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was a heavy blow on that fangui- both, it appeared not improbable nary faction, which had ruled by that, if the latter could be satisfied terror. It lost thereby a multitude of an earnest determination in the of its agents, whose crimes now ren- ruling powers to put an end to opdered them ineligible to public em- pressive measures, the little prospect ployments, and many were, on the that now remained of subverting same account, obliged to vacate the established government, would those which they poffeffed.

induce them to submit to it, rather The discerning part of the public than renew those attempts to restore looked upon this

event, as a species their own system, which had so reof revolution, and formed the peatedly failed, not more through strongest hope that it would pro- the rashness or incapacity of those mote a reconciliation between the who had conducted them, than the friends to a republican government, general repugnance of the nation and those to a limited monarchy. to join them upon those occasions. Liberty being equally the aim of

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C H A P. XI.


Lffects expected in Franee from a growing Spirit of Moderation. The Chief

Object in the Councils of France, how to Break or to Weaken the Power of
England.-Plan of the French for that End.-Means for Reporing the
Pecuniary Credit of the French Republic.-A Rupture threatened between
the French Councils and Executive Directory.Prevented by the necessity
of their acting in Concert.-The Legislature Invade the Province of the
Directory, by the Appointment of a Commiltee for judging in Cajes of
Appeals from Emigrants.--Loftiness of the Directory.--Humbled by the
Wife Economy and Firmness of the United States of America.-Jva-
lousies and Disputes between the French and Amerieans.--And an open
THE spirit of lenity that seemed that power unshaken and undimi-

to have arisen, and been nished in the midst of the disasters rished by the new constitution, be- that had befallen the other parts of gan to operate powerfully in its the coalition. That invincible spirit, favour, and to gain it daily freth which had so many ages accompaadherents. The people in France nied the councils and the arms of appeared in general extremely England, and enabled it to maintain willing to support it, hoping that fo many contests with France, had, the period of internal confufions in the present, displayed greater would thereby be accelerated, and energy than ever, and impressed fethat the European powers leagued veral of the foundest politicians with against them, when they found that an idea, that however the French unanimity was re-established among republic might for a while diffuse the French, would cease to profe- the terror of its arms among the cute the war for the restoration of neighbouring states, the persevering the house of Bourbon to the throne courage of the English, aided by of France, against the manifest will their immense opulence, would final. of the nation.

ly weary out the endeavours of the The heads of the republic were French to retain the acquisitions they now deeply occupied in the con had made ; and, that notwithstandcerting of means to counteract the ing the republic itself might remain, measures of that power, on the in- it would, on the issue of the terrible defatigable efforts of which all the trial it had stood, be compelled to others depended for the support of remit of the pretensions it had formtheir own. It was with unfeigned ed to prescribe terms of peace 10 mortification that France beheld all its numerous eneinies, and to


treat at last upon a footing of equal- French, is incontestible, from the ity with that one, which, while it various publications of the time, remained unvanquished, would al- and no less from that remarkable ways prove an effe&ual obstacle to anxiety with which their rulers that plan of universal influence over canvalled every subject relating to all the governments of Europe, England. How to compass its de which France had, since the unex- pression was the chief object of their pected success of its arms, kept con- councils; and every fortunate event flantly in view.

that befel them, in their numerous However the French might exult enterprizes, employed their confiin the triumphant career of their deration in what manner to convert armies, it plainly appeared, by the it to the detriment of England. sentiments repeatedly expressed by Among the various means of obthe principal speakers of the conven- taining that important end, the antion, and in the councils, and upon noyance of the English maritime all public occasions, to be their inti- commerce, had long been tried, cermaie persuasion, however averse to tainly not without some degree of avow it, that while England stood success: but in no' degree sufficient its ground, they would never totally to weaken the naval power of Engaccomplish those mighty schemes of land, which continued to rule the conquest and influence. To exe- seas in every quarter of the globe, cute them partially, would only in-, with irresistible sway. It was involve them in perpetual quarrels deed from this very circumstance, with those powers whose interest that France derived a multiplicity required their depression, and whole of arguments in its manifeftos and cause England would never fail to exhortations, both to its own people, fupport. Thus it was clear, that and to the other nations of Europe. unless the strength of this ancient Their tendency was to prove, that rival were effectually broken, and it England was the tyrant of the sea, were reduced to sue for peace on and that all the European powers such terms as France should dictate, were interested in repressing that the proposed effect of so many vic- tyranny. To effect this, they ought tories would be frustrated, as the to unite cordially with France, and humiliation of all its other enemies second its endeavours to restore the would not secure to the republic freedom of the seas, by abridging, those objects at which it avowedly through every means in their power, aimed. The prolongation of the the commercial resources of Eng. war, in order to attain these, might land. The actual strength of its be attended with such vicissitudes of navy was so great, that it could not fortune, as would entirely change at present be opposed with much the circumstances of affairs, and hope of success : but other methods oblige the republic, in its turn, to might be used not less effectual in abate of its high pretensions, and their ultimate issue, and these were even to compound for its existence, in the option of every itate. That and the preservation of the ancient the power which commanded the limits of France

seas, commanded also the shores, That these ideas frequently oc- and that naval power was of mere curred to the most fagacious of the importance than dominion at land,

