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He found no difficulty in exciting the people, naturally disposed to revolt. The prefect, who at that, time commanded the city, interposed on this occafion, and thought it just to put one of the chief creatures of the patriarch to the torture, in order to difcover the first promoter of the conspiracy. The patriarch enraged at the injustice he thought offered to his character and dignity, and piqued at the protection which was offered to the Jews, fent for the chiefs of the synagogue, and enjoined them to renounce their designs, upon pain of incurring his highest displeasure.
The Jews, far from fearing his menaces, excited new tumults, in which several citizens had the misfortune to fall. The patriarch could no longer contain; at the head of a numerous body of Chriftians, he flew to the synagogues, which he demolished, and drove the Jews from a city, of which they had been possessed since the times of Alexander the Great. It may be easily imagined that the prefect could not behold, without pain, his jurisdiction thus insulted, and the city deprived of a number of its moft industrious inhabitants.
The affair was therefore brought before the emperor. The patriarch complained of the excesses of the Jews, and the prefect of the outrages of the patriarch. At this very juncture, five hundred monks of mount Nitria, imagining the life of their chief to be in danger, and that their religion was threatened in his fall, flew into the city with ungovernable rage, attacked the prefect in the streets, and, not content with loading him with reproaches, wounded him in several places.
The citizens had by this time notice of the fury of the monks ; they, therefore, assembled in a body, put the monks to flight, seized on him who had been found throwing a stone, and delivered him to
the prefect, who caused him to be put to death without further delay.
The patriarch imınédiately ordered the dead body, which had been exposed to view, to be taken down, procured for it all the pomp and rites of burial, and went even so far as himself to pronounce the funeral oration, in which he classed a feditious monk among the martyrs, This conduct was by no merns generally approved of; the most moderate even among the Christians perceived and blamed his indiscretion; but he was now too far advanced to retire. He had made several overtures towards a reconciliation with the prefect, which not succeeding, he bore all those an implacable hatred whom he imagined to have any hand in traversing his designs; but Hypasia was particularly destined to ruin. She could not find pardon, as she was known to have a most refined friendThip for the prefect ; wherefore the populace were incited against her. Peter, a reader of the principal church, one of those vile flaves by which men in power are too frequently attended, wretches ever ready to commit any crime which they hope may render them agreeable to their employer ; this fellow, I say, attended by a crowd of villains, waited for Hypafia, as she was returning from a visit, at her own door, seized her as she was going in, and dragged her to one of the churches called Cesarea, where, stripping her in a most inhuman manner, they exercised the most inhuman cruelties upon her, cut her into pieces, and burnt her remains to ashes, Such was the end of Hypasia, the glory of her own fex, and the aftonishment of ours.
ON JUSTICE AND GENEROSITY. LYSIPPUS is a man whose greatness of soul the whole world admires. His generosity is such, that it prevents a deinand, and saves the receiver the trouble and the confusion of a request. His liberality also does not oblige more by its greatness, than by his inimitable grace in giving. Sometimes he even distributes his
bounties to strangers, and has been known to do good offices to those whọ professed themselves his enemies. All the world are unani. mous in the praise of his generosity; there is only one sort of people who complain of his conduct. Lysippus does not pay his debts.
It is no difficult matter to account for a conduct so seemingly incompatible with itself. There is greatness in being generous, and there is only simple justice in satisfying his creditors. Generosity is the part of a soul raised above the vulgar. There is in it Tomething of what we admire in heroes, and praise with a degree of rapture. Justice, on the contrary, is a mere mechanic virtue, fit only for tradesmen, and what is practised by every broker in Change Alley.
In paying his debts a man barely does his duty, and it is an action attended with no sort of glory. Should Lysippus fatisfy his creditors, who would be at the pains of telling it to the world? Generosity is a virtue of a very different complexion. It is raised above duty, and from its elevation attracts the attention, and the praises of us little mortals below.
In this manner do men generally reason upon justice and generosity. The first is despised, though a virtue essential to the good of society; and the other attracts our esteem, which too frequently proceeds from an impetuosity of temper, rather directed by vanity than reason. Lyfippus is told that his banker asks a debt of forty pounds, and that a distressed acquaintance petitions for the same fum. He gives it without hesitating to the latter; for he demands as a favour what the former requires as a debt.
Mankind in general are not sufficiently acquainted with the import of the word Justice : it is commonly believed to consist only in a performance of thofe duties to which the laws of society can oblige us. This I allow is sometimes the import of the word, and in this sense justice is distinguished from equity ; but there is a justice still more extensive, and which can be shewn to embrace all the virtues united.
Justice may be defined to be that virtue which im pels us to give to every person what is his due. In this extended sense of the word, it comprehends the practice of every virtue which reason prescribes, or society should expect. Our duty to our maker, to each other, and to ourselves, are fully answered, if we give them what we owe them. Thus justice, properly speaking, is the only virtue, and all the rest have their origin in it.
The qualities of candour, fortitude, charity, and generosity, for instance, are not in their own nature, virtues; and, if ever they deserve the title, it is owing only to justice, which impels and directs them. Without such a moderator candour might become indiscretion, fortitude obstinacy, charity imprudence, and generosity mistaken profufion.
A disinterested action, if it be not conducted by justice, is at best indifferent in its nature, and not unfrequently even turns to vice. The expences of society, of presents, of entertainments, and the other helps to chearfulness, are actions merely indifferent, when not repugnant to a better method of disposing of our superfluities, but they become vicious when they obstruct or exhaust our abilities from a more virtuous disposition of our circunstances.
True generosity is a duty as indispensably necesfary as those imposed upon us by law. It is a rule imposed upon us by realon, which should be the sovereign law of a rational being. But this generosity does not consist in obeying every impulse of humanity, in following blind passion for our guide, and impairing our circumstances by present benefactions, so as to render us incapable of future ones.
Misers are generally characterized as men without honour, or without humanity, who live only to accumulate, and to this passion facrifice every other happiness. They have been described as madmen, who, in the midst of abundance, banith every pleasure, and make, from imaginary wants, real necesfities. But few, very few correspond to this exaggerated picture ; and, perhaps, there is not one in whom all these circumstances are found united. Instead of this, we find the sober and the industrious branded by the vain and the idle, with this odious appellation. Men who, by frugality and labour, raise themselves above their equals, and contribute their share of industry to the common stock.
Whatever the vain or the ignorant may fay, well were it for society had we more of this character amongst us. In general, these close men are found at last the true benefactors of society. With an avaricious man we seldom lose in our dealings, but too frequently in our cominerce with prodigality.
A French priest, whose name was Godinot, went for a long time by the name of the Griper. He refused to relieve the most apparent wretchedness, and by a skilful management of his vineyard, had the good fortune to acquire immense sumns of money. The inhabitants of Rheims, who were his fellow-citizens, detested him, and the populace, who seldom love a miser, wherever he went, received him with con