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other occasions, I am confident He will be a very usefull servant to me in yo station I designed him," & you will know what want I have of one in that employm'.

Pray acquainte y' Friends that upon all occasions of y" Revenue I shall not faile to communicate them to my Lo Trear: for matters of Grants to my Lord Keeper, & for other intelligences by yo Kings especiall command I am to apply to my Lord of Arlington, & doubtless 'tis best for y” frame of his Maties business that his Ministers doe impart his affairs respectively to ye persons properly employ'd, according to their severall & distinct Trust: woo I am sure shall be my Rule, so long as I serve his Matie: & should I doe other, it were making my selfe judge who were fitt for yo King to employ, & not leaving it to his Matie to distribute his owne business into ye Hands He thinks most proper to manage it.

And by holding this course I cannot see but I may preserve y” Friendship of all, whatever disputes or Factions there may be one among another. Therefore, as opportunity serves, you may tell y' Friends, particularly Ld. Keeper, Ld. Trear, Mr. Speaker, & Orrery too, if you think fitt, that I shall not be wanting in my respects towards them, suitable to yo stations wherein they serve his Mafie, nor in any offices of friendship wherein I may be in a capacity to evidence it; And for y' selfe you may ever rely upon my being w” all Truth, &c.

XCV.-LORD CONWAY. To THE EARL OF ESSEX.

MAY IT PLEASE YO" ExCEL*, November 29, 1673. I have presumed to write to y' Excel" the 18" and the 22", and to Sr Arthur Forbesse the 18" and the 25", so that I have not omitted any post since I came to towne, nor shall I omit any, if my Letters are of any service or entertainment to yo' Excel".

* His London secretary.

The Dutchesse of Yorke came to Whitehall on Wensday last. The King brought her up from the Barge to the Queen’s Presence Chamber, and stopt in the outer drawing-roome till the Queen came to the dore of the Presence Chamber to meet her; the Duke of Yorke led up the Dutchesse of Modena, and as soon as they were entred the Prescence Chamber the King called for a chayre for her, upon wo" my Lady Suffolke, my Lady Falmouth, and the rest of the Ladyes to the number of 20 that were of the Nobility ran out of the roome, as thinking themselves of equall quality to the Dutchesse of Modena; and that night the King sent to the Duke to desire that she might not be in the Roome when the Ladyes came to kisse the Dutchesse of Yorke's hand, weh was order'd accordingly. I went with my Lord Keeper and my Lord Tresurer on Thursday morning, when they kist her hand. She is a proper hansome Lady. She hath very good eyes, very good features, and a very good complexion, but she wants the Aire wo" should set off all this, and having been bred in a Monastry knows not how to set one foot before another with any gracefulnesse. I observed that though many cofiended her in their discourse to the Duke, yet none wisht him joy, nor would the City be brought to make Bonfires.

What I writ last to Sr A. Forbese I had from Speak. and Trear. but Orrery is of opinion Parlim will sett, and that King having made sure the money of France, wil endeavor to get more of Parlem'." Spe. and Trear. are enemies to Herbert, and swore to Con. that from the day he was Secretary to Essea, they would push at Esser. I have had many debates with myselfe whether I should write this to you or not, and at last I resolved that though it should ruine me in yo' favor, yet I would preserve my integrity, and tell you truth.

* A vote was carried, after a prolonged and most interesting debate, to refuse supply before the danger from Popish councillors, and other grievances, were removed, unless the obstinacy of the Dutch should render it necessary.

CAMD. SOC U WOL. I.

I cannot omit one passage wo" probably yo' Excel” will not have from any other hand, it is that upon Wensday last, before the Lords Com" of the Admiralty, S' Tho. Littleton reproacht my Lord Tresurer, and calt him a cheat, upon wo" all the Lords Com" rose up in great disorder. The occasion of it was this, The Victuallers of the Navy were turned of, and a new contract made with others; the old ones were all admitted to speak to the King, except So Tho. Littleton, who, it is thought, will be sent to the Tower next Councell day, wo" is not till Wensday.

# # # # #

On Munday next the King hath appointed to heare it debated before the Cofiittee for Forrain affaires, whether the Office of M' of the Ordnance in Ireland shall stand, or fall into the office under So Tho. Chicheley in England. o

Last night my Lord Tresurer carryed me to my Lady Shrewsberryes, where there was Nell Gwyn, the Duke of Buckingham, and M Speaker. About three a clock in the morning we went to supper, were very merry, and drank smartly. I wish I knew how to write yo' Excel" all our good discourse, for I assure yo' Excel" that I am, with the greatest sincerity imäginable, &c.

