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selves; and these may be read with as much facility as a tea dious compilation of this nature. If an exposition of the catechism is really wanted, we would rather put it into the hands of young and ignorant persons' such a little manual, as that which was published some years since by Mr. Lewis, than one which is six or eight times larger in size, and fraught with a great number of positions and doctrines, which, if not erroneous, are certainly above the capacities of children. 51. A Letter to the Rev. Mr. T y . Being an Enquiry into
bis Condue, respecting his late unchristian Treatment of the Autbor of a Pamphlet entitled, “ The Notion of Eternal Justification refuted,” &c. on two successive Sundays at the L-k Chapel. 8vo. Pr. 3d. Dilly. The author of this letter complains, that Mr.
T y , in some of his discourses at the L-k, where this gentleman likewise attends, had treated him and his pamphlet on justification (because it did not coincide with his own opinion) in a very illiberal manner; representing the writer under the ludicrous image of a child, of about four years old, with a straw in his hand, running after a man, and striking him with it upon the back; as a luckless boy coming hopping in, mounted upor printed filts; and as a little cur, running after a man on horse. back, and barking at the horse's heels.'-Language of this kind was undoubtedly unbecoming a divine in the pulpit ; and if Mr. T---y actually expressed himself in these terms, this gentleman has a right to complain. If we had not his autho. rity for believing that this was really fact, we could not have imagined that such expressions should have ever been heard in a congregation of saints; or that
“ So much dudgeon dwells in beav'nly minds !” 52., The Blefjednofs attending the Memory of the Just represented ; in
a Sermon preached at Hackney, in Middlesex, Nov, 12, 1769, upon occasion of the much-lamented Death of the Rev. Mr. Timothy Laugher. By Andrew Kippis, D. D. 8vo. Pri ise Buckland.
This is a pious and useful discourse ; and is written with that 'accuracy and elegance which appear in all the compositions of Dr. Kippis.
53. To the Authors of the Critical Review.
GENTLEMEN, GIVE me leave to inform you of a mistake, into which you
have been led, indeed almost unavoidably, in the account which you have given, in your Review for July last, of the very learned and ingenious Mr, Michaelis's dissertation on the Influence of Opinions on Language, and of Language on Opinions. You tell us, that' the tranflation, which is now presented to the public, was revised by Mr. Michaelis himself, and was enriched by him with some considerable supplements.' No doubt you thought you had good authority for saying this, as you took it very exactly from the preface prefixed to the translation : and no one, uninformed, as I suppose you were, of the true history of this publication, could have understood this preface otherwise thane you have done. Yet the whole of your account above transcribed is a mistake. I can assure you, that Mr. Michaelis never saw one word of this translation, till several months after is was published; he knows not who the English translator is ; he never had any correspondence with him ; nor did he ever communicate to him, either directly or indirectly, any fupplement to his own work. The truth of the matter is this : the translation lately presented to the public is a transation at se. cond hand; it is translated from the French translation ; the preface is the preface of the French translators, tranllated into English. Of these very material circumstances not the least notice is given. The reader therefore will of course suppose, that the translation was made from the original German, and that the preface is the preface of the English translator. By this disingenuous concealment of the truth, not only the purchasers of this tranlation are imposed upon, and the public deceived ; but great injustice is done to the author of the difiertation, who thus becomes responsible, in the opinion of the English reader, for all the imperfections, whatever they may be, of the translation, I speak only on supposition, not having had lei. fure or opportunity to enter minutely into an examination of this matter : but if the translator should perchance have fallen into mistakes, inaccuracies, obscurities ; it will all be imputed to Mr. Michaelis himself, the supposed revisor of this tranflation; the supposed approver of it, as conveying accurately and correctly his own sense.
