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tions, at least, the names of different Zulu nations. Grand and the ex-Bishop of Autun in the church In his Missionary Travels and Researches in South of the village of Epinay, by the curé of that parish, Africa, his first work, he speaks of a strong Negro but of which all traces were concealed, and the race living along the river Zambesi, between Kalai exact date is unknown, though it must have been and Zumbo, and occupied with agriculture. subsequent to the divorce of 1798. The delegate Among them he met with several “ Zulu-Kafir of the municipal authority for the above was tribes." “ They are zealous idolaters,” he remarks, Admiral Duquénoy, under the authority of the "and very superstitious, but distinguished from First Consul.
A. S. A. other African races by their placing women on an Richmond, Surrey. equal footing with men.” The other passage where
Sufficient attention is scarcely paid by the inLivingstone mentions the name of the Zulus refers to quite a different tribe of the same race, which vestigators of curious questions of French genealogy seems to have emigrated in the opposite direction to the amount of valuable materials for this purpose
which is to be found in the Dictionnaire Critique from its original seat. “Around the northern end of the Nyassa lake there Par., 1872), the importance of which is much
de Biographie et d'Histoire, par A. Jal (second ed., wanders the Zulu tribe of the Masitu through the land, desolating, it and spreading terror and distress, the enhanced by the circumstance that so many of the greatest plague besides the burning heat of these torrid original documents cited or abstracted in it were regions."— Livingstone's Last Journals.
destroyed by fire in the siege of Paris. The civil H. KREBS.
act of the marriage of Talleyrand is contained in Oxford.
this work, and seems absolutely to set the question
at rest ; it fully accounts for the confusion of the THE FAMILY NAMES OF THE PRINCESS DE
pames Grand and Worlee. There is no question TALLEYRAND (5th S. xi. 4.)-The following extract further, as it appears, that both these names refer from the Civil Register of the “10e Arrondisse
to the same mother. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. ment de Paris," Sept. 10, 1802, gives a full statement of Talleyrand's marriage, with date and I do not know what her maiden name was, bat name of the lady in question :
her first husband's name was Le Grand, a gentle" Act de mariage de Charles-Maurice Talleyrand-Péri man in the Bengal Civil Service. Her subsequent gord, âgé de quarante-huit ans, né à Paris, départ. de la career as the mistress of Mr. (afterwards Sir Philip) Seine, le 2 février, 1754,” etc., et de Catherine Noel (sic) Francis, and subsequently as the wife of M. TalleyWorlee, âgée de' trente-neuf ane, née à Tranquebar, rand Périgord, is sufficiently well known. See colonie danoise, en Asie, le 21 nov., 1762, demt sur la commune d'Epinay, dépt. de la Seine, fille de Pierre Memoirs of Sir Elijah Impey by his son (London, Worlee et de Laurence Allamy, son épouse, tous deux Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1847), pp. 174 et seq. décédés, épouse divorcée de Georges-François Grand par and 387 et seq., and other references there given. acte prononcé à la mairie du 2e arrondisseinent de Paris, The latter passage describes a strange meeting at le 18 germinal an 6 (7 avril, 1798); en presence de Pierre Madame de Talleyrand's villa at Neuilly between Louis Ræderer, di à Paris, rue du Faubs.St.-Honoré, no. 63, président de la section de l'intérieur de conseil Mr. and Mrs. Fox, Sir Elijah and Lady Impey, d'Etat, âgé de 48 ans," &c.—Dictionnaire Critique de M. and Madame de Talleyrand, Sir Philip Francis, Biographie et d'Histoire, par A. Jal, 2e édition, Paris, and Mr. Le Grand : “ elements of mischief in Henri Plon, imprimeur-éditeur, rue Garancière 10; 1872, hypocritical repose."
Hugh F. BOYD. p. 1170.
