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• Thus fince ambition yields to certain fate,
By reason prompted, fure, unerring guide,
Whose glory time nor envy ne'er can hide.' His Ode is pathetic and descriptive ; it is worthy of Catullus, from whom its motto is taken.
The beginning of this Ode introduces us to the most agree.
Now has left the happy plain;
Scene of sympathy and love !!
Which summer raising by degrees,
He yields to winter's chilling blait.'
Of his Imitations it may be observed, that they at least rival their originals ; and of his Originals, that they hold a considerable rank in composition.
VIII. The Elements of Universal Erudition, containing an analyri
cal Abridgment of the Sciences, polite dris, and Belles Lettres, by Baron Bielfeld, Secretary of Legarion 10 the King of Prussia, &c. Translated from ibe laft Edition printed at Berlin, by W. Hooper, M.D. 3 Vols. 8vo. Pr. 185. Rouson. THE plan of the work before us is so extensive, that to suc.
ceed in the execution of it might justly seem to require several masterly hands. Yet baron Bielfeld has succeeded so well in it, that his learning and judgment are both entitled to the highest praises. Though he has modestly declined giving to these Elements of Universal Erudition the naine of Encyclo. pedia, lest he Mould be thought presumptuous enough to vie with the respectable authors of the celebrated French work published under that title; it may, notwithstanding, be justly considered in the same light. Our author, begins his work, by ranging the sciences in three clasless and in conVOL. XXIX. Junt, 1770. Gg
fequence of this arrangement, divides his treatife into three books. The first of these books treats of thofe sci. ences which employ the understanding ; the second, those that are derived from the imagination ; and the third, those that exercise the memory. This is a very just and pro. per division; but, at the same time that we must acknowledge our author's judgment in adopting it preferably to that, in which the different branches of our knowledge are considered as necessary, useful, agreeable, and frivolous; and that, by which they are divided according to the different degrees of
certainty, of which they are thought susceptible ; and, like. · wise, that which divides them into sciences properly so called, and belles lettres; we cannot help accusing him of ingratitude in not acknowledging his obligation to lord Bacon, who was the first to think of this admirable division of the sciences into those that belong to the understanding, the imagination, and the memory.
As the work before us is extenfive, we shall, in the prefent article, confine ourselves to those sciences which proceed from the imagination alone. The first of these sciences is theology, which the author considers under the ten following heads. 1. The dogmatic; 2. The exegesis, and herme. neutic; 3. Sacred criticism; 4. Moral theology ; 5. Polemic theology; 6. Pastoral theology ; 7. Catechetic theology; 8. Casuistic theology; 9. Consistorial prudence; 10. The functions of the ministry. We shall not enter into all those topics, but content ourselves with singling out such particulars as are inoft worthy of his notice, and best calculated to enable him to form a judgment of the author's abilities.-Under the article of sacred criticisın, he enumerates the several versions of the scriptures, the first of which is that of the Septuagint, which has been at all times held in the highest esteem, as well by the Jews as by the Chriftians, "The Hebrew language being loft by the Jews during the captivity in Babylon, and the Greek dialect becoming the common language of the East, that version was made in Egypt by publick authority, and for the use of the common people. The second is that called the Vulgate, which was formed from the translation of St. Jerome ; and another that was called Verfio Antiqua. After these two traní. bations come the Greek versions, amongft which are reckoned : 1. That of Aquila, who has translated the Hebrew verbatim, by placing over each word of the Hebrew text, its corresponding Greek term. 2. That of Symmachus, who applied him. felf to write the Greek with purity and elegance. 3. That of "Theodotion, whole translation is as literal and exact as it is
elegant, To these inay, be added, those of Jericho and Nicopolis, which are now much celebrated. None of these verLions are at present entire. The fragments that remain of them have been collected and published by Drusius and father Montfaucon. 5thly, and lastly, the Syriac versions, of which one was made on the Hebrew text, and the other on the Greek.-Afier a few more obfervations, the baron proceeds to treat of moral theology, under which head he takes notice that God has given to all the beings that compose the uniVerse one simple principle, by which alone the whole and every part of it is connected and perpetually supported ; and that principle is LOVĘ. Herein our author's sentiments coincide with those of Mr. Pope, and all other the most renowned moralists :
