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grains; of this three hundred and one, that one hundred grains were earth, and two hundred and one grains salt, composed of about one hundred and eighty-eight or one hundred and eighty-nine grains of a calcareous Glauber salt, and eleven or twelve grains of sea salt, .
• And Dr. Lucas says, he got in London in the proportion of three hundred and twenty grains from a gallon, of which about fifty-four grains were earth, fifty-two calcareous, and two ochre; the rest, or two hundred and sixty-fix grains, were falt, of a more hard and consistent nature, than either of those got from Epsom or Cheltenham waters; with a more austere taste, and some tendency to the form of alum in its chrystals ; of which he says it will probably be found to partake : but Dr. Short, who had searched and tried experiments to discover alum, could find no mark of it in them. , . . When the humidity is near exhaled, in evaporating this water, Dr. Lucas says, it appears coloured, even after all the ochreous parts are separated by filtration, which is from the oily matter, which is only to be separated by rectified spirit of wine, or by fire. In chrystallization it remains with the bittern,
• Dr. Shaw has not mentioned the folid contents of the cbalzbeare water, but Dr. Short has supplied in some ineasure that defect : he tells us that the solid inatter of this water is to the vehicle in the proportion of one, to two hundred and seventy four and ; that is, about two hundred and twenty grains to the gallon of water; of this about seventy-seven grains were earth, and about one hundred and forty three a falt; of which about one hundred and thirty-two grains were calcareous Glauber salt, and eleven sea salt.' • This work contains an account of several waters not mentioned by any preceding writer : and it would be doing injustice to its merit, not to affirm that it is the completest and most useful system on the subject, which has hitherto been offered to the public.
V. The principal Prophecies of she Old and New Testaments; par.
ticularly those in the Revelation of St. John; compared and explained. . By Samuel Hardy, Rittor of Little Blakenham, in Suffolk, and Lecturer of Enfield, in Middlesex. Evo, Pr. 6s
Jewed. Pearch. FXpositions of the Revelation of St. John, and other pro
phetical parts of Scripture, resemble the descriptions which astronomers have given us of the world in the VOL. XXIX. April, 1970,
moon. There is a grand and illustrious object within our view, but the eye of the spectator is fatigued and confounded by the intermediate space. As it usually happens to persons, who look with long attention on a profpect where nothing is distinctly perceived, some fancy they fee, and others for the credit of being discoverers pretend to fee, various appearances, which they tell us, are the caverns, the vallies, the seas, or the mountains of the lunar world. These suppositions are received according to the esteem of their refpe&tive authors, and may serve to amuse the imagination, but in reality, afford no pofitive or satisfactory information. That celestial body is yet a terra incognita, a region which no human eye can per. feally explore.
In the same manner, our theological writers attempt to explain certain dark and mysterious predi&tions of Scripture ; but when they carry their enquiries into futurity, their investigations are confounded, and we are 'furnished with nothing 'but empty speculations and arbitrary suppositions.
The writer, whose performance we have now before us, is one of these adventurers, who seems, as far as we are able to judge, to have lost himself in the search, and to have advanced a number of groundless and improbable conjeâures.
The ancient prophets, most of whom lived before the BabyIonian captivity, speak of that event, and the restoration of the Jews under Zerubbabel, in bold and figurative language, agreeable to the genius of Oriental writers; but our interpre. ters, when they come to examine thefe predictions, idly sup. pose, that they relate to some distant period, in which they shall be literally accomplished. Here then we have a future restoration of the Jews, a new temple, a new Jerusalem, and a multitude of other rabbinical dreams.
In his first and second dissertation this writer attempts to prove, that the Jews will certainly be converted and restored to their promised land. He then'endeavours to point out the time when, and the manner in which this event is to be accomplished. From divers prophecies in Daniel and St. John, he has made 'it, he thinks, extremely probable, that, allowing for some de. feds in chronology, the Millennium will commence about the year of our Lord, 1971; and that somewhere in the period of forty-five years, immediately preceeding that date, antichrist will make his appearance. Now, says he, in all probability the first conversion of the Jews will happen long before the commencement of the Millennium ; consequently it can. not be very distant from the present time. There are now, he presumes, some of those signs which Christ did say should come; famines for instance, and carthquakes in divers places.
As to the latter, he tells us, that we have heard of more within these thirteen or fourteen years, than were ever heard of, in an equal space of time since the foundation of the world; and he is fully persuaded that they are · forerunners of trouble.' As to the former, says he, • God be thanked we have heard of but few; but almost all Europe has for two or three years felt the hardships of great and unusual scarcity. And with respect to ourselves in particular, if we had not been relieved from abroad we had certainly felt the mischiefs of a famine!'
In regard to the manner in which the Jews are to be converted, he endeavours to prove, that the conversion of St. Paul was a type of the conversion of his countrymen; and from thence he concludes, that they will be converted in the same manner that he was, namely by a visible appearance of our Saviour in the clouds, and an audible voice from heaven. He adds, that' as our Saviour was seen walking on the water to succour his disciples at the end of the fourth watch, that is, at the end of the nigbe, fo we may presume, that he hereby meant to intimate, that the Jews should not be finally delivered from their distress, till the time of his second coming was at hand.'-Admirable arguments!
In the fifth dissertation he attempts to prove, that the Jews will hereafter be idolaters ; that, for this cause, they shall be given into the hands of the Chaldeans, who shall treat them with unexampled cruelty ; that, soon after the time of their captivity shall be expired, Babylon (a city in Chaldea, which Shall hereafter be called Babylon) shall be utterly destroyed.
