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jpre, quibuscumque familiariffime versatus eft.” Theocritus Jepresents the Cyclops sitting on a rock, and contemplating his reflected image in the broad and calm bosom of the ocean beneath. Virgil has applied this idea to his shepherd Corydon. But the Cyclops and Corydon are different persons. The fhepherd Corydon, with much greater propriety, had used a river, or a fountain, for the purpofe of a looking-glass. The idea of Theocritus entirely corresponds with the form, character, and situation of the Cyclops, who was a giant, and inhabited the rocks of the sea-shore. When the same Corydon of Virgil is made to say, that he possesses large stores of milk and cheese, which never fail him both in winter and summer ; these circumstances are, with much less characteristic propriety, attributed to a shepherd, who lived amidst the conveniences of common lite, than to the Cyclops, whose savage and folitary situation required things of this sort to be laid up in store. Virgil's Corydon boasts, that he was rich in snow-white cat. tle, that he fed a thousand lambs in the Sicilian mountains, and that he exceeded all in the art of piping and Ginging. But Corydon has no pretensions to these merits. « Quæ longe convenientius de Cyclope prædicata puto; cujus notiores longe erat pastorales divitiæ, fistula ludendi peritia valde celebris et infignis, character denique Bucolicus eminentior. Eadem de Corydone Virgiliano, omnium hominum pastorumque obscurrislimo, nunquam credere fuimus edocti.” Virgil has also unhappily applied the Hirsutum Supercilium of the Cyclops to his little shepherd. One of Theocritus's lovers is enamoured of a girl whom he saw walking out to gather the leaves of bgacixiba on the side of a mountain. Virgil has fofiened and destroyed this imagery : he makes a shepherd fall in love with a girl, whom he met gathering deury apples in the bedge rows." Suavioris guiddam fimplicitatis inest in foliis, quam in ipsis floribus, hyacinthi petendis : quæ præterea desertis montibus quærere quiddam magis rusticum sapit, quam Mala in sepibus." Nor has Virgil been more fortunate in his imitation of the Cup of Theocritus. In this description he has been commended for correcting the luxuriancy of the Sicilian bard; but the truth is, Virgil had no idea of the cup which the Greek poet was describing. It was a most capacious vessel, which the Sicilian Shepherds used to fill with milk, wine, or other beverage, when they meant to indulge to excess. This cup, in propor. tion to its size, Theocritus has adorned with an abundant va. riety of sculpture. But Virgil has contracted it into two goba Jets fi: for a fideboard. “ Quos magno sculpturæ apparatu, nimicque, faltem fi formam minorem species, ornavit.” But Virgil did this from his avarice of the beauties of Thcocritus. The
@up cup of Theocritus did not belong to Virgil's age or country, These are our critic's reasonings on this head. He has also, in this Dissertation, mewn the peculiar beauty which results to the Pastorals of Theocritus, from his observance of the different chara&ters of hepherds ; and which have been disregarded by Virgil, and all modern bucolifts. In the eighth Idyllium, he observes, that most of the graces of the poem are derived from the diversity of character between a feeder of sheep and a feeder of oxen. Daphnis feeds oxen, and Menalcas sheep; and both in their respective allusions confine themselves to their respective professions. One never invades the province of the other. The Bubulcus very elegantly draws his comparisons from his office. " Sweet, says he, is the voice of the heifer, and sweet her breath. Sweet are the lowings of the cow, &c." Menalcas, the Upilio rejoins, “The udders of the peep swell with milk, and the tender lambs are fat, when my lovely girl appears. The Bubulcus replies, “ When my paramour is absent, both the oxen and their feeder grow lean.” At last, a goai berd, with the greatest propriety, is summoned to decide the contest ; whom a white dog was barking at among the goats, and who alligns to the conqueror a fhe.goat with mutilated horas. In the ninth Idyllium, Daphnis, a Bubulcus, boasts that he has a bed constructed of beautiful skins of white cows, which were blown down from a steep rock by the west wind, while they were cropping the arbutus. To these Menalcas, an
Upilia, oppose ‘his Fleeces which his peep-fold afforded him, and which were placed in great abundance at his feet and head in his cave. The different classes of Mepherds had also different deities. The goatherds venerated Pan as their preceptor in the art of playing on the pipe. The Bubulci and Upiliones were the disciples of the Muses and Apollo. “ Veruntamen hæc discriminatio paulatim evanuit, locumque cellit generali nomini et ideæ PASTORIS: cum jam ceflabant poetæ ex ipsa vita reali fcribere pastoralia. Etiam defiit in Moschi Bionisque carminibus; ut solus veræ et genuinæ poefios exemplar bucolicæ Theocritus reliquisse videretur. Atqui multum varietatis et gratiæ antiquis Bucolicis accefliffe ex hac oppositione characterum putaveris ; unde magna et jucunda morum, sermonum, cantaumque, diversitas. Hac laude omnino destituitur Virgigilius; hac etiam deftituta recentiora omnia Pastoralia, perlonarum fimilitudine perpetua, five identitate, lectores obtun. dunt." The critic has given many other illustrations of this point, which cannot here be conveniently transcribed or ana. lyfed.
In the notes, which are large and comprehensive, obscure allusions are displayed, the controverted readings of the text
are ascertained, many new emendations are proposed with much fagacity, the opinions of other critics are examined, and the beauties of Theocritus, are, with great elegance, explained and illustrated. Under this article of the work, it would be unpardonable not to mention, with the highest approbation,' the contributions of our editor's friend, Mr. Toup, so juftly celebrated for his mafterly Observations on Suidas.
