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FOUILLOU (JAMES), a celebrated licentiate of the Sorbonne, was born in 1670 at Rochelle, where he studied ethics in the Jesuits' college. He went afterwards to Paris, and continued his studies in the community of M. Gillot, at the college of St. Barbe, including the time of his being licentiate, and was immediately nominated theologal of Rochelle; this office, however, he declined, nor had he ever any benefice, but the commendatory priory of St. Martin de Prunieres, in the diocese of Mende. M. Fouillou having engaged in the affair of the “ Case of Conscience," was obliged to conceal himself in 1703, and to retire into Holland about 1705; but the air of that country not agreeing with him, he was seized with an asthma, which proved incurable. He returned to Paris about 1720, and died there September 21, 1736, aged sixty-six, leaving several theological works, all anonymous, and all discovering great opposition to the bull Unigenitus. The principal are, 1. “ Considerations sur la Censure (of the Cas de Conscience) de M. l'Eveque d'Apt.” 2.“ Defense des Theologiens contre M. de Chartres,” 12mo. 3. “Traité sur le Silence respectueux,” 3 vols. 1 2mo. 4. “ La Chimere du Jansenisme, et le Renversement de la Doctrine de St. Augustin, par l'Ordonnance de Luçon, et de la Rochelle," 12mo. 5. “ Traité de l’Equilibre,” a small piece containing observations on the 101 propositions censured by the hull Unigenitus. Fouillou had also a great share in the first edition of « L'Action de Dieu sur les Creatures,” 4to, or 6 vols. 12mo; " Gemissemens sur PortRoïal," 12mo; - Grands Hexaples,” 1721, 7 vols. 4to, and “ l'Histoire du Cas de Conscience,” 1705, 8 vols. 1 2mo.'
FOULIS (ROBERT and ANDREW), two learned printers of Scotland, were, it is supposed, natives of Glasgow, and passed their early days in obscurity. Ingenuity and perseverance, however, enabled them to establish a press from which have issued some of the finest specimens of correct and elegant printing which the eighteenth century has produced. Even Bodoni of Parma, or Barbou of Paris, have not gone beyond some of the productions from the press of Robert and Andrew Foulis. It would be highly agreeable to trace the progress of these ingenious men, but their history has been neglected by their coun
i Moreri. L'Avocat's Dict. Hist,
trymen, and at this distance little can be recovered. Robert Foulis began printing about 1740, and one of his first essays was a good edition of Demetrius Phalereus, in 4to. In 1744 he brought out his celebrated immaculate edition of Horace, 12mo, and soon afterwards was in partnership with his brother Andrew. Of this edition of Hurace, the sheets, as they were printed, were hung up in the college of Glasgow, and a reward was offered to those who should discover an inaccuracy. It has been several times reprinted at Glasgow, but not probably with the same fidelity, The two brothers then proceeded in producing, for thirty years, a series of correct and well printed books, particularly classics, which, either in Greek or Latin, are as remarkable for their beauty and exactness as any in the Aldine series. · Among those classics we may enumerate 1. “ Homer,” 4 vols. fol. Gr. 2. “ Herodotus," 9 vols. 12mo. 3. “ Thucydides,” 8 vols. 12mo.
4. " Xenophon," 8 vols. 12mo. 5. “ Epictetus,” 12mo. 6. “Longinus,” 12mo. 7. “ Ciceronis Opera," '20 vols. 12mo. 8. Horace,” 12mo and 4to. 9. “ Virgil,” 13mo. 10. « Tibullus and Propertius," 12mo. 11. “Cornelius. Nepos," 3 vols. 12ino. 12.“ Tacitus," 4 vols. 12mo. 13. « Juvenal and Persius," 12mo. 14. “ Lucretius," 12mo. To these may be added a beautiful edition of the Greek Testament, small 4to ; Gray's Poems ; Pope's Works; Hales of Eton, &c. &c. &c.
It is a melancholy reflection that the taste of these worthy men for the fine arts at last brought about their ruin ; for having engaged in the establishment of an academy for the instruction of youth in painting and sculpture in Scotland, the enormous expence of sending pupils to Italy, to study and copy the ancients, gradually brought on their decline in the printing business; and they found the city of Glasgow no fit soil to transplant the imitative arts into, although the literary genius of Greece and Rome had already produced them ample fortunes. Unsuccessful as they were, however, in this project, it ought not to be forgot that Robert Foulis, with whom it originated, was the first who endeavoured to establish a school of the li. beral arts in Great Britain. Andrew Foulis died in 1774 ; and Robert in 1776 exhibited and sold at Christie's in Pall Mall, the remainder of his paintings. The catalogue forms 3 vols.; and the result of the sale was, that after all the concomitant expences were defrayed, the balance in his favour amounted only to the sum of fifteen shillings. He died the same year, on his return to Scotland.'
FOULON or FOULLON (John ERARD), a German divine and historian, was born at Liege, of an ancient and distinguished family, in 1609; and in 1625 he entered the order of the Jesuits. His tutors, observing that his qualifications were peculiarly adapted to the duties of a preacher, took care to instruct him in the requisites for undertaking the office, and he became celebrated for his public services for more than thirty years, as well as for his extensive knowledge, which embraced every branch of science. He was successively appointed rector of the colleges at Huy and Tournay, and died of a pestilential dis. order in the latter city, in 1668. He is known as an author by many theological pieces, particularly “ Commentarii Historici et Morales ad libros I. et II. Machabæorum, additis liberioribus Excursibus," in 2 vols. folio; and by his “ Historia Leodiensis, per Episcoporum et Principum Seriem digesta ab origine populi usque ad Ferdinandi Bavari tempora,” &c. in 3 vols. fol. This work, though not very ably executed, is said to throw much light on the history of the Low Countries."