Behold the one great principle of love,
Combining all below and all above. Ethic Epist. We cannot help thinking, however, that his reasoning is somewhat too refined, when, in pursuance of this principle, he maintains that the atti action of the celestial bodies, as well as that of those which compose our globe, is a species of love ; a mutual tendency towards each other. He adds, that the uniform generation by which all things are perpetuated, is founded in love. Such metaphorical and figurative expreilions appear quite improper and out of place in a philosophical treatise, in which every word should have a precise and determinate signification, and in which no poetical licence or latitude of phrase Mould be admitted upon any account. The word love cannot be applied with any propriety to inanimate bodies, We, however, agree with him that it appears to be the will of God to establish the simple principle of love in morality by the mouth of the Messiah. It must be acknowiedged that Jesus Christ has alone taught mankind perfect inorals by deducing them from this true principle. This simple and uni. versal principle of morality has been fully made known to mankind by Jesus Christ. He has therefore been, even in this sense also, the true Saviour of the world. .
Having thus given an idea of speculative theology, our au. thor proceeds to treat of the practical or pastoral theology, usually divided into homilitic, catechetic, and casuistic theo. logy. To these are added the consistorial prudence, which includes the study of the canon law and the prudential exercise of the different functions of the ministry.
In treating those several branches of the theological feience, baron Bielfeld has said enough to give an idea of
the several branches that compose the general system of divinity; he at the same time acknowledges, that there are theologies established in the schools still different in their genus and species. Thus, for example, they distinguish the theology of God, that of Jesus Christ, that of the Holy Ghost, that of the angels, and that of men. The theology of God is again subdivided into theologia Dei naturalis or effentialis, and theologia Dei idealis or exemplaris; which last article is again divided into archetypic theology, which teaches what comes immediately from God himfelf; and eclypic theology, which considers the theologic notions, that man, as the image of God, is able to acquire by his own nature, that is, by the ability he has received from the Supreme Being, to know and adore him, and by the preaching of his divine word. Thus our author, though he just mentions the divisions and subdivisions of school divinity, takes no notice of the voluminous writings of the schooldivines; and indeed Johannes Duns Scotus, Jacob Behmen, Thomas Aquinas, the famous archbishop of Toledo, Toftatus, and others called by their cotemporaries doctores ir. refragabiles, though they abound in subtilties and nice distinctions, are scarce worth the attention of a student, who wishes only to store his memory with useful knowledge, and not burthen it with trifles.
Our learned author then proceeds to treat of jurisprudence. He observes, in his gth fe&tion, that the state of pure nature is a state of peace, but that the state of man in society is a kind of a state of war. In this he differs from the celebrated Hobbes, who in his treatise De Cive enumerates a variety of arguments to prove, that the state of nature is a state of war. With regard to the state of nature so much talked of by moralists, we are inclined to think with the celebrated lord Shafts. bury, that it never had any exiftence; or that if it had, the moral philosopher is in the right to consider it as a state of war, as every state of man which excludes fociety, tends to degrade his nature, and reduce him to the level of the brute creation, Why the learned Bacon should represent the state of man in society, as a state of war, we are at a loss to conceive, as that state is productive of every thing which contributes to improve the human species, and soften the natural ferocity of man. Our author after having premised certain considerations on the necessity, origin, and nature of laws, enumerates the several branches comprised by the study of juriiprudence in its largest extent, which are legislative jurisprudence, the law of nature, the law of nations, the public or political law of each nation, the history of legislation, the Roman law, the Germanic law,