The above seems decisive as to Madame Talley- SINDBAD AND ULYSSES (5th S. X. 493.)—The rand's names and birthplace, &c., and it is rather Iliad of Homer had been translated into Syriac strange that a periodical like L'Intermédiaire by Theophilus Edessenes, a Christian Maronite should not have referred, for the information re-monk of Mount Libanus, an astronomer by proquired, to a work so well known as Jal's invaluable fession, during the khalifat of Hárun-ur-Rashid, dictionary, which contains numerous copies of a.d. 786-809; and Ilium, the modern Hissárlik documents which were entirely destroyed during (fortress), being in Turkey, there can I think be the excesses of the Commune at Paris, when the no doubt that the author who, subsequent to his archives of the Civil State of Paris were burnt in reign, composed the Alif laila wa Lailatun, or the Palace of Justice and in the depôt in Victoria the Thousand and One Nights, must have had Avenue in May, 1871. The remaining names of access to an Arabic or Turkish version of the the witnesses of the civil marriage, including Iliad, the further discovery of which would proVice-Admiral Bruix, General Beurnonville, and the bably lead to the fixture of the real date and Prince of Nassau-Siegen, are all given at full authorship of these marvellous tales. length in the original document, ind the signatures
R. R. W. ELLIS. of the two contracting parties are as follows :“cn Dawlish. Worlee, ch. maur. Talleyrand." It would seem that a private marriage had
The similarity between some of the adventures previously been celebrated between Madame
* Modern Universal History, ii, 130.
of the two ävepes molÚTPOTTO, Es-Sindibád and so kindly produced touching on this family, we Ulysses, has been pointed out by Mr. Lane in his have now a more complete pedigree, which I trust edition of the Arabian Nights, vol. iii. chap. xx., the editor of "N. & Q.” will kindly allow to be note 39. The manuscripts differ as to the number produced in tabular form, as a correction of the of the monster's eyes, but the best authorities, one given at 5th S. vii. 407. There is one according to Mr. Lane, give him a pair, and very thing proved beyond a doubt at 5th S. ix. 76, which ugly he looks with them in Mr. Harvey's accom- is that Joan Halsham, widow of John de Lewkenor, panying illustration. EDWARD H. MARSHALL. left no issue at all, and consequently MR. Scott
must look elsewhere for the parentage of Sibilla, The Halsham Family (5th S. vii. 407 ; viii. wife of Sir William Scott, and resign the Strabolgi 13, 239, 435 ; ix. 76, 275.)–From what MR. blood which would thus have been imported into Scott and still more perfectly MR. VINCENT have the Scott family.
1. Philippa de Strabolgi,=John Halsham, of Coombe,=2. Matilda Mawley.
&c., d. Ap. 16, 1415.
John Halsham. Sir Hugh Halsham, Ric. Haisham=.., d. of Philippa, John Hal.=Matilda, wi- l. Sir=Joan=?. Sir on his mother's Kt., b. 1391, d. 1442, appears to John mar. Sir sham, men- dow of Thos. John
Rob. death, in 1395, s.p., m. 1, Jocosa have been a
Th. Faw- tioned in Poynings, L. Bowne, Roos,
legh, found her heir Colepepir; 2, Pe- novitiate, but
coner, L. his
Kt. and aged 10, tronilla, about the not under re-m.... Mayor of (Sir Hugh) | Jun.14,1453. probably died Court with Queen Vows of celi- Thorn- Lond. in will, but d. | Ing. p.m. 31 young. Joan.
Joan, only dau., heir to=John Lewkenor,
John Halsbam. In 1453 found heir to his Sir Henry Roos, John Eleanor, mother and aged 22. Probably dead with. Kt. In 1495 Roos. m. John out issue before May 12, 1495. Query, found heir to
Prudde, whether it was not he who took to wife Joan Lewkenor,
Esq. the Margaret Coumbe mentioned in the aged 56 and notarial instrument (quoted by Mr. Scott more vide 5th in The Scotts of Scot Hall, pp. 141-4) S. ix. 77). dated May 15, 1468.
"Godivo” (5th S. xi. 69.)—This dish is to be p. 149, gives a recipe for this dish. The principal found in many old cookery books of the last ingredients seem to be veal and kidney suet, century. The word is usually spelt godiveau, It minced very fine, and afterwards reduced to a sort was a raised pie filled with minced veal and bacon, of paste in a mortar, to which certain herbs may seasoned with parsley, chibbol, shallots, pepper, be added-a sort of force-meat, in fact. By the allspice, truffles, morells, eggs, cream, sweetbreads, way, Bailey is not quoted correctly. It should be, fat livers, and similar good things, baked for an “Godivoé [in cookery], a kind of delicious farce,” hour and a half, and served up very hot. A good not“ a delicious kind of fare." E. McCreceipt for this hash pie is given in The Modern Cook, by Vincent La Chapelle,“ late Chief Cook Bailey says, “Godivoe, a kind of delicious farce” to the Earl of Chesterfield, and now Chief Cook to
(not fare). Bailey seems to have copied Phillips his Highness the Prince of Orange” (Lond., 8vo.,
(New World of Words, sixth edit., 1706): “Godi1744), p. 185. An index of the quaint and voe (Fr. in cookery), a sort of pie filled with obsolete terms used in the older cookery books,
a delicious farce made of veal and several other such as that of Robert May, 1664, The Accomplisht
kinds of meat ; or else of carps, pikes, and other Cook, would be well worth making.
