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i The difference betwixt sciences and arts is, that the for- ' mer consists in a readiness to perceive and illustrate certain truths; the latter, in a facility of performing any thing ac.. cording to certain rules. The one employs only the intellect : the other, though not exclusively of the mind, depends chiefly on manual skill. The rules in some arts are very simple, so as to be learned by mere practice ; in others they are more coinplex, and deduced from the liberal, or even from some parts of the higher sciences. The former are called common, or mechanical arts, and include all kinds of handicrafts ; the lat. ter are stiled the fine arts, of which the principal are painting, sculpture, engraving, and architecture.
The improvement and increase of sciences are owing to nothing more than to Academies and Scientifical Societies. The discovery of new truths being their professed study, the members of them should be persons of eminent talents. Academies and societies are usually divided into three claffes, the mathematical, the physiological, and the philological ; each with their particuler director, and a president over all. In imitation of the Scientifical Academies and Societies, liave likewise been instituted Academies of the Fine Arts, as painting, sculpture, and architecture, which by these institutions have been brought to perfection. With the same view of promoting the arts in general, great applause is due to the Royal Schools as they are called; where youth, besides what is taught in common seminaries, are instructed in the fundamentals of the fine and mechanical arts.
• In the progress of the sciences and of literature, Printing has been a main instrument; manuscripts, or written books; having been formerly so dear, that none but the rich could purchase them *. This scarcity has been reinoved by the inestimable invention of the typographical art, which the Dutch ascribe to their countryman Laurence Coster, of Haarlem t; but it is now sufficiently proved, that John Guttenberg, of
· * It is related of the famous Anthony Beccatelli, commonly called Panormita, that he fold a parcel of land to pure chase a copy of Livy. In the eleventh century, Gracia, countess of Anjou, gave for a collection of homilies, 200 sheep, a measure of wheat, a like quantity of rye, and a like quantity of millet, together with a number of marten skins. Henault Abregé Chronologique, or Abridgement of the History of France, Tom. I. p, 154.
" See General History of the United Netherlands, Vol. II. p. 112, 113,
itting out inlard's Naval Hikingdom is taken. What "het ju
Strasburg, found out the real printing of books; that is, the art of printing with single moveable types *.
From printing sprung Bookselling, which is of such vast benefit to the republic of letters; the writings of the learned being now easily conveyed from one country to another."
In a country like England our author's representation of ju. risprudence and legislation can be of little use. What he says concerning the marine of this kingdom is taken chiefly from Bur. chert's and Leidard's Naval Histories : in treating of the expences of fitting out ships of war, but little dependence can be had, at this time, upon calculations that were made above forty years ago. In short, the constituiion of England in matters of war, commerce, and taxation, forms a system of its own, which has but little connection with that of foreign countries, as described by this author. All he says, however, on those heads are well worthy the attention of an English reader.- Mr. Totze next treats of inoney and coins, which, he says, have an intrinsic and extrinsic value ; the former depending upon the fineness and weight of the metal, the latter upon the ordinances of the government which may likewise alter it. " The proportion, fays he, appointed by the laws between the intrinsic and extrinsic value of coins, is termed the standard. The nearer the intrinsic and extrinsic value, the better are the coins; and, of course, the worse where the difference is greater. This is a tender consideration, and, we think, not very accurately ex. prefied, when applied to a trading country, where the intrinsic value of the coin is the standard. In absolute governments, it is true, the extrinsic value of the coin may be so much dispro. portioned to the intrinsic that it may have no currency but within that state, and even there with great difficulty. Nay in the course of this century, paper was made a legal tender in France, witness the case of the Miffifippi ; but those were defperate remedies ; and Mr. Locke never gave a greater proof of his abilities than by demonstrating, when the silver money was Te-coined under king William, that the intrinsic and extrinsic value of the currency ought to be, as nearly as possible, the
.•* John Guttenburg was born at Mentz, of a noble family, and lived at Strasburg from 1430 to 1445. He afterwards went into partnership with Fauftus of Mentz; but a dispute hetween them producing a law-suit, he was cast, and thereby loft his printing house. Fauftus then entered into connections with Peter Schoiffer, who, between 1450 and 1455, invented the cast types. All this has been sufficiently proved by counsellor Schopflin, in his Vindiciæ Typographicæ. Argentor. 1700. 4. See Leiplic Gazette, No 18. 1760.
fame, fame. This doctrine had, indeed, its inconveniencies when bullion became dearer than coin ; but the error, if any, was on the safe side, and for the credit of the kingdom.
This writer treats next of the revenues of a state. There, . he says, arise first from the demesnes which are unalienable, because assigned for the support of the sovereign ; secondly, from the regalia, which he fuppo es to be seas, lakes, rivers, highways, forests, wild-hearts, falts, and coinage; thirdly, upon some uncertain and casual incomes, as fines, confiscations, inheritances of aliens or those who have no heirs, treafures found, and things for sale ; but the greatest revenue arising to the state is from taxes, rates, and duties. If all those are insufficient, then those taxes may be augmented or others imposed, such as the twentieth or fitteenth penny, three years loans, &c. not to mention in urgent exigencies, lotteries and annuities, which experienced financiers have recourse to. • But, says he, to have always a large fund of ready money at hand, is infinitely the best and most effectual expedient.'
