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ftate brought from heaven to Charlemain, and carefully preserved among the imperial regalia to this day. Many further arguments of their bigotry might be enumerated, such as a celebrated chapel somewhere in the Austrian districts, endowed with so many spiritual privileges, that a single mals said in it is sufficient to deliver a foul from purgatory; not to forget their torches of wood, blest, and carried about as preservatives against fire and lightning, nor their ridiculously pious falutations of each other at certain annual festivals. To this excelfive superstition in the invocation of saints, one may add, their notorious fusceptibility of belief in all those pious forgeries, calculated by men of more simplicity than wisdom to serve re. ligious purposes. Such, for example, is the story of Ilatio, archbishop of Mentz, reported for his cruelty to the poor to have been devoured by rats; as likewise, that of the expulsion of those animals from a certain province by a relation of St. Hubert, which is held equally unquestionable. Credulity, indeed, seems epidemical in Germany. Even in Brandenburgh, a protestant country, the ghost of an old woman, who was disobliged by an elector of that house some centuries ago, has, they fay, infested his posterity ever since; and usually haunts their palaces by way of signal on their approaching deaths. This absurd notion is treated with more seriousness than one would be apt to imagine ; and it is well known, that the death of the first king of Prussia was hastened by a sudden fright occasioned by the fight, as he, for the moment thought, of an apparition clad in white, and which proved to be his queen, whose mind was disordered, and who burst into his apartment, and waked him with great roughness and violence, as he fat Dumbering in a chair.
Whilst the German grandees are infatuated with the ideas of dignity annexed to their rank, there is another class of peo. ple, who, in a very opposite station of life, entertain 'equal notions of their own importance. These are the peasants of some of those happy. diftri&ts, which belong to the imperial cities, or which, though they acknowledge the sovereignty of some prince, retain such privileges and franchises as enable them to escape oppreslion, and enjoy the fruits of their labour. These profess no esteem for any but pecuniary merit. Hence the whole drift of their lives is not so much to enjoy, as to amass immense hoards of money, of which they make a most ample parade, whenever they find themselves in the presence of title-bearers, the poverty of whose finances forms a striking contrast to their high pretensions. Far different from these are the other boors in most parts of Germany, who are fervile to such a degree, that in the least verbal intercourse with any of Ee 4
their superiors, they express the deepest sense of their inferiority by the most fubmislive abjectness of behaviour.
Besides the merit of the Germans in philosophy and experimental knowledge, which has been already taken notice of, they were famous for mechanical inventions, long before either the English or the French ; and Europe in general must acknowledge itself indebted to them for the noble inventions of gunpowder and printing ; though a celebrated author will al. low them but little merit therein, when he observes, that the greatest discoveries were made by chance, and that we owe them to the dullest nations, as gunpowder and printing to the Germans. With regard, however, to the first of these, the merit of finding out the composition itself has been refused them in a very learned publication.
Our author then concludes his review of the national character of the Germans, by a panegyrick upon that people, in which he allows them to excel in candour and simplicity, as well as laboriousness and frugality; and cites many instances to prove, that they are justly entitled to general praise, on account of these truly valuable qualities.
We come now to the character of the Dutch, which concludes the work.-- Our reviewer begins by bestowing the highelt praises upon that people for the desperate and persevering courage, with which they asserted their liberty, and of which they displayed the most amazing proofs in those ever memorable sieges of Harlem and Leyden, not undeservedly compared to those of Saguntum and Carthage. At the same time we acknowledge, that they sustained these sieges with great courage and heroism, we cannot help considering that spirit of ferocity, which but too frequently discovered itself in the befieged, and seems to make part of the national character of the Dutch. Of this we shall cite but one instance. At the fiege of Harlem, a Duichinan tore out the heart of a Spaniard, eat half of it himself, and then threw the remainder to a dog. Such a piece of barbarity would re. fleet dishonour even upon the savage inhabitants of America. The Dutch, having ettablified their liberty in defiance of the tyranny of Spain, maintained it with equal resolution against the ambition of France ; they displayed an enthusiasm for liberty equal to that of any of the republicks of antiquity, when they rejected the hard conditions offered them by the haughty invader, and formed a resolution, rather than embtace favery, to abandon their native country, and transport themfelves, their wives, children, families, in a word, their whole nation to the extremities of the globe. There is likewise, as our author jufily observes, something truly admirable in that
constant resolution, by which the Dutch maintain the poffeffion of their country against the sea, whilst the inhabitants of other countries have scarce industry enough to cultivate theirs.
Our reviewer next observes, that the prosperity of Holland is in a great measure owing to its becoming a place of refuge to all such merchants and men of business as were by oppression prevented from enjoying the fruits of their labour in their own country. On the very commencement of the Dutch republic the inhabitants and riches of Brabant and Flanders were driven by tyranny and persecution into Holland; the thirty years war in Germany brought this republic an equal supply in the middle of the last century, when such numbers fled from the scenes of desolation in which that unhappy country was so long involved. Add to this that the revocation of the edict of Nantz, which deprived France of her most valuable subjects, was an addition of people and treasure to Holland, almost equal to either of the two former. No people ever understood the art of making the most of the public revenues better than the Dutch, whose unparalleled economy was the fund from whence they drew those treasures, that enabled them, even in the infancy of their commonwealth, to make a grateful return of the most timely aflistance to their generous friend queen Elizabeth, when menaced with an invasion by the Spaniards in the eighty-eighth year of the fixteenth century.
