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let it be read. The writer feels deeply “In the life and in the death of the Lord that, as the Lord's steward, he is bound to Jesus we hare a striking exemplification of bring the facts contained in this paper the manner in which we should seek first before the hearts and consciences of the the kingdom of God and his righteousness. Lord's people. He believes, too, that these and when risen from the dead, ere he facts must produce some fruit in the heart ascended on high, he committed to his of each Christian reader. The legitimate people the work of making known the glad fruit will undoubtedly be, not vain words tidings of free salvation through faith in of empty sympathy, but effectual fervent his finished work. This duty he enjoined prayer, and strenuous self-denying effort on us ; enjoined in the most unmistakable for the salvation of the benighted Chinese. form, and to the most definite extent ; say: And if in any instance they fail to produce ing, Go YE into ALL the world, and this fruit, the writer would urge the con- preach the Gospel to EVERY CREATURE.' sideration of these solemn words : 'If thou Grievously has the Church failed in ful. forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto filling this command. Sad it is to realize death, and those that are ready to be slain ; that in this the nineteenth century of the if thou sayest, Bebold, we knew it not; Christian era, immense tracts of our globe doth not He that pondereth the heart con- are wholly destitute of the means of grace, sider it? and He that keepeth thy soul, doth and of the knowledge of salvation. Leave pot he know it? and shall not he repder to ing other fields, however, let us concentrate every man according to his works ?' our attention on the Chinese empire. Let
Early in the course of our Saviour's us reflect on its great antiquity, its vast ex. ministry, the Lord Jesus taught his people tent, its teeming population; on its spiritual that they were to be THE LIGHT-not of destitution, and overwhelming need. Let Jerusalem, not of Judea, nor yet of the us survey the efforts that have been put Jewish nation, butąOF THE WORLD. And forth for its good, and contemplate the he taught them to pray- not as the heathen, work which still remains to be done, ere the who use vain and unmeading repetitions ; Gospel is preached to every creature nor yet as the worldly-minded, who ask throughout this empire. And may the first and principally (if not solely) for their view we shall obtain give rise to devout own private benefit and need : •For,' said gratitude to God for our own superior he, your Father knoweth what things ye privileges, to humiliation before him for have need of before ye ask him. After our past want of earnestness in the disthis manner therefore pray ye:
semination of the truth, and to more "Our Father which art in heaven, strenuous efforts in future for China's “Hallowed be THY name ;
good. « « Thy kingdom come;
“It is surely high time that this most "" Thy will be done ; as in heaven, so in intereeting and venerable empire had the earth.
Gospel proclaimed in its purity and soulAnd it was only after these petitions, and saving power. Long enough has it been quite secondary to them, that any personal left in the thraldom of sin and Satan. No petitions were to be offered. Even the other nation has been left for so many cenvery moderate one, Give us this day our turies to suffer in darkness, and to prove daily bread, followed them. Is not this how unable man is to raise himself without order too often reversed in the present day ? Divine revelation and Divine regeneration. Do not Christians often really feel, as well As to the antiquity of this empire, it stands as act as if they felt, that it is incumbent the sole remaining relic of the hoary ages upon them to commence with Give us this of the past, and of patriarchal times. For day our daily bread;' concluding with, ' If forty centuries it has enjoyed many of the consistent with this, may thy name be fruits of a certain measure of civilization ballowed too'? And is not the popular and of literary attainment. Our own anversion of Matt. vi. 33 (even amongst the tiquities sink into insignificance in comLord's professed followers), Seek first food parison with those of this country. As and clothing, health, wealth, and comfort, early as the reign of Edward the First, fireand then the kingdom of God and his arms were invented in China. The art of righteousness? Instead of honouring bim printing was discovered there in the reign with the first-fruits of our time, strength, of our Saxon king Athelastan. Paper was and substance, are we not content to offer first made about A.D. 150; and gunpowder bim the fragments that remain after our about the commencement of the Christian own supposed need is supplied ? While we era. While the inhabitants of our now thus refuse to bring the tithes into his highly-favoured island were wandering storehouse, and to prove the Lord there about, painted savages, the, Chinese were a with, can we wonder that he does not open settled people, living under the same form the windows of heaven, and pour us out of constitutional government as they at the fulness of blessing