FOULON (WILLIAM), a Dutch Latin poet, styled by himself, in allusion to his real name, Gulielmus Gnaphæus, was born in 1483, at the Hague, and became master of a school in that place. He wrote several comedies in Latin, which sometimes have been sought by foreign collectors, rather as rare than for their intrinsic merit; yet the “ Acolastus” is common and cheap in this country. We know of three of these comedies : 1. “ Martyrium Johannis
Pistorii," Leyden. 2. “ Hypocrisis," a tragi-comedy, 1554. 3. “ Acolastus, de filio prodigo,” a comedy : all in 8vo. He died at Horden in Friezeland, where he had arrived to the rank of a burgomaster, in 1558. Many critics would say that nothing very liveiy could be expected in the comedies of a Dutch burgomaster. His “ Acolastus" was reprinted at Paris, in 1554, with elaborate notes by Gabriel Prateolus ; and is said, in the title, to be formed so diligently of sentences from Plautus and Terence, that to interpret it might serve as an extensive comment on both those authors.3
! Nichols's Buwyer.m-Lemoine's Hist. of Printing. ? Moreri.-- Poppen-Bibl. Belg.
FOUNTAINE (SIR ANDREW), knt. whose ancestors were seated at Narford, in Norfolk, so early as the reign of Henry III. was educated as a commoner of Christchurch, Oxford, under the care of that eminent encourager of literature, Dr. Aldrich. He at the same time studied under Dr. Hickes the Anglo-Saxon language, and its antiquities; of which he published a specimen in Hickes's “ Thesaurus,” under the title of “ Numismata Anglo-Saxonica et Anglo-Danica, breviter illustrata ab An. dreâ Fountaine, eq. aur. & ædis Christi Oxon. alumno. Oxon. 1705," in which year Mr. Hearne dedicated to him his edition of Justin the historian. He received the honour of knighthood from king William ; and travelled over most parts of Europe, where he made a large and valuable collection of pictures, ancient statues, medals, and inscriptions; and, while in Italy, acquired such a knowledge of virtù, that the dealers in antiquities were not able to impose on him.
In 1709 his judgment and fancy were exerted in embellishing the “ Tale of a Tub” with designs almost equal to the excellent satire they illustrate. At this period he enjoyed the friendship of the most distinguished wits, and of Swift in particular, who repeatedly mentions him in the Journal to Stella in terms of high regard. In December, 1710, when sir Andrew was given over by his physicians, Swift visited him, foretold his recovery, and rejoiced at it ; though he humourously says, “ I have lost a legacy by his living; for he told me he had left me a picture and some books,” &c. Sir Andrew was vice-chamberlain to queen Caroline while princess of Wales, and after she was queen. He was also tutor to prince William, for whom he was installed (as proxy) knight of the Bath, and had on that occasion a patent granted him, dated Jan. 14, 1725, for adding supporters to his arms. Elizabeth his sister, married colonel Clent of Knightwick, in Worcestershire. Of his skill and judgment in medals ancient and modern, be made no trifling profit, by furnishing the most considerable cabinets of this kingdom; but if, as Dr. Warton tells us, Annius in the “ Dunciad” was meant for him, his traffic was not always of the most honourable kind. In 1727 he was appointed warden of the mint, an office which he held till his death, which happened Sept. 4, 1753. He was buried at Narford, in Norfolk, where he had erected an elegant seat, and formed a fine collection of old china ware, a valuable
library, an excellent collection of pictures, coins, and many curious pieces of antiquity. Sir Andrew lost many miniatures by a fire at White's original chocolate-house, in St. James's-street, where he had hired two rooms for his collections. A portrait of him, by Mr. Hoare of Bath, is in the collection at Wilton house, and two medals of him are engraved in Snelling's “English Medals," 1776. Montfaucon, in the preface to “ L'Antiquité Expliquée,” calls sir Andrew Fountaine an able antiquary, and says that, during his stay at Paris, that gentleman furnished bim with every piece of antiquity that he had collected, which could be of use to his work; several were accordingly engraved and described, as appears by sir Andrew's name on the plates.
FOUQUIERES (JAMES), a Flemish painter of the 17th century, born at Antwerp in 1580, was one of the most learned and celebrated of landscape painters. Some have placed him so near Titian, as to make the difference of their pictures consist, rather in the countries represented, than in the goodness of the pieces. The principles they went upon are the same, and their colouring alike good and regular. He painted for Rubens, of whom he learned the essentials of his art. The elector palatine employed him at Heidelberg, and from thence he went to Paris, where, though he worked a long time, and was well paid, yet he grew poor for want of conduct, and died 1659, in the house of an ordinary painter called Silvain, who lived in the suburbs of St. Jaques.'
FOURCROY (ANTHONY FRANCIS), an eminent French chemist, was born at Paris Jone 15, 1755, where his father was an apothecary, of the same family with the subject of the succeeding article. In his ninth year he was sent to the college of Harcourt, and at fourteen he completed the studies which were at that time thought necessary. Having an early attachment to music and lively poetry, he attempted to write for the theatre, and had no higher ambition than to become a player, but the bad success of one of his friends who had encouraged this taste, cured him of it, and for two years he directed his attention to commerce.
At the end of this time an intimate friend of his father persuaded him to study medicine, and
1 Nichols's-bowyer.-Bowles's edit. of Pope, vol. V. p. 302.-Swift's Works; see Index,
2 D'Argenville. --Pilkington, and Strutt.