fish, for days of abstinence." The word is, of EDWARD SOLLY.
course, French, and veal, as we might expect, the
main ingredient of the pie. Here is Cotgrave, See Boileau's third satire, 1. 51 :
1611: “Goudiveau, a kind of open pie, made of “Un godiveau tout brulé par debord, minced veal, butter, hearbs, and spice, baked Dont un beure gluant inondoit tous les bords."
together, and afterwards hard yolks of egs put on Littré, in his dictionary, gives this definition : the top of it.”
ZERO. “Terme de cuisine, sorte de pâté chaud-composé d'andouillettes, de hachis de veau, etc.," and cites BAYARD'S LEAP (5th S. xi. 126.)—This is the the lines I have copied above. Fleming and second time within twelve months that I have had Tibbins, in their French and English dictionary, the pleasure of copying the following cutting from describe it as “espèce de farce faite avec du veau my scrap-book for the benefit of inquirers on this haché, de la graisse de beuf, du persil, etc.” subject. The authorship of the paragraph is A comparatively modern French cookery book, La attributed to the Rev. G. Oliver, D.D. Cuisine Française, par A. Gogué, published by "A knight of tried courage, during the age of chivalry, Hachette & Co., Paris, 1852, second edition, had solemnly undertaken to destroy a hag who was
a terror to the country. One day, while watering his Richard I. for the first authorized tournaments beld in cattle at a pond near the Hermen-street....... he was England. seized with a sudden impulse that the fortunate period "On Bayard's Green in Northamptonshire, in the year was at hand when he might successfully accomplish this 1249, was also held a famous tournament. dangerous undertaking, and though his horses were all “Query, may not the Bayard's Leap now under notice well trained to war, it was suggested to his mind that have derived its name from some similar appointment!” much might depend on his selection of one particular
The parish is about four miles west of Sleaford. steed, and therefore he determined to ascertain by divi.
Dudley G. Cary ELWES. nation which of them might be destined for this especial
Bedford seryice. He took up a large stone and cast it into the lake, accompanied by a secret petition to the gods that
The Rev. G. Oliver, D.D., in one of his discurthe chosen steed might raise his head from the water and display symptoms of impatience for action by neigh. sive little works (Pistory of the Holy Trinity ing in a spirited manner. A horse named Biard answered Guild at Sleaford, Lincoln, 1837), stored as usual the summons, and the warrior, armed with a naked with many shrewd and erudite notes, derives sword only, mounted the chosen animal without hesita- “Biard's Leap” from the Celtic Beird Ldapp, the tion. Arriving at the mouth of the cave, he called to the cheerful path of the bards. He says : “The
name sorceress to come forth, and received an immediate carries us back into the obscurity of the British answer in the following words :-I must suckle my cubs,
period, and appears to intimate that it was conI must buckle my shoes,
structed by the aboriginal natives at the same And then I will give you your supper.' time as the roads themselves, as a convenient pasWhen she made her appearance the horseman, without sage for the bards to attend their public assemblies parley, commenced an attack upon her by a blow with of the country.” The traditional story, which in his sword that struck off her left breast, but the witch, later times has been nicely fitted to meet the corby a sudden bound evading a second stroke, fixed her talons so deeply in Biard's flank that the animal became ruption of the name, is no doubt well known to restive, and endeavoured to escape by a series of pro- all Lincolnshire readers.