that we desire ? present possess. Or to go back to times long antecedent to the history of our own perception of the subject would lead us to country, when Daniel foretold the rise and expect, and therefore, so far from shaking fall of the Persian, Grecian, and Roman our confidence, it confirms us in our conempires ; when at an earlier period Isaiah viction of their reality. Results on an exforetold the downfall of Babylon; or earlier tended scale are not to be expected from the still, when Jonah threatened the destruc- foreign missionary. It never was intended tion of Nineveh-the Chinese nation was that he should evengelize great masses, or one of the greatest nations of the world. accomplish extraordinary national moveWhen Solomon reigned in Jerusalem in all ments. On the contrary, the effects to be his glory ; when David, the sweet singer of wrought out by him were purposely deIsrael, composed his beautiful psalms—the signed to be apparently feeble, in dimensions Chinese were enjoying many of the benefits small, and little calculated to attract attenof civilization and good government. One tion. of their classical writings—to this day com- Are they indeed worthless because thus mitted to memory by every scholar in China small? Is not the seed the germ of the —was composed by Wung-wang, one of forest tree, and yet is it not small? Is not their emperors, a century beforo David's the leaven, when put into the mass, so small reign. When Moses, learned in all the that it disappears and is hidden, and yet is wisdom of the Egyptians, led the people of there not in it a concentrated energy, so Israel from the house of bondage to the that the little dominates over the much, and, promised land, Chinese laws and literature by its superior influence, subdues to itself were probably not inferior to, while their the mass which had absorbed it ? Has the religious views were far in advance of those philosophy of the present day accepted this of Egypt, the worship of graven images as an axiom, that small beginnings are innot having been introduced into China capable of expanding into great results ? until some ceuturies after this period. Can anything be more contrary to fact and Upwards of 200 years before the call of the experiences of every-day life ? “Behold Abraham, certain astronomical observations how great a fire a little fuel kindleth.” And were recorded by Chinese historians, which if this be a principle which prevades nature, have been verified by Astronomers of our why should the explanatory force which it own times. And the oldest record of carries with it be excluded from the philoantiquity, still possessed by the Chinese, sopby of missions ? There is between nature graven on the rocks of Hung-shan some and grace a wonderful analogy, so much so, half century antecedent to this early period, that the phenomena of the one are conwas intended to perpetuate the memory of tinually made use of in Scripture to illustrate engineering works not less remarkable for the other. If evangelical missions are to extent or difficulty than those displayed in be put upon their trial, let them at least the erection of the pyramids of Egypt. have fair dealing. Since that time Egypt has risen to the The foreign missionary sows the seed; he zenith of its glory; has faded and become prepares the leaven, and places it in the *the basest of the kingdoms.' Since that lump.
His work is small in compasa, 80 time the once famous empires of Assyria, small, that it seems lost amidst the dense Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, have masses of prevailing heathenism; and men waxed and waned and passed away ; but despise it as a thing of nought, and lose China still remains, the only monument of sight of it as they do of the buried seed or ages long bygone. For 4,000 years this the hidden leaven; but that it should be empire has been preserved by the power of thus humiliated is a part of the singuar God, and it shall be yet preserved, until his process through which it has to pass ; and, word, delivered more than twenty-five cen- when least expected, it will appear again, turies ago by the mouth of his ser-ant like the seed when it springs, or the leaven leaiah, shall be fulfilled to the last jot anu ben it has leavened the mass. tittle:—'I will make all my mountains a
And if we look into the mission field, we way, and my highways shall be exalted. shall find that the position of the European Behold, these shall come from far: and, missionaries is precisely this- they are lo, these from the north and from the busily occupied in their own initiative
and these from the land of Sinim' work; they are preparing the leaven in (China).”
divers places, in order that it may be introduced into the contiguous mass.
instances they have done more than this : MISSIONARY RESULTS. the leaven, having been prepared, has been
introduced into the lump, and already there The objection most pertinaciously urged are evidences to show that it is working. against Evangelical Missions at the present In Africa a portion was broken off from moment, is the limited extent of the results. the great mass of population. In Africa But this is precisely that which a right there are divers nationalities, and the frag.