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had passed into a kind of political power at fea: to raise the naval maxim for ages. It was, in fact, power of France, and to undera superiority of naval power that mine that of England, by exclusubverted the Roman empire. The ding her trade from the great inlets irruptions of the Gauls, the Cimbri, of Europe. This would give Eng. and Teutones, by land, were re- land a blow, from which it would pelled, and might have been re not easily recover. It could not pelled had they been repeated. fail to produce an immediate alteraThe neceflity of subsistence drove tion in its commercial circumttauces; them quickly to the recessity of the depression of which would incommitting their fortune to the issue fallibly create a discouragement of a battle, in which the invaded and despondency in the English goderived an advantage over the in- vernment, that must induce it at vaders from the pofleffion, and from once, to remit of the haughtine's the knowledge of the country. But with which it exe:cised its varal when the barbarians began to com- superiority over other nations. bine their military operations with Such was the purport of the vanaval expeditions; when stores, as rious publications issued by authowell as troops, were poured upon rity, or proceeding from the many the Roman frontier, from the Baltic, individuals, who buried themselves the Dwina, the Elbe, the Danube, with compositions of this nature, and the Euxine seas, then, and not The impression, which they made till then, they began to be wholly upon the generality of European irresistible. It was the maritime states, was very feeble. None, inhabits, and the naval power of the deed, appeared to pay them much Scandinavians, under the appella- attention, but those on which France tion of Normans, Danes, Picks, and posielled the forcible means of inother names, that enabled them, for uence. The others were con. the space of fix hundred years, to vinced, that the motives of the harrass, over-run, and rule the French, in these warm addrelles to greater part of the sea coasts of Eu- the continental powers, were dic, rope. The trade of a pirate became tated by selfish views, and thal, an honourable profession. The sons were they to succeed in over-throwof kings, at the head of pirates, ing the maritime power of England, lought and obtained at once setile- they would doubiless transfer it to ments and renown. Since the re- themselves, and employ it to the vival of letters, the modern im- fame ends to which they had so noprovements in arts and sciences, and toriously converted the fuperiority the vast extension of commerce, the they had acquired at land. superior importance of naval power It was doubtless inconlistent, on seemed to he farther illustrated, and the ground of morality in the Eng. more certainly establimed.

lith nation, to arraign the amIt was not among the least ftri- bition and tyranny of the French, king instances of that fertility of while they themselves, pursued imagination which supported the schemes of tyranny and ambition French under all difficulties, that on the main ocean, and in every they found means, as they con- quarter of the globe. If the French ceived, to oppose power at land to were plunderers at land, the Eng

EUROPE. (167 lih were plunderers on too many the advantages resulting from a occasions, and dictators at fea. Still, commerce with England, had grahowever, they had done no more duall; fuperfeded the fear of offendin the prelent war, than what had ing against this prohib tion; and it been authorized by long established was little attended to at this time. custom; and under every restraint, A weighty motive for not enforcing a commercial correspondence with it was, the necessity of giving vent England, had been experimentally to the cargoes of the Englith veffound extremely profitable. If their sels captured by the French privaindustry enabled ihem to derive be- teers. But after the government nefit from other nations, these also in Holland had come to the deterreceived no less profit from them. mination of forbidding the entry of An excluçon of their trade would English goods, it thought itself the redound therefore, equally to the better entitled to require the adopdetriment of both parties.

tion of the like measure in France, Foiled in their endeavours to thut as Holland, in adopting it, had comall the European ports againft the plied with the requisition of the English, the French determined, French government. This appeared however, to exclude them from so unanswerable a mode of reasonthose of which they had the com- ing, that the directory, however, mand. A proclamation had been disinclined to compliance, found it. issued by the English government, lelf under the neceflity of giving permitting the exportation of mer- fatisfaction to the Dutch confede chandise to Flanders and Holland. rates, who were fo determined as to But the Dutch conve: nn was di- admit of no denial, that they threatrected to publish a counier procla- ened to refcind their resolutions, mation, prohibiting the importation unless the fame were taken by the of goods from England, under fe- French government. vere penalties; and enjoining the The regulations propoled on this people of the united provinces to occafion were very levere ; they renounce all commerce with a na not only prohibited the importation that had treated them fo ini- tion of Engli merchandize in fire mically, and whole intentions were ture, but o: dained the re-exportato deprive the Dutch republic of its tion of whit had been imported. trade, after depriving it of its an Harsh methods were, at the same cient freedom, by the forcible esta- time, adopted to secure the obferblishment of a ftadtholder. Having vance of these regulations; and expelled a lovereign imposed upon though they were unacceptable to them against their consent, they multitudes, lo intent was the legiwere bound in duty and honour toliature on diminishing the resources refuse all connections with those, of England, that the prohibitory who were endeavouring to subject decree, together with the heavy them again to his yoke.

penalties annexed to its infringeA similar prohibition of English ment, was carried by a large mamanufactures had taken place in jority. France, during the administration Great were the expectations of of Roberspierre, and had for some the enemies to England, that this time been strickly enforced. But exclusion of its merchandize and

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