'Tis a remarkable instance of policy in the Dutch, that they have found means to interest the principal individuals through out Europe in their funds, and to render their country the channel and center of all pecuniary negociations between states and sovereigns; and even the depository of their treasures, as well as of the riches of their subjects.
Though our author seems disposed to dwell chiefly upon the bright side of the character of the Dutch, he is notwithstanding obliged himself to acknowledge that of all nations they possess the least of those external accomplishments, the acqui. sition of which is so highly prized in most other places. That their behaviour is harsh, uncouth, and unpolite he acknow. ledges ; and that they thew a contemptuous indifference for all, the prosperity of whole circumstances is not well ascertained. Money is amongst them the only sure road to power and preferment, as amongst the ancient Carthaginians, whom they resemble in other particulars, by no means advantageous to their character. The Punica fides has been but too much ve. rified in them, it being the general complaint of foreigners, that they are of a circumventing deceitful disposition ; and that Those who have any dealings with them, must be very cautious
and continually on their guard, or else they are fure to be over. reached. We can, therefore, by no means agree with our author, when he represents the Dutch as a candid, downright people, who stand in need of no refinement in their behaviour, and are seldom conversant in fraud and deceit. Neither can they be easily defended from the charge of inhospitality and thyness to foreigners, nor cleared from the imputation of want of personal generosity. But charges still feverer may be brought against them, which our reviewer is so partial to them, as either to touch upon lightly, or entirely overlook. What can be said in extenuation of their barbarous behaviour at Amboyna, where they inflicted the most studied cruelties upon the English? It is in vain for our author to endeavour to palliate it by affirming, that it was the act only of a few, as those few may be considered as the representatives of the whole nation, since it never either disavowed or punished them. Ano. ther, and still more fevere charge is, that, in order to obtain the privilege of trading to Japan, they consented to trample upon the cross, a condition which all the other inhabitants of Europe had rejected with horror, and which the Dutch have vainly attenipted to vindicate themselves from by several printed apologies. This circumstance shews such an inordinate love of lucre, as no sining qualities can atone for. Partial, however, as our reviewer is to the Dutch, whom he cries up as models of virtue and fortitude, the force of truth extorts from him an acknowledgment, that an alertness in seizing every opportunity to secure their interest, to the exclusion of all other parties, has long been a vice inherent in their characters; and that they have ever shewn themselves resolutely determined to pursue it to the most cruel and irreparable detriment of all who might happen to come in for a competition ; insomuch, that shortly after their formation into a political body, one of their first exploits was to ruin the commerce of Antwerp, by sinking vessels loaded with stones in the mouth of the Schelde, and thereby for ever shutting up the entrance of that river to Thips of burthen. He even goes so far to acknowledge, that upon some occasions, they made equity give way to intereft in a manner totally inconsistent with the rules of honour and gratitude ; and for which no atonement could have been too am. ple, and scarce any punishment too severe. Our author celebrates them for the calmness and resignation with which they meet every change of fortune; virtues, which contribute to render them, in some respects, the happiest of mortals. He adds, that no people more thoroughly practise the maxim of Horace,
Nil admirari, &c.
But this coolness and indifference of temper, this flowness to admire, is the reason that there is scarce any thing brilliant even among their inost striking characters ; and that even such of them as have distinguished themselves molt, may be said in the words of Tacitus to be magis extra vitia quam cum virtutibus. We may likewise hereby account for the little success with which they have cultivated the pleasing and imitative arts, as they are much inferior to their neighbours the Flemings in painting, and their best poets are only known to theinfelves. With regard to literature, they are little more than tranflators and transcribers ; for, though there is not a city in Europe which abounds more with authors by profession than the Hague, they subfift entirely by borrowing from their neighbours, insomuch that a dearth of literature in France or England is sure to be followed by a dearth of the fame kind in Holland; and what Ovid has said of Echo may be properly applied to the Belgic muse:
Nec prior ipfa loqui, nec reticere loquenti. In a word the Dutch can boast few illustrious names in the republic of learning except Erasmus, Boerhaave, and Grotius. We thought it neceffary to add there few remarks upon the state of arts and literature in Holland, as the author, who confines himself to political considerations, has totally neglected that article. For a character of the work, we refer the reader to our last Review.
IV. Observations on Modern Gardening, illuftrated by Descriptions.
8vo. Pr. 35. 6d. T. Payne. VERY different from the usual practice of writers, our au.
thor has displayed, under a modest and humble title, a much larger portion of entertainment than a reader of taste will be induced to expect. Every quality necessary to a true relish for the fine arts, enters this ingenious composition, Agreeably to his own idea of the subject, the writer lavishes all the powers of tafte, fancy, and expression, to elevate gardening to a place among the more liberal studies : he has extended the bounds of this last to every thing great and beautiful in nature; and justly places it in a class above landscape painting, inasmuch as reality exceeds representation. His comparative remarks upon his subject are new and ingenious :
• That a subject is recommended at least to our norice, and probably to our favour, if it has been distinguished by the pen. cil of an eminent painter, is indisputable; we are delighted to