ment was homogeneous with the parent heathen tribes of the Igbiras and Bunnus. mass, so that the individuals composing it Well might the Bishop say,
“ The Gospel were of divers races, and spoke divers is fermenting among the measures of meal languages.
in which it bas been bid.” This was placed in the hands of the Again, India, like Africa, consists of European missionaries, that they might various nationalities, and from these also a prepare it as leaven. To this task they leaven bas been prepared. The mode of addressed themselves, and at what cost of operation has not been the same as in health and life need not now be stated. The Africa. The representative specimens of records are before the Church. They were races have not been gathered from out of prospered in their work. Sierra Leone is their own localities, brought into one place, now a land of Christian profession like our and there put into the hands of the Euroown, and, like our congregations at home, pean missionary. This process has not the native Church there, amidst much that been requisite in India, because, being under is evil and fictitious, includes very many British influence, the whole land is accesreal Christians. There is much gold in the sible to the European missionary ; nor quartz.
does climate interfere in the same degree This is the leaven. It is now being put that it does in Africa. into the lump. Along the banks of the The initiative agents, therefore, have gone Niger the process is going on. Amonget into the localities of the different races, the heathen Ibos, at Onitsha, were intro- learned their languages, and on the spot duced a few Christian men of the same race, prepared the leaven, Thus, for instance, part of the leaven prepared at Sierra Leone. the missionaries of the Church Missionary The quantity was small, but in quality it Society have made converts or raised up was genuine. It wrought. There is now congregations from amongst Tamils, the there a Christian congregation, consisting of Malayalim-speaking people, Telugue, Ben135 converts, with 48 communicants, and galees, the Urdu-epeaking people of the the work is spreading. At the Confluence, north-west, Punjabis, Affghans, the people higher up, there is a confluence of nations, of Sindh. and we have placed there a leaven made up In some cases, as in the case of the of Christian men of the same races. "Glebe," Affghans, the leaven prepared is very small observes Bishop Crowther, “ being a place in quantity, but especially quick, pungent, forming a nucleus of languages, such as and penetrative. Igbira, Nupe, Hausa, Eki, Yagba, Igara, Amongst the Tamils the leaven is comKakanda, and Gbari, it requires the know- paratively large in quantity, there being no ledge of two or three of those to be most less than 33,000 Christian Tamils under the useful here; but Igbira is the native lan- charge of the missionaries of the Church guage of the people, which must be learnt Missionary Society, besides those which by the resident teachers here, the others being connect with the Society for the Propagaintroduced by mere sojourners from other tion of the Gospel. There is among these places through the unsettled state of their thousands a genuine element, although mixed country from war when they came to sojourn with others that are less valuable. The here. Onitsha possesses this one great people are well instructed: they have þeen advantage over Glebe, that the Christian brought up, not in a formal ritualiem, but teachers have to deal with a people of one in the knowledge of the word of God. language only, while at Glebe they bave to They have been taught, not through the do with about half-a-dozen."
ege by ceremonies, but through the under. When introduced into the lump the leaven standing by sound doctrine. They can read was left. From various circumstances, com--do read their Tamil Bibles. They can munications with Lagos and Sierra Leone give a reason for the hope that is in them. being interrupted, the work was isolated The congregations have yielded an efficient for months, nor could any one from without native pastorate. The people value their approach to ascertain whether the leaven Christian ordinances. Like the Sierra was doing its work : when, however, the Leone Church, they prove that they do so station was revisited, it was found that the by contributing liberally to their support. leaven had wrought effectually. Men and They are anxious for the evangelization of women had turned from their idols; they their heathen countrymen, and are putting had embraced Christianity; they desired forth corresponding efforts. baptiem. On a recent occasion, at the Con- Again, in Travancore a leaven has been fluence, Bishop Crowther administered the prepared. The population there is strangely Lord's Supper to a company of twenty-five composed of various castes and racesconverte, and afterwards baptized ten adults, Brahmins, Nairo, Soodras, mountain tribes, and seven children of converte. A few of the slaves, besides the Syrian Christians. From converts were from among the Mohamme- amongst these various sections there has dans, but the greater part were from the I been gathered together & body of pative
