.--Yet venture to condemn some Things setiled, or approred, by the republican Government.--But which they considered as adverse to the Dignity and Interests of the eccleßaftical Order.--The Settlement of ecclefiaftical Affairs confidered by the Generality of the French as a Matter of great Importance.

THE

manner.

THE irritable temper of the di- litics of Russia. The court of Swe

rectory was experienced by den gave the directory to understand, other governments beside the Ainé- that were he to be refused admif. rican. The court of Stockholm, fion, the French envoy at Stockholm, which had, since the death of the would be treated precisely in the same late king Guftavus, explicitly re

But the directory ordered nounced his projects against the him, nevertheless, to quit Paris; not, French republic, and manifested fa- however, without expressing the vourable dispositions to it, had lately highest respect for the Swedith naundergone an evident alteration. tion, the good-will of which it fitill Some attributed this to the intrigues fought to retain, notwithsianding of Russia; others to the resentnient this variance with its government. of the Swedish government at the The French envoy at that court duplicity of the French, who had was, at the same time, directed to paid the fubfidy they owed to Swe- leave it; his residence there being den, in drafts upon the Dutch re no longer consistent with the honour public, which they were conscious of France, to the interest of which would not be honoured. Another that court was become manifestly motive of dissatisfaction to the di- inimical, by its fubferviency to Rul rectory was, the recall of baron Stäel, fia, the declared enemy to the French the Swedish ambassador, a friend to republic. the republic, and the replacing him The king of Sardinia's ambaslaby Mr. Renhansen, a gentleman dor had, in like manner, experinced noted for his attachment to the po. the displeasure of the directory, for 8

expressing

expreling his regret at the precipi- pression of the stadtholdership, in tation with which his master had which they had been formally proconcluded the treaty of peace with mised the concurrence of the French France; the terms of which, he republic. They were, for this mosaid, would have been much less tive, so zealous for the success of its severe, had he waited for the more arms, that, during the campaign of favourable opportunities that fol- 1794, they had projected an insurreclowed it. For having uttered words tion in the principal towns of the of that import, he was ordered to Seven United Provinces, while the quit the territory of the republic. republican armies should advance,

The Tuscan envoy was dilinilled in with all speed, to their support. the same manner, on account of the Having communicated their designs particular zeal he had testified in to the French government, they behalf of Lewis XVI.'s daughter, doubted not of its readiness to lewhen he was permitted to leave cond them, and prepared accordingFrance.

ly to execute the plans which they The court of Rome, when com- had formed in virtue of that expelled by the victories of Buona- pectation. But the uninterrupted parte to folicit a fufpenfion of arms, career of victory, that had given fo had sent commisioners to Paris, to decidedl a superiority to the French negociate a peace: but, in hope over all their enemies, had also that the numerous reinforcements, elated them in such a manner, that, which were coming from Germany looking upon the co-operation of to the Imperial army, would enable their party, in Holland, as no longer it to recover its lotics, and expel the of that importance which it had French from Italy, they Studioully hitherto appeared to be, they now protracted the negociation, on pré-received its applications with a ience that they were not furnished coldness, which plainly indicated with fufticient powers to conclude a that they considered the Dutch as a definitive treaty. It was not till people that must submit to their own the successes of the French had put ternis, and whom they now proan end to these hopes, that they posed to treat rather as being subappeared desirous, as well as eni dued by the arms of the French, powered, to come to a conclusion, than as confederated in the same But the directory, for answer, figni- cause. fied their immediate dismission. Such were the dispositions of the

Notwithstanding the resolute and French towards the Dutch, when slecitire conduc adopted by the di- they enterred the United Provinces. rectory, they found it necesary to The arbitrary manner, in which abate of their peremptorinets with they imposed a multiplicity of heavy the Dutch; who, though strongly contributions upon the Dutch, was cietermined to remain united in iti- highly exasperating to the nation: tereft with France, were not the less but they were too prudent to exalrelolved to retain their national in- perate men, who were determined dependence. The party that favour to act as conquerors, and whom it +d and had called in the French, was impossible to relift. They lubhar done it folely with the view of mitte I, therefore, with that phlegm. fecuring their ailiitance for the fupe atic patience, which characterizes:

them in difficulties, and usually ena. Several preferred the antecedent : bles them to surmount the greatest, one, that had sublisted from the deby giving way to the storm while it mise of William III. king of Great lafts, and reserving themselves for Britain and stadtholder, with such those auspicious opportunities of re. alteration as might secure it effectutrieving their affairs, that fo feldomi ally from a re-establishment of that fail the vigilant and undesponding.

office, and render it more democraIn the inean time, the republican tical: others recommended an imparty, in Holland, resolved to con mediate adoption of the precedents, duct itself with so much temper to which the French had fixed on as the adherents of that party; which it the most popular.

the most popular. These different had opposed with so much firmness parties contended with great warmth and perseverance, that they should for the superior excellence of their have no cause to complain of its various plans. But the neceffity of liaving made an improper use of the settling some form of government, power it had newly acquired. The brought them, at last, after long and effects of this inoderation were high- violent dispute, to the determination ly beneficial to both parties. It of calling a national convention. foftened the grief of those who had The provinces of Zealand and Frizebeen deprived of the government land, the two most considerable in of their country, and induced them the Dutch republic, next to that of to be less hostile to those who had Holland, made a long and obftinate taken their places : and it procured opposition to this proposal. But for thefe a readiness in the generality they were, at length, prevailed npof people to consider them as actu on to concur with the others on its ated by patriotic motives, and in no expediency. wile by private animosity towards The

year

1795 was consumed in their antagonists.

altercations of this nature. But as This conduct was the more re- soon as the national convention met, markable, that the inhabitants of the which was on the first of March, provinces, though a large majority; 1796, all parties agreed on a refoluwas desirous of a change of govern

tion to declare war against Great ment; differed materially in their Britain, which they considered as opinions concerning that which was having chiefly occasioned the many to succeed it. The party favouring calamities that had befallen the the stadtholder was the least conli United Provinces for a course of derable. It consisted of the titled, years. Through its influence over or noble families, ftill remaining in the stadtholder, the strength of the the United Provinces, and chiefly de- state had been perfidiously withheld pended upon the inferior classes, and from acting in defence of the trade the great number of foreigners, for the and shipping of the republic, and its moft part Germans, in the Dutch ser interests wholly sacrificed to those vice. The mercantile and middle of England. During the whole classes, and generally the people of duration of the American war, this opulence and property, were in- had been done in despite and conclined to a republican system: but tempt of continual remonftrances herein they differed among them and solicitations from the most refelves as to the plan to be adopted. spectable citizens in the commonVOL. XXXVIII.

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wealth.

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