But further, there is another circumstance, which I must beg leave to explain to you, respecting the style and composition; in regard to which, the author may probably think, that his dissertation cannot appear to any advantage in this new English dress. The dissertation was written in the Gerinan language. The French translation of it was undertaken voluntarily by two eminent writers, in all respects capable of performing the task with accuracy and elegance; Monf. de Merian, and Monf. de Premonival: and they submitted their tranNation in MS. to the author for his revisal. The French language differs very greatly from the idiom of the German: and not only 10, but it is tied
up up to such strict rules, it has fo many niceties and delicacies with regard to the turn of the expreffion, and the form of the period, that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to give a very close, and at the fame time an elegant translation, from almost any language into French. The translators themselves complained to the author of the very great constraint (la géné exceflive, to ufe their own expression) which they lay under in this respect. They were therefore obliged to take confiderable liberties with the original; in regard to the expression and composition, in order to make the discourse appear graceful and agreeable in their own language : and this they might very confidently and safely do, as they wrote under the eye of the author, who would be sure to note and to rectify every the leaft deviation from his true sense. This advantage the English transation has not enjoyed : and moreover it labours under a peculiar disadvantage. A close translation, made at second hand from a free one, mult carry with it a strong tin&ture of the medium through which it has passed ; at the same time that it has no chance of recovering any thing that may have been loft of the native and genuine colour of the first compofition : in this case especially, where the French language, equal. ly discordant from the German and the English, stands in the way between both, and intercepts the natural communication of those two filter languages ; which would have fun immedi, ately one into the other, with great facility and exactness, and with very little alteration of the form, or diminution of the fpirit, of the original. In fact, I have been informed by a learned foreigner, (than whom no one can be fuppofed to be a better judge in this matter, or to enter more readily and intimately into the meaning of the author) that, in reading this translation, he met with many passages which he could not un. derstand, without having recourse to the French translation; and that those very passages, which appeared to him hard and obscure, and that merely from being literally rendered from the French, would have appeared easy and graceful in English, had they been literally rendered from the German.
By publishing this in your next Review, you will do justice to Mr. Michaelis, to yourselves, and to the public; atid oblige,
Gentlemen, Jan. 12,
Your humble servant, 1770
For the Month of February, 1770.
ÀRTICLE I. Tbe Present State of Europe : exhibiting a View of the Natural and Civil Hiftory of the several Countries and Kingdoms: their Present Conftitution and Form of Government ; their Cufloms, Manners, Laws, and Religion; their Arts, Sciences, Manufactares, and Commerce; their Military Epablishments, Public Treaties, and Political Interests and Connexions. To which is prefixed, an Introductory Discourse on the Principles of Polity and Government. By M. E. Totze, late Secretary to the Uni. versity of Gottingen, and now Professor of History in the University of Butzow, and Duchy of Mecklenburg. Translated from the German by Thomas Nugent, LL.D. and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 3 Vols. 8vo. Pr. 185. Nourse.
T HIS tranlation appears to be a tribute of friendship
1 paid to the author, Mr. Edward Totze, who is, it seems, professor of history in the university of Butzow, founded by his serene highness the duke of Mecklenburgh Schwerin, in 1760. The original work is not yet entirely finished ; it does not contain the present state of Germany, nor that of the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, the Helvetic body, and the European Turkey, which is now become so capital an object in the affairs of Europe. The author seems to be sensible of this deficiency; for he says that, to como plete it, if this essay is approval, he purposes to publish the VOL. XXIX. February.
state of Germany, with the addition of a brief account of the temporal and spiritual monarchy of the see of Rome; which, in its present ftare, is, we think, of no great importance to the Present State of Europe. In order to complete the work, we could with the author would take into his plan an account of the kingdoms of Hungary, Sardinia, and Naples, the Milanese, Florence, Parma, Venice, Genoa, and other omitted ftates, in Italy and elsewhere.
This work is ushered in by Introductory Principles of Polity and Government, in which we find nothing particular; and after giving a definition of monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, fimple and mixed governments, he agrees with Mr. Pope, that
For forms of government let fools contest;
Whate'er is belt administered, is best. In this Introduétion, with regard to all local observations, and natural history, Busching is Mr. Totze's leading authority, The civil and political observations of Mr Totze are, in gene. ral, very pertinent, chiefly grounded upon Montesquieu, and Susmilch, in his Display of the Divine Economy. He defcribes the establishments of literature in the following manner.
• The advancement of sciences requires schools of higher and lower ranks. In the former, called Universities, are taught all the sciences, both the liberal and the higher * ; in the latter, youth are only instructed in the liberal sciences, or go no farther than writing, casting accompts, Latin and Greck, and the rudiments of religion. Besides the unives sities and lower schools, there are some of an intermediate class, known by the name of Academies; where young gentlemen learn the exercises, languages, sciences, and arts becoming Their station.
" . Though music be reckoned among the fine arts, yet it is very seldom taught by appointed professors : this, however, obtained antiently, and cven in some measure still subsifts. Alphonso X. king of Castile, in the year 1254, founded in the university of Salamanca a professorship of music, with a sajary of fifty maravedis a year. See Ferrera's History of Spain, book IV. $461, p. 477. Music has likewise a profefforihip at Coimbra. Noticias de Portugal por Manoel Saverin de Faria, Discurso V. § iii. p. 207.
There is likewise a profeffor of Music at Oxford ; and at the English universities, even Dolors of Music are created. See Alberti's Letters on the Sta.e of Religion and Learning in Great Britain, Letter XLVIII, and L.