Christians, more than 9,000 in number. The mission on the Mosquito coast contains a adaptation of the leaven to the lump is at startling account of the devastations of the once evident. If the population to be in- recent hurricane. There are seven statiors fluenced is mingled, the leaven is of the in Mosquito : Bluefields, Rama, Magdala, same character. In this respect it resem. Raitipura, Bethania, Corn Island, and bles the Christian leaven at Sierra Leone, Ephrata. Of these, the last named alone and stands in the same relation to the popu- escaped, being beyond the range of the lation of Travancore, which that prepared storm. At Bluefields the mission-house is at Sierra Leone does to the nations and injured, while the church, school-house, languages of Africa. There is something dwelling for the schoolmaster, and all the admirable and exquisite in the similarity of outhouses, are totally destroyed. At Rama arrangement under circumstances so differ- the mission-house is unroofed, the church ent. There presides undoubtedly over the also, and otherwise greatly damaged, and widely-extended mission work & Divine the outhouses are all destroyed. At Magsuperintendence. The earthly agent sees dala the mission-house and church are litile more than the contracted sphere of nearly destroyed. Raitipura, an Indian present and personal duty. He is often village, with a new church, is entirely under discouragement; and so feeble does swept away. Bethania, a new station, his work seem to be, when compared with whose church was recently completed, the urgent necessities of the heathen, that whose mission-house
about being he cannot realize how it can tell with any erected, is also entirely gone, except one thing of beneficial influence on the future. post of the church. On Corn Island, from Yet these apparently feeble efforts are which no full report has been received, at links in the great chain of events by which the time the letter was despatched the misGod is working out his own great purposes. sion-house and church were both said to
have been very much injured, and the misSAD NEWS FROM THE MORAVIAN sionary (the Rev. J. Hoch) and his family MISSION IN MOSQUITO.
were reported as having sought shelter
under the fallen roof of the church. A LETTER from the superintendent of the
PRESBYTERY OF BERWICK.—This Pres. Record, Baptismal Register, and Communion bytery met at Berwick on the 6th day of Roll, were produced, examined, and attested. February. Sederunt: the 'Rev. R. Scott, School schedules from Ancroftmoor, Bank. Moderator ; Messrs. J. Fraser, D. Terras, hill, Lowick, Horncliffe, North Sunderland, A. Cant, P. Valence, J. K. MʻLean, and W. and Tweedmouth, were read and ordered to Dunn, ministers; Messrs. Brown and Smith, be attested. Mr. Valence, Convener of the elders. Mr. Valence stated that the depu- Statistical Committee, intimated that betations appointed to visit Bankhill, Belford, cause of no return from Etal, and others being and Norbam, for the purpose of meeting the too late, the Committee had been unable to office-bearers and recommending the estab- complete the report which they were inlishment of Associations in these congrega- structed to bring upon this occasion ; but tions, had not been able to do so, and asked with the Presbytery's concurrence, he that they be re-appointed. Agreed that would now read it so far as it had been prethe deputations be re-appointed, and that pared. Agreed that the report as it is be they be prepared with a report at the next now read, and instruct the Committee to ordinary meeting to be appointed at this bring up a full report at next meeting. Mr. Session. The ministers present reported Fraser stated that a difficulty—the desirthat, as recommended, they liad observed ability to secure a site-which prevented a in their congregations, Sabbath, the 19th day manse being built at Lowick some years of November, as a day of thanksgiving for ago, had now been got over—that a good site the late abundant harvest, and humiliation had been purchased in perpetuity, for a because of God's threatened judgments in small yearly sum. Mr. Fraser also subthe cattle plague and pestilence. The mitted a ground plan of the building, which members present who were not at Etal on the Presbytery approved of. Mr. Fraser the day of Mr. MʻGuffie's ordination, stated gave notice that at next meeting he would that they were unavoidably prevented being move that this Presbytery meet in future at present on that occasion. Belford Session eleven o'clock a.m., and on Wednesday in. stead of Tuesday. The Presbytery_ap- opened by Mr. Douglas, whose suggestions pointed its next meeting to be held at Ber- were cordially concurred in by the Presbywick on the first Tuesday of April next, at tery, whereupon the following resolution eleven o'clock a.m.