W. E. B. digious leaps, three of which, at least sixty yards asunder, are still marked by the impression of his feet. The The following extract is from White's Lincolawitch died from her wound, and to prevent her re- shire (1872):appearance she was buried at the intersection of the
“At the north-west angle of the parish of Raueros, cross roads, with a stake through her body and an
six miles W.N.W. of Sleaford, at th: point where the immense stone placed over her grave, which remains to road to Newark crosses the Roman Ermine Street, is the present day."
a spot called Bayard's Leap, where a famous bay borse, A tourist of about two centuries ago, whose with his terrified rider, is said to have made a prodigious diary is represented in my scrap-book, says :
leap in escaping from a witch who haunted that locality.
The marks of Bayard's feet, before and after the "On Lincoln Heath is the marke of a horse's leap, leap, have always been kept cut in the turf on either being 16 yards; the horse's name was Byard, and this side of the cross road, and are now marked by vast horseplace is called Byard's Leap from him. But then you shoes.” must know the horse was frighted by a witch or perhaps
John FERNIE. he had never leapt so farr; and the people hereabouts keep the marke of the leapé on purpose to be seen.” -ESS" (5th S. xi. 87.)-The termination -688 Who was this tourist? My cutting, which was
was added with great freedom by men who were probably taken from the Lincolnshire Chronicle, as good scholars as Evelyn before his day. Daniel tells me that he went from London to Scotland,
preserv'resse"; Marlowe, Tamburlaine, and “afterwards published his quaint remarks in
“ Turk-ess"; the Authorized Version, Jer. x. 17 a singular little work of which there were but 100 (margin), inhabitress.” Fuller is fond of the copies printed."
ending, and bas“ president ress," “ moderatresse,"
“ intrudress," "buildress," and many others. The In a history of co. Lincoln, dated 1834, by John plump ostleress," too, of Tennyson's Princess, Saunders, junior, vol. ii. p. 257, under the parish has a forerunner in "an ostleresse ” of Fuller's of “North Rauceby," the following occurs :- Holy War, i. 4. So the “ youthful hermit-ess" of
" Bayard's Leap.--A solitary house, situated on the Coleridge is almost the sweet hermitress" of
than shepherdess or Chaucer's taking of a prodigious leap on a horse called "Bayard. “ hierdesse”; or “butcheress” than "authoress The holes in which the horse's feet are said to have or Spenser's “ warriouresse." O. W. TANCOCK. rested are still kept open, and Dr. Stukeley makes mention of them in his Itinerariuni Curiosum, but supposes them to be nothing more than the boundaries Mr. Morrin's interpretation of the former word
“TANDOUST": "Taselys” (5th S. X. 309.) of four parishes.
“A district near Bicester, Oxon, was called Bayard's is undoubtedly correct, and the charter referred Green, and one of the three places appointed by to shows that tanning was carried on at its date at
Jerpoint, but taselys does not mean tassels, but A carefully executed woodcut of this Norman doorteasels or teazles, which are used to raise the nap way will be found in an article, “Two Worcesteron woollen cloth, and the charter shows the manu- shire Legends in Stone," published in Medley, by facture of cloth had been then introduced into the Cuthbert Bede (James Blackwood, no date, but town.
WINSLOW JONES. about 1856), who gives the legend of the young
hunter who shot at a buck on the other side of the The term fir cone as applied to the fruit of the Severn and killed a salmon that leapt from the fir tree is, I should think, of very modern date. water, a certain ring being found inside the fish, In Dorset' they are commonly called fir apples or which ring led to the marriage of the young simply tassels. In the streets of Poole they used hunter with the daughter of the lord of the manor. to be, and probably are still, sold by the sack for Cuthbert Bede also gives his reasons for believing use as fire-lighters. For reviving an expiring fire that the so-called salmon carved upon the tymtheir resinous and terebinthine qualities render
panum is meant for one of those beavers that them very useful.
Thos. B. GROVES.
abounded in the Severn, where “Bevere Island" Weymouth.
still recalls their existence. VIGORNIENSIS. Taselys probably means teasels, or burrs, for teasing cloth. Tæsel, tosan, to pull. Compare
THE "FYLFOT” (3rd S. v. 458; viii. 415 ; 5th Promptorium,“ Tasyl, carduus vel cardo fullonis, S. x. 436; xi. 154.) - Has this very ancient symbol paliurus.” Compare Piers Plowman, text B, xy? been noticed in any of the ruined cities of Mexico, 444-7 (ed. Skeat) :
Colorado, or anywhere else in the New World í “Cloth þat cometh fro be weuyng is nouzt comly to were, in those countries, I beg to make this inquiry.