The means of encreasing a state's revenue are agriculture, manufa&ures, trade, foreign and domestic, exchange, banks, trading companies, Bares and dividends, all which our author describes pretty much as they are underfood in England. The fame may be said, making a few allowances, for his observa. tions upon foreign affairs, governmental, and provincial administrations, and all the other executive departments of a community.-We are next led into a description of an unlimited and limited monarchy, an aristocracy, a democracy, and the other modes of government, all which are very clearly and properly defined by our author.
The following division treats of Europe in general. Mr. Totze first describes it geographically; and in speaking of rivers and waters, he observes that " the great foreign trade carried on by means of these waters, has occasioned most of the European states to become maritime powers.'-The author then gives us a very thort and perspicuous abridgment of the chief revolutions in Europe, since the reign of Charles the Great, in the year 800, and concludes it in the following manner.
• A new war in the mean time breaking out between Great Britain and France, about the liniits of their American countries, the former entered into an alliance with Prussia, and the latter with Austria. To this last alliance acceded Rullia, Sweden, and the greater part of the German empire; and at length it came to be farther strengthened by Spain ; so that the parties seemed very unequal, and the former by much the weakest; yet at the
upshot it proved the strongest. In this war, which was carried on with more animosity and more armies than were ever known in Europe, Great Britain exerted itself to that degree, and with such fortunate consequences, that the united French and Spaniards were obliged to accept of such articles as this power prescribed to them. Thus a coinparison of former and present events Thews, that as Spain was the first European power in the fixteenth century, and France in the seventeenth, Great Britain may be deemed such in the present century ; sa uncertain and mutable is the grandeur of states.
· -Sic robora yerti Cernimus, atque illas assumere pondera gentes,
Concidere has.' The characters of the Europeans and their languages now come under our consideration. Mr, Totze tells us, that the French is used in several courts of Germany, and all over the north ; that the Italian may be called the speech of European music; and that the Sclavonian language is the mother tongue of the Ruffian, Bohemian, and Moravian, and used with dif ferent dialects in Hungary, Stiria, the Ukraine, and Lusatia. In short, according to fome, it is spoken by sixty different nations. Mr. Totze's computation of European population, we think, admits of great difficulties, which, however, are not owing to him, but to a predominant humour in calculators to dininis population in every country. • Europe, says our author, considering its extent, might contain near five hundred and fifty millions of inhabitants, yet the highest compu. tation makes them only a hundred and fifty millions. This number, continues he, is hindred from encreasing, as under certain circumitances it probably would, first, by the many wars in which the greater part of Europe is frequently involved; secondly, by the nuinerous arinies kept on foot even in the times of peace, and of whom the greatest part die unmarried; the various and extensive settlements of the Europeans in the other parts of the world, and to which great numbers remove every year to inake their fortunes; and lastly, the seaservice, and naval trade, in which many meet with an untimely death.'
That the above causes may diminish the European population cannot be doubted ; but the dininution never can be as five hundred and fifty millions to one hundred and fifty millions. It is true Europe is frequently involved in wars, and fome settlements abroad require supplies of men ; but we are to coniider, that many of its kingdoms and states have no concern in those wars, and yet we find no sensible encrease of their
popopulation. Many of them have no foreign settlements, no fea-service, and no naval trade, and yet their numbers have been pretty much the same for ages past. We are likewise to remark, that tho' the original settlements of colonies abroad oce casion at first a drain of population, yet a few centuries, as in the case of Great Britain, more than repay it. We are therefore inclined to think that population in Europe encreases or diminishes according to the plenty or scarcity of the means of subsistence in each country, with a few exceptions.
Mr. Totze has given us three different calculations of European population, all which, we think, are very fallible. That of baron Bielfield makes it about 150 millions, that of Mr. Busching amounts to 142 millions, one tenth, and that of Mr. Susmilch to 130 millions. In the first and last of those calculations Great Britain is rated at cight millions, and in the second Great Britain and Ireland at the same number, which we are persuaded is an undervaluation.
The difference of ranks of inhabitants in European states comes next under our author's cognizance, and then the particular forms of their governments. " The most antient Eu. ropean nations, says he, accounted liberty the supreme good: it was the soul of their political conftitution ; and, according to a great philosopher, it was by this attachment to liberty, that they distinguished themselves from the Asiatics, who were always llaves to thcir rulers. In the monarchies erected after the downfall of the Roman empire, liberty was connected with sovereignty, the nobility being a check against the excesses of prerogative. They were originally the only ftate of the realm ; but the clergy growing rich and powerful, gained adınittance into the public consultations; and in process of time the more wealthy cities and towns came to make a branch of the legirlature. This compound of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy, was in the middle ages almost the universal form of government in Europe. But in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it becamne, in most states, purely monarchial; the sovereigns finding means gradually to exclude the states from the goverpment, and get all the power into their own hands. Accordingly, there are now in Europe the following unlimited monarchies: 1. Portugal. 2. Spain. 3. France. 4. Denmark. 5. Rusia. 6. Pruflia. 7. Sardinia. 8. The Two Sicilies. 9. The Pope is likewise unlimited in the Ecclefiar. tical State. 10. And the Grand Master of the order of St. John within the Isle of Malta. But the only despotic state in Europe is Turkey.
The European mixed states are, 1. Germany. 2. Great Britain. 3. Sweden. 4. Poland: and 5. Hungary; yet with G4