was adopted :—“The Presbytery having THE PRESBYTERY OF LONDON.--The held a conference on the subject of the monthly meeting of this Presbytery was held college, do not deem it expedient, under on Monday evening, Feb. 12, in Queen Square existing circumstances, to overture the House. Rev. Mr. Dinwiddie, Moderator. Synod in regard to the future constitution It was agreed, on the motion of the Rev. wbich it may be desirable to provide for Mr. Matheson, of Hampstead, that the Rev. that most important and permanent insti. Mr. M'Coll, of Glasgow, who was present, tute of the Church. But being deeply im. should be associated with the Presbytery, pressed with the necessity of increased The clerk rcad a letter from Professor Lums- efforts being made to secure a competent den, on behalf of the Colonial Committee of supply of students, and entertaining the the Free Church of Scotland, to the effect conviction that much valuable material is that he understood that there was an im- lost to the service of the Church, from the pression arlongst the members of the Lon- want of pecuniary means to prosecute the don Preshytery, that that committee had preparatory education requisite for entering been a party to the appointment of the our Theological Hall, unanimously resolved Rev. Mr. Jeffrey, late of Guernsey, to a to record their opinion, fortified by facts charge at Singapore, and his transference brought under their notice--that if the to that sphere of labour, without taking the Church should see her way to provide a ordinary steps in such cases of bringing the bursary fund, either by the resumption of matter before the Presbytery with which he the college collection or otherwise, for the was connected. Professor Lumsden begged purpose of aiding young men of accredited to state that they had no share of the blame talent and piety, and of known predilecof any such irregularity, as the case had tion for the ministry, to avail themselves never been before the committee, and the of the benefit of a University educationappointment had been made without their as was done in Scotland during the 28 intervention in any way. The Clerk then years in which the Church was in an read a letter which he had received from the unendowed condition in that countryRev. Dr. Edmond, Clerk of the London such a fund, properly administered, would United Presbyterian Presbytery, enclosing prove a productive source of the needed the resolution passed by that body in refer- supply." • The Presbytery, sympathizing ence to the step taken by the Rev. Mr. very much with Mr. Hoy's protracted illSandie, to establish the nucleus of a con- dess, and finding that the supplies which gregation at Eyre Arms, St. John's Wood. they had provided for three months will Dr. Roberts and Mr. Maclagan having, in be exhausted on the 2nd Sabbath of Febthe name of the English Presbyterian ruary, resolve to instruct Mr. Hoy, if he Church at St. John's Wood, expressed their should not find himself at the end of that readiness to welcome Mr. Sandie to his time fit to resume his pulpit duties, to new sphere of labour, and other members of communicate to the Clerk his incompetPresbytery having spoken, it was agreed that ency, and, in that case, the Clerk is herea reply of a general character should be by appointed to correspond with the Home given to Dr. Edmond's letter. Mr. Alex- Mission Committee, and to convey to ander reported favourably of the state and them the earnest request of the Presby. prospects of the new congregation at Not- tery that they will be pleased to afford tingbam, where he had been lately preach some seasonable aid to enable them to ing. A call from the Guernsey congrega- supply the pulpit at Felton during Mr. tion to the Rev. Dr. Stewart was then laid Hoy's illness." Mr. Hoy took the opon the table, and having intimated his ac- portunity of expressing his grateful sense ceptance of the same, Dr. Stewart was in- of the fraternal sympathy and kind conducted into the charge according to form. sideration which the Presbytery had shown Mr. John Matheson reported that the ser- him under the painful circumstances in vices of the Rev. John Pirie, of Edinburgh, which he has been placed by Divine Prohad been secured for Devizes during the vidence. Mr. Forsyth gave notice of an spring months. Mr. Chalmers gave notice overture to the Synod to be brought up of an overture to the Synod on the subject at next quarterly meeting, on the rela. of a psalter and hynin-book.
tion in which their schools stand to GoPRESBYTERY OF NORTHUMBERLAND.- vernment. The Presbytery then adAn adjourned meeting of the Presbytery journed. was held at Felton on Tuesday, Jan. 30, Mr. Edwards (Widdrington), Moderator. The Presbytery resolved itself into a conference ST. ANDREW'S ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN on the subject of the college, which was CHURCH, BIRKENHEAD.-On Monday even.