Not having access to illustrated books of travels Tyl it is fulled vnder fote or in fullyng stokkes, Wasshen wel with water and with taseles cracched,
T. W. W. S. Ytouked, and ytented, and vnder tailloures hande.” Comp. Riley's Liber Albus, pp. 530, 538, “ that Macbeth is believed to have been really edited by
“MACBETH” (5th S. xi. 268.)—This edition of thistles shall not be taken out of the realm."
0. W. TANCOCK.
Mr. John Croft, a well-known York antiquary,
who also published Annotations on Plays of “ Tasels is a kind of hard bur, used by clothiers Shakespeare, York, 1810, and Memoirs of Harry and cloth-workers in dressing cloth. An. 4 Ed. IV. Rowe : constructed from Materials found in an cap. i.” (Blount, Law Dict.). This is the Dipsacus Old Boc after his Decease. Harry Rowe, whose fullonum, fuller's teasel. ED. MARSHALL. name was thus used, was for many years a well
known York character. He died in the York Irish SUPERSTITION (5th S. x. 447.)—“If grazed Workhouse in 1797, in the seventy-fourth year of on [a certain field] horses lose their hoofs.” Perhaps his age. For further particulars see Davies's moonwort grew there. There is a popular belief in Memoir of the York Press. BIBLIOTHECARY. Ireland, as elsewhere, that this plant causes a horse that treads upon it to cast a shoe. One name for SATURDAY AND THE ROYAL Family (5th S. xi. moonwort in German is eisen-brech, iron-breach, 287.)— Abuba has sent a cutting from the Globe and the supposed powers from which it draws such respecting Saturday, a day said to be fatal to the a name are illustrated in a Limerick story of a royal family. I think a very little attention to Castlejane man who when in Clonmel Jail opened facts will greatly reduce the number of these all the prison locks with it. On a certain part of “fatal” Saturdays. Thus, William III. did not Sliabh Riabhach mountain no horse, people say, die on Saturday, March 18, but Wednesday, can keep its shoe (persons in the locality, 1876). | March 8, 1701–2. Anne did not die on Saturday, There are somewhat analogous beliefs about vervain, but Wednesday also. The date given is correct which I observe is called in Welsh Briw 'r March (Aug. 1, 1714), but this was & Wednesday. (horse-wound).
David FitzGERALD. George I. did not die on June 10, 1727, but Hammersmith.
June 11, which was Sunday; and even in regard to
George III. there is considerable doubt whether RIBBESFORD Church (5th S. xi. 267.)—My last he died on Saturday night or Sunday morningvisit to this church was paid in August, 1877, George II., George IV., with the Duchess of Kent, when I can satisfy H. W. B. that the arch was the Prince Consort, and the Princess Alice, withthen in situ, and that it was not contemplated to out doubt died on a Saturday, but of the crowned interfere with it in the projected and much-needed heads mentioned only two, or at most three, have reparation of the building. The old Norman arch found Saturday a “fåtal day.” has plain mouldings. I therefore conclude that
E. COBHAM BREWER. when H. W. B. says that “the arch” was “quaintly Lavant, Chichester. carved,” and asks “if the figures thereon are still distinct,” he refers to the tympanum and the ANDREW MARVELL (5th S. xi. 283.)—Being at capitals, which are carved with much elaboration. Cherry Burton a few years ago to search the parish
register for another name, I unexpectedly lighted is still occupied by the Dutch Calvinists. But the upon an entry which I take to be that of the first arms given by Mr. WOODWARD escaped. I had marriage of the father of Andrew Marvell the not time to examine them, and have no doubt patriot, as follows : "1612, Oct. 22. Andrew Mar- that Mr. WOODWARD has related them faithfully. uell and Anne Pease, married.” John Sykes. I write to point out misunderstanding of his in Doncaster.
his note, ante, p. 270. He says : “ The Counts of
Egmond bore en surtout the arms of the duchy Capt. John Smith AND POCAHONTAS (5th S. xi. of Guelders-Per pule az. and or, two lions com287.)--I have engraved portraits of Pocahontas batant, the first or, the other sa.” This makes and Capt. John Smith, which I shall be happy to what is there seen to be a single coat. But the show to your correspondent VirginiENSIS.