Our editor's restorations of the text, founded only on the authority of the Vatican, and other choice manuscripts, are numerous and important. But from this original source he has also been enabled to give to the public a more complete body of the Greek Scholia than has ever yet appeared. Collations of fifteen manuscripts are annexed ; executed, as it seems, with: the greatest accuracy, and still affording an ample fund of materials for new conjectures and corrections.
The text is printed without accents. Whether these signs are here rejected on good grounds, it is not our business, nor is it our inclination, to enquire. The editor himself has declined the controversy; which, however, we wish to have seen discussed, as it would have been finally determined, by lo able a critic. He only tells the reader, that he has omitted the use of the accentual points, in compliance with the directions of those who presided over the Oxford press about twelve years ago.
It is not easy to display, especially within the limits of our paper, the various parts and merits of this edition. Let it suffice to add, that while writers of real abilities are engaged in illustrating the original poets of antient Greece, we may venture to promise ourselves the revival of true taste, genuine cri. ticism, and Grecian literature. : :
VII. An Account of the Charakter and Manners of obe French; - witb occafional Objervations on the English. In Iwo Vols. 8vo,
Pr. 85. Dilly. W e have read this performance with great attention, and
W with equal pleasure.' It seems to be written by a man divested of all ridiculous national prejudices, one of a philofo. phical turn of mind, and accustomed to deep reflection. One peculiarity attending this author, is, his great modefly, for we hardly remember that, through the whole work, he speaks above once or twice in the first person. Of course, we have none of his own trivial unimportant adventures, so frequent in writers who treat of the characters and manners of nations amongst whom they have fojourned, which, however consex
quential in their own opinion, can seldom be interesting to the reader. Another peculiarity of this author is, that he makes no quotations, and cites no authorities, for any thing he ad. vances. From whence we might be naturally led to infer, that every thing is drawn from the storehouse of his own careful and impartial observation, which, no doubt, would be a great recommendation to the work. But against this position there lies one objection, which, though not absolutely convincing, is, at least, in our opinion, very plaufible. That is, the nature of his stile, which, as will be seen from some of the fpecimens quoted, is so far from being easy and flowing, that it is often very stiff and crabbed ; that his periods are frequently very long, diffusive, and perplexed, not seldom destitute of grammatical precision, and that his words are not always well chosen, but, on the contrary, sometimes out of the common road, and even pedantic. In Nort, he does not appear, from his stile and composition, to have been a man of the world, at least much conversant in the polite circle. We do not mention this in derogation of his merit, which we acknowledge to be extraordinary, but of another, and even a superior kind : human nature is incapable of every perfection, and every virtue must have a concomitant defect. Had his language been more elegant and adorned, perhaps, his researches might have been lefs curious, and his reflections lefs profound. In a word, he seems to be a person who has lived long both among the French and Englith, a prying but unconcerned observer : a character rare in the world, but the most to be depended on both for facts and opinions.
This work is divided into chapters, as it should seem in a pretty arbitrary manner, without any contents prefixed. It is likewise ushered in with an introduction, of which we shall take some notice in the first place.. - In order to state with certainty and precision, says our au. thor, the nature and character of the French, it is necessary to examine the progress of literature, and of other improve. ments among them, and the changes thereby effected in their disposition and manners. 1. To do this accurately we must distinguish three remarkable epochas in their history. The first commences with the opening of the sixteenth century, a!ter the revival of classical learning, and the polite arts in Italy ; from whence they were brought into France under the protection and Encouragement of Francis I. cotemporary with our Henry VIII. a prince, whose temper sympathized, in many respects, with that of the French monarch ; in emulation of whom, probably, he not only cultivated, but was also no inconfiderable a patron of
pe He thible and char the followers into
hable and chara's pertinent histof taste
letters. This æra of Francis I. they call le Siecle des Savans, the age of learning.
« The second epocha is marked by the splendid reign of Lewis XIV. and is esteemed in France, le Siecle de Genie, the age of genius.
The third, which is the present, they have thought proper to stile le Siecle du Gout, the age of taste.'
He then gives a very pertinent historical detail of the most remarkable and characteristic occurrences during that period, and concludes with the following striking observation. It was thought necessary to enter into this historical detail, in order to account satisfactorily for the pacific temper and frame of mind the French still adhere to with so much constancy, that is to say, their passiveness and unreluctance in complying with all the didates of government; a character from which, as observed, they once were so widely removed ; and which could never, probably, have taken place, but from the very cogent causes above mentioned, that gave so effectually a new turn to that people, and from the moft contentless, turbulent, and fa&ious, have rendered them the most pliable and cafy to rule of any throughout all Europe,
The second chapter contains a remark, which, as we do not remember to have met with it in any printed accounts, we Shall here infert, with our author's sensible observations on the fact, which is greatly to the honour of the French nobleffe, and in which, instead of their vices, fopperies, and follies, it might be wilhed they were imitated by our nobility in this country.
What first prepofseffes a stranger in favour of the French, is the affability and friendliness he experiences from thofe to whom he is properly recommended. Add to this, what (if he is a person of ingenuous, liberal sentiments, and from his fituation in life, intitled to the frequentation of genteel fociety) must afford him ftill greater satisfaction, the unaffected complaisance and familiarity of behaviour fubfisting between individuals whose circumstances are widely disproportionate, but whom an intimate sense and conviation of the refpect and encouragement that are due to intellectual merit, places on the most agreeable level.
. Certain it is, that among the French, more, perhaps, than any other nation, an equality in point of education, fe. cures an equal reciprocation of urbanity and good manners be. tween persons very different in degree: and that the great, far from flighting or shụnning their inferiors, if men of known abilities, are on the contrary, remarkably fond of their company and conversation.