• When the time of BABYLON is come, the Jews, says he, -fhall be released from their captivity. The beast shall receive a deadly wound; but the deadly wound shall be healed; and then thall THE BEAST, with ANTICHRIST, make war with the saints and prevail The Jews, upon their release from BABYLON, shall sing songs of triumph, according to that of Isaiah : in that day shall they say, praise the Lord, call upon bis name, declare his doings among the people, make mention that his name is exalred. Sing unto the Lord; for be bath done mar. vellous ibings ; this is known in all the earth.-These hymns are evidently taken from the 18th, the 98th, and the 10th Psalms;—which I therefore consider as prophesies of the future deliverance of the Jews from BABYLON.-But their joy will be short-lived ;--the beast that ascendeth out of the bota tomless pit, and ANTICHRIST, Thall make war against them, and shall prevail over them for forly and two months.? .
This is part of the plan, for the whole is inexplicable, which our author has contrived for the illustration of some of the principal prophecies in the Old and New Testament. Tz
We shall not trouble our readers with any remarks upon it; the absurdities, with which it is attended, are sufficiently obvious : we shall only Thew, in one instance, what little atten. tion he has paid to the language, and express declarations of the sacred writers. .
Jeremiah speaking of the approaching desolation of Jerusalem, in the reign of Zedekiah, says : because they have forsaken me, faith the Lord, and have burnt incense to orber gods, I will make this city defolate : I will cause them to eat the flesh of their fons, and their daughters; and they foall eat every one the fell of his friend, in the pege and Araitness wherewith their enemies shall Araiten them, ch. xix.
. But when, says our author, or where, I would know,-in wbat fiege, or at what time was it, that the Jews were so distressed, as 10 ear the flesh of their fons and of their daughters !-I must not be told here that this calamity was suffered in the reign of Joram, and when Jerusalem was besieged by Titus.-The calamity in the reign of Joram must needs be out of the question; for that did not happen at Jerusalem :--It was prior also to the prophecy :-—And the siege by Titus was not suffered for idolatry. Besides this, neither of these cases will furnish us with more than a fingle infiance in each ; and therefore they seem to fail with respect to the degree of misery foretold. And yet, if we except these instances, neither sacred, nor prophane history will furnish us with any others.'
Has this writer forgotten the siege of Jerusalem by Nebu. chadnezzar?- It is to be supposed he has not, for he mentions it, two or three pages afterwards ; but at the same time he allures us, that there is no where the least hint, that this prophecy was ever accomplished, that parents ate their children, or that friends devoured each other', and that, consequently, the accomplishment of this prophecy is yet to be expected.
If he will make no allowances for the descriptive language of an Oriental prophet, he may turn to Lamentations, iv. 10. where he will find this passage, the hands of the pitiful women bave jodden their own children; they were their mear in deftruction of the daugbrer of my people. In every part of this mournful poem the prophet speaks of Jerusalem and the temple, as things destroyed, laid waste, and prophaned: these words therefore evidently denote the accomplishment of the foregoing prediction in the fiege by Nebuchadnezzar, ,
This treatise may be clafed with that of Rabbi Sahadias, concerning the last redemption.
VI. Theocriti Syracusii quæ fuperfunt. Cum Scholiis Græcis
Auctioribus, Emendationibus et Animadverfionibus in Scholia Edi· foris et Joannis Toupii, Glofis felettis ineditis, Indicibus amplif
fomis. Præmittitur Editoris Dilsertatio de Poesi Bucolica Græcorum, cum Vita Theocriti a Josua Barnesio joripia, et nonnullis aliis Auctariis. Accedunt Editoris et Variorum Notæ perperude Epiftola Joannis Toupii de Syracufiis, ejusdem Addenda in Theo critum, necnon Collationes quindecim Cedicum. Elidir Thoma
Warton, S. T. B. Coll. S. Trin. Socius, nuper Poeticse publi - cus Prælektor, Oxonii. E Typographeo Clarendoniano. 2 Vols.
410. Pr. 11. 55. in Sheets. Apud Nourse, Payne, Davies, · White, &c. Londini.
W e find it difficult to pronounce whether the editor of the
Oxford Theocritus discovers a greater share of taste or of erudition. Works of this kind have been too commonly executed by scholars of more industry than genius. But Mr. Warton, in this valuable publication, has happily blended the characters of the judicious critic and the learned commentator.
In the differtation on the Bucolic Poetry of the Greeks, the origin of paftorals is placed in a new light, and ingeniously developed on more rational and probable principles than have hitherto been advanced on the subject. The writer very judici. ously proves the superiority of Theocritus over Virgil, by shew. ing, that the Greek poet copied real manners, and aciual scenes of paftoral life, which have been misapplied, misreprefented, and distorted, in Virgil's imitations.
Theocritus, he says, describes many natural circumstances, and rural images, which the delicate Virgil was afraid to introduce into the Roman poetry, as too gross and uncouth for the refined ears of his polished countrymen. “ Nihil fuppri. mit aut diffimulat Theocritus quod solent ætatum politiorum poetæ : omnia minute describit et erarrat. Hinc eft quod tenuis et exilis fit Maro, quando Theocritus, eandein rein tractans, et plenus fit, et copiosus, et multiplex : quod hic res exprimat, ille tantum indicet. Poetæ Siculi nonnunquain concinnas magis descriptiones imitando reddidit Romanus; quæ tamen ideo pulchræ erant, quod erant inconcinnæ Expo. lisit ille quod non debuerat expoliri.” Among the Sicilians, the pastoral condition and characier were, in great measure, national. " Hinc fortiores et frequentiores ingciebantur in oculos Theocriti, Siculi hominis, imagines Bucolicæ : hinc crebræ illæ et naturales, si loqui liceat, allusiones, quibus ros in isto poeta volvendo tantopere delectamur: a rebus ipsis nimirum, five objectis, expetitæ, quas quotidie viderat et noverat