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This writer, in examining the high antiquity of Regiam Ma. jeftatem, pleads the cause of Edward I. whom he calls a tyrant, " What benefit, says he, could Edward derive from destroying a few insignificant parchments?' A conqueror, continues he, like Edward I. had no occasion to destroy harmless charters, or monastic chronicles, if posible, still more harmless.' According to this doctrine, a writer of the English history in the year 2319, may say: Nothing can better convince us of the futility of the English history, than the ridiculous supposition that about the year 1747, a British parliament, then thought the most august assembly of any in the world fhould deliberate for a whole feffion, whether the poor abject Highlanders of Scotland should not be obliged to clothe their backsides, nay, to lay aside the simple clasical apparel of their ancestors. A legislature like that of Great Britain cannot be suppofed to have had any such aversion to naked posteriors, though not cafed in breeches, or an apparel that was used by the Romans themselves. What inconfiftencies will not writers, fond of particular notions, run themselves into ? and, what is still more extraordinary, those absurdities have been favoured by authors not quite destitute of learning, even so far back as the year 1980."
Thus far our historia:ı of the 24th Century. A contemporary critic, may, perhaps, answer, that the facts rest upon unquestionable authorities; and that it was a facrifice made by the legislators of those days to the delicacy of their ladies; another may say, with more justice, that the government resolving to root cut every thing that could suggest an idea of a future rebellion, very wisely abolished a distinction of dress, which notoriously operated to that purpose. What could conduce more to Edward the first's scheme of incorporation, or rather subjection, than to endeavour to destroy all the evidences that could revive the opinion of their independency in the minds of Scotchmen? Was it not for that purpose, that he removed from Scotland even the harmless stone and rotten chair, that are still to be seen in Westminster-Abbey?
Having said thus much, we very readily acknowledge, that many Scotch records of great antiquity escaped Edward and his agents; but this appears to have been through the public Spirit of the barons and churchmen of those days; and the re. cords of that kingdom, seem to have suffered more from the fanaticism of the reformers than the ambition of their conquerors. This writer is candid enough to admit of the anachronism we already pointed out * in our Review of lord Lit. telton's History, as if the Regiam Majeslalem had been com.
• See Ibid. p. 87
pored in the reign of David II. We agree with him as to the chara&ter he gives Ferrarius, who, we believe, was a foreign coxcomb in literature ; and that it would be no difficult matter to ascertain the principal papers that were carried off by Ed. ward I. from Scotland, especially as we have an inventory of those that were carried to London in his predecessor's reign, published by Rymer.
The reader will pardon us for extending this article to some length, as the subject of it is a work of great industry and critical difiernment; and as we were, in some measure, interested in defending our former opinion concerning the celebrated code of the Scotch law. As to the other parts of this work, we think them well worthy the perusal of every antiquary; nor are we at all an advocate for the authenticity of the Mac Al. pine laws, or the Chronicle of Kinloss.
The catalogue of the lords of feffion from the institution of the college of justice in the year 1532, is attended with some curious historical notes which must be very entertaining to those who study the laws and history of Scotland,
II. The Romish Horseleech ; or, an impartial Account of the inta
lerable Charge of Popery to ibis Nation, in an Historical Remembrance of some of those prodigious Sums of Money beretofore extorted from all Degrees, during the Exercise of the Papal Power here. To which is annexed, An Essay of the Supremacy of the King of England. By Thomas Stayely, Esq. 8vo. Pr. 36. 6d. Davies. T Homas Stavely, Esq. of Cuslington in Leicestershire, was
admitted of the Inner-Temple, July 2, 1647, and was called to the bar the 12th of June, 1654. He was iteward of the court of records at Leicester, and died 1683. Such is the brief account this editor has been able to give of the excellent antiquary, the author of the work before us. It was published in the reign of Charles II. when the nation, with horror, beheld the impending danger of a popish succeffor to the crown, and it undoubtedly had its effect; but, like other temporary fervices, the danger being over, it was configned to oblivion. Without enquiring too minutely into the reasons of this republication, or whether a late survey discovered the number of Roman Catholics in England to have been greater than is generally mentioned ; and, indeed, without any consideration to the present state of popery in Great Britain, this work is a valuable repository of historical facts, and places within a short compass an accurate and distinct view
of the Romilh exalions in former times. This elucidation does the highest and most important service to the civil, as well as religious, history of this country.
The following passage informs us of a most curious text from cardinal Pole's works, which we do not remember to have seen quoted in the late controversy concerning that so. lemn tool of slavery and superstition *.
· Then, when Christ, says our author, told St. Peter, that he would make him a fisher of men, though possibly the innocent and meek apostle, not fully apprehending the full import of that right which thereby was conferred on him, applied himself to a kind of spiritual fishing, hunting after some mystical fishes, to inclofe them in the net of some invisible kingdom in the heavens ; and cardinal Pool interprets the donation thus : shou and thy fucceffors shall have dominion over all men, ruling over kings, and commanding, regulating, and casting out emperors: yet the good apostle's more illuminated successors, have now hit upon the true import and meaning, and conclude that Chrift did not only give them a power to fish for men, but for money also, and for that purpose conferred on them a right to fish in all secular ponds and rivers.'