lions are not combatant, and this shield is parti, GEORGE ELLIS.
according to the constant European practice of St. John's Wood.
marshalling, and shows two coats, Gueldres and Father ARROWSmith's HAND (5th S. xi. 94.)— Juliers. At the end of “Sigilla Comitum FlanThis is now preserved at Ashton, Newton-le- driæ ... Olivari Vredi, . . . 1639,” is a list of arms Willows, near Liverpool, and is often visited by by Julius Chifflet, son of J.J. Chifflet. Among persons from a considerable distance. In this them is :year's Catholic Directory, p. 161, we read : “Those “Gueldres, parti, au premier d'azur a un lion conwho wish to visit the holy hand' will have an
tourné couronné d'or, lampassé et armé de gueulles, qui opportunity of satisfying their devotion on Sunday est de Gueldres ; au 2 d'or au lion de sable, denté et armé after the masses,” &c. "A life of F. Arrowsmith d'argent, lampassé de gueulles, qui est de Juliers." will be found in vol. ii. of Challoner's Missionary of Gueldres singly, thus, “La Duche de Gvueldres,"
On the tomb of Charles the Bold occurs a shield Priests. He "suffered at Lancaster, Aug. 28, 1628, ætatis forty-three." See “ N. &'Q.,"4th S! Azure, a lion rampant, crowned, queue fourchée, or. ix. 376, 436, 452, 455 ; x. 177, 258.
Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. SACRAMENTAL WINE (5th S. x. 328 ; xi. 48, 75, “SHACK” (5th S. viii. 127, 413; ix. 318; I 109, 176, 291.)- There is a full discussion concern- 275, 417.)- I am obliged by the notices of Farious ing the colour of wine used for mass in Bona, Rer. correspondents as to the word shack upon which Lit., lib. ii. cap. viii. (ed. Sala). It would seem that my communication was first of all inserted. Ent red wine was generally used until comparatively may I remark that the replies have in many inmodern times, but that white was allowed in cases stances drifted away from the original purpose, of necessity. White wine was enjoined at Milan which was not to obtain the ordinary meaning of by St. Charles Borromeo in an American (Roman) shack (about which there is but little question), synod in 1595, and in one of Majorca in 1659, in but to arrive at a meaning suitable to the passage the latter case on the ground that the altar was less quoted from the Homily? The reply by C. B., liable to be soiled by it. Mabillon says that red which shows the application of the term to grass, wine was ordered to be generally used in the Gal- and not merely to corn, seems to hit upon this. lican Church as being more like blood and less like The Homily spoke of the charitable use of making water, a consideration which has doubtless deter- the balks broad for the more convenient shack of mined the Anglican use. Chambers says, “ Accord- cattle during harvest. The broader balk would ing to the anciently received English custom it enable the animals used for draught to graze, ought to be red wine : 'Let the wine be red rather at the intervals of rest from labour, more conthan white, although the sacrament is well con- veniently.
ED. MARSHALL. secrated in white'
"» (Divine Worship, p. 233). Van Espen (A.D. 1753) says it matters little
I am inclined to look upon shack as something provided it be of the fruit of the vine. See further more than a local custom, and to give it a much in Directorium Anglicanum, 1865, p. 190. I find earlier origin and wider extension. For instance, from the Ripon account rolls that red wine of when on the Cotton Commission in Turkey, we Gascony was there used“ pro missis celebratis” in were troubled with shack under the name of bozook, the latter half of the fifteenth century.
the herdsmen claiming the right of pasturing cattle J. T. F.
after harvest ; and as American cotton was late in Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.
ripening, our efforts to grow it were impeded by
the claimants of bozook. It is, I believe, on the ARMS ON THE STALLS IN THE CATHEDRAL AT same claim that the great company of merino HAARLEM (5th S. ix. 61, 101, 413, 451, 471, 497 ; sheep traverses Spain, and causes such interrupxi. 269.)—Ì have been in the fine building which tion to agriculture.
Hype CLARKE was for a few years, beginning with 1559, the Cathedral of Harlem. În 1572 the bishop was “Less ” (51h S. X. 248, 294.)-MR. ROSENdriven out, and the usual enormities followed. It THAL does not mention the doubling of the com