XCVI.—THE EARL OF Essex TO CHARLES II.

MAY IT PLEASE Y" MAJESTIE, December 1, 1673. There hath bin of late some discourses here as if it were necessary for ye welfare of this Country that ye Lieu' & Councell did now make some representation to y Majestie of y" State of this Kingdome, & tho’ none as yet ventured to move it in Councell, yet I know severall of y' privy Councell" are much inclined to promote an Adress of this nature, if it were once brought into debate; but I am confident I have Interest enough to prevent ye progress, & I hope even y” offering any such thing to be considered off at ye board, & at y” last I am entrusted woo a negative upon y” whole Table, in case ye major part should be induced to offer anything of this nature to y Majestie, for when I consider ye proceedings weh have bin in England, and those seconded in ye same manner in Scotland," I cannot but judge that, should any Adress of y" like sort come from y” Lieu' and Councell here (who in yo Intervalls of Parliam' are looked upon as y publick intrusted persons of this Kingdome), it would certeinly adde much fuell to that fire weh seems too neer kindling in those other y Majesties dominions, & would render y' jealousies & misunderstandings (if any there be) between y Matie & y people in a yet more perplexed & entangled condition. I shall therefore apply my selfe, wo all circumspection, to prevent even yo mention of any motion that may tend to yo promoting of any Publick Adress to be made by y' Majestie. Nor doe I indeed know what these men have to say, unless it be to represent yo poverty of y" country occasioned by y” present War, or yo mis. chiefs wo" some men suffer by yo frequent robberys that are dayly committed. For the first of these, wo" is yo only one thing that may carry wo it a colour for a publicke Adress, y' Matie, I am sure, cannot but be sensible that y' interruption of Trade must needs cause a failure of Rents in all men's Estates, & it hath already bin made evident to yo Matie how much our Losses are by this war, when you were graciously pleased to allow twelve thousand Pds to yo Farmers, by way of defalcation, out of ther Rents for ye Customs, w°h is more then one-fifth part of this whole revenue; so as yr Matie having y' selfe given a sufficient prooff how affected you are wo ye sufferings of y" country in this kind, there needs not any representation of this matter, or if there did, I humbly conceive it were much more for y Majesties Service that you should receive information of these grievances, rather by a private Lie from my selfe, then by a publick Act, wo" in such cases carrieth too much a shew of discontent. As for ye, robberys committed in this Kingdome, they doe dayly increase, and are, I confess, grown to such an height as they are become a reproach to y” Goverment, & look almost like petit rebellions, they goeing by 20 or 30 in a company, breaking open Houses even in y day Time. Many complaints of this kind have bin brought to yo Councell, & upon every information of this sort yo generallitie of yo Privy Councell" immediately move for ye setting up of y" Militia here in y” severall Countys, & press it w" great earnestness; but for my owne part, when I reflect upon ye present posture of affairs, both in England & Scotland, & consider that as to yo English here, they are many of them ye remains of Cromwell's Army, & as to yo Scotch, they are for ye most part Presbyterians, & that these are ye men who will have arms putt into their hands & be formed into bodys, I cannot judge this of all others a season. able Time to establish a Militia, but conceive it much more advisable for y' Matie to depend upon yr Army, whom I look upon as very entire & secure to yo service. I must confess ye humour of men runns so high for this Militia as I cannot positively deny yo promoting of it without giving a jealously that I am not a favourer of y" Protestant Interest, & therefore I doe entertaine them upon this subject w" some discourses, as if I were goeing in hand whit; as enquiring where y Arms are wo" belong to yo Militia, & giving out some litle proportions of Powder to those who have bin Captains in order to yo defence of their Houses, tho' I really intend nothing less then ye forming of this Force, being very confident that wo those few Troops, wo" y Matie has in pay here, I shall be able to keep all quiet. And for yo suppression of these lawless people who committ outrages in yo country, who have already done some service in yo apprehension of these Torys; but should this evill continue, there must be some sharper course taken to correct it by commissionating Marreschales, woo powr to proceed ag' these Malefactors by Martiall law, wo" tho' it be not altogether agreable to y Laws of yo Kingdome, yet in case of necessitie has ever bin indulged & practised here. And this 1 conclude, why Maties approbation, will be a much better course to be taken then y” establishing a Militia at this Time, when I am so far from assuring my selfe of their obedience that I am confident, should there be Troubles in

* See Lauderdale Papers, vol. ii. p. 241.

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