The reader, perhaps, may have a very laudable curio. fity to be particularly informed of the different heads with which this hydra, called the Romih horseleech was furnished. We Tall therefore gratify his desire, and leave him to wonder how any kingdom could survive such copious evacuations of treasure, Peter-Pence.- First fruits aud tenths.--Confirmation and adınission-money.--Legatine levies. King John's pension. — Appeals.-Dispensations – Induigences, pardons --Reliques, Agnus Dei's, crosses, pictures, &c.--Rood of grace, images, miracles.- Jubilees, pilgrimages.-Offerings, gifts, presents, &c.--Collections, contributions, courts, jurisdi&tions.
m e Contributions for the Holy Land.-Croisado's.-Ambassadors, agents. - Strangers beneficed. -- Priories aliens. -- Knights templars and hospitallers,--Elections of popes and cardinals. Şiding in schisms.- English popes and cardinals.-Canonisations. Pope's legates, collectors, &c.-Caursins, L.ombards. Complaints of the people — Sums exhausted.- Abbies, monasteries, &c.—Chanteries, free chapels, colleges.-Shrines, reliques, &c.--Itinerary priests, consecrations, visitors, courts, confessions, &c.—Purgatory, with its dependents.—Maffcs, anniversaries, obits, requiems, dirges, placebo's, trentals, lamps, &c.—The place and torments of purgatory.
• See Vol. xvii. p. 413, & pallim.
If our readers are amazed at the variety of the means for draining England of its money, he must be no less so at the credulity of the people. England at that time contained a knife belonging to our Saviour, the hairs of the blefled Virgin, some of St. Paul's blood, the hand of St. John the evangelist, the relics of the apostles Andrew and Philip, the ear which Peter cut off from Malchus, a piece of St. Andrew's cross, the Vira gin Mary's girdle was shewn in eleven places, and her milk in eight; nothing was more common than her smocks, the wood of the holy cross was seen in twenty places, the coals that broiled St. Laurence and two ribs of the same martyr were seen in a crystal vessel. The caralogue of these and two or three hundred other relics is closed with the three following.
• The image of an angel with one wing, which brought hither the spear's-head that pierced Christ's side-an image of our Lady, with a taper in her hand, as burned nine years without wasting, till, one forswearing hiinself thereon, it went out, and was then found to be but a piece of wood-our Lady of Worcester, from which certain veils and dressings being taken away, there appeared the statute of a bishop ten feet high.'
Our author next gives us the history of the Rood of Grace at Bexley in Kent, which being made with divers vices and wires to turn the eyes and move the lips, was Thewed publickly at Paul's cross, by John bishop of Rochester, and there broken, and pulled in pieces, the people laughing at that which they adored but an hour before.'
This republication must give an Englishman of the present age a very sensible mortification, especially as all the instances of credulity, superstition, tyranny and imposture adduced by the author are supported by unquestionable authosities.
III. A Chronological History of the Weather and Seasons, and of the
frevailing Diseases in Dublin. With their various Periods, Successions, and Revolutions, during the space of forty Years, Wilb a comparative View of the Difference of the Irish Climate and Diseases, and those of England and other countries. By John Rutty, M, D. 8vo. Pr. 6s. Robinson and Roberts
THE influence of the air in producing diseases, was one of
the first observations which were made in the practice of physic; and the medical faculty remaining satisfied with that general doctrine, it is only of late that they have thought of confirming it by chronological histories of the weather. Of the writers who have directed their industry to this species of ob
servation, fervation, the author of the work before us may be reckoned amongst the most considerable; as he exhibits a history of the weather and prevailing diseases in Dublin, during a period of no less than forty years. This history has been drawn up from diaries, regularly kept, both of the weather and diseases; but the author, apprehending that the proxility of a journal, on one hand, would deter most men from reading it, and on the other, that quarterly or yearly accounts would not be sufficiently explicit, has reduced the diaries of the weather into monthly registers, and contracted the accounts of the diseases. But that our readers may be the better enabled to judge of the method, we shall present them with the history of the weather for the year 1725, the period at wbich the register commences.
S P RING. March was mostly fair and pleasant, fometimes sharp and cold: the eleventh high winds at S. E. The principal winds N. E.
April was alternately fair, cloudy, and howery. The twentieth and twenty-first a good deal of rain. The principal winds S. W.
· May exhibited a good deal of fair weather, but with clouds and rain interspersed. The twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth stormy: the twelfth and twentieth hot, towards the end cold. The principal winds N. E. and S. W. In the spring inter. mitting fevers appeared, which vanished at the beginning of fummer : also some exanthematous fevers appeared, which, for the most part, were not dangerous.
SU M M E R. • June. Frequent and very plentiful rains, not many fair days, though it concluded fair and very hot. From the seventh to the seventeenth very cold and unpleafant. The twentythird stormy and cold. The principal winds W.
• July. Rain and cold winds prevailed until the twentythird, and S. W. winds. The seventh and eighth stormy.
• July. From the twenty-third to the end mostly fair, sometimes warm with S. E. and E. winds.
• August. The beginning was mostly fair, but the remainder was frequently cloudy, wet, and cold. The ninth, fixteenth, and twenty-third, much rain, the principal winds W. and S. W. In summer there was a purple petechia! fever, chiefly among the poor, and it was not mortal.
A U T U M N. · September. The first half for the most part fair, and frequently hot: the latter half there were frequent rains, and it