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keapt heare, it is a doble calamytie to be detayned in prison by so intollerable wrong, and excluded from thassembly somuch against right. I haue suffred the like in the late Lord Protector's tyme against all reason, which God hath given you power nowe to reforme. And among many other thinges which in his tyme weare writhed amysse, no oon thing (as I suppose) was of worse example, ne more prejudiciall to the good order of the High Court of Parliament, which is the direction of all men’s liffes, landes and goodes in this realme, then to allow for a president that any man, being a member therof, might without cause be excluded, and so letted to parle theare his mynd in publique matters for the wealth of the realme, and such other private causes as doo occur. If the strength of the Parliament be not ympayred by wrong in oon, bycause right consisteth not in noumber, it shalbe at the pleasure of hym that ruleth to doe the same in moe, wherby others may take more harme then I, as experience hath shewed in suche examples. But I knowe it becometh me not to reason the strength of that Court, ne thorder of it. The lawyers of the realme knoweth that, and to their knowledge I submytt my judgement, and take for good that they allowe. But this I dare say, when religion is treated of in a generall counsell of Christendome, if the rulers of the counsell lett any mans repayer thithir that hath right to be theare, whatsoever is so concluded is in the lawes of the world abrode taken of no force by excluding of oon member wrongfully, that shold furnishe the body. Which I wright unto your Honors for the good opinion I haue of you, trusting that ye entend not to uphold or followe the late L. Protector's doinges by wrong, but so fashion your procedinges as they may agre with justice at home, and seeme agreable to reason to others abroad. Being assured of my innocency, as when your Lordships shall heare what can be said against me, and my answer therunto, theare shall appeare cause why I shold haue hadd prayse, thankes, and commendations of the late Lord Protector, if truth, honesty, and due obedience might loke therefore, and no cause of troble or displeasure at all. So wrongfully haue I ben tormented in this miserable prison, so boldly dare I speake to you of my case, with such an opinion and estimation of your wisdomes, which I knowe and reverence, as I ought not nor will not vainly hoap to abuse you with wordes, but uppon certein confidence of your indifferences veryly I trust that you will deeme and take thinges in such sort as, being playnly and truly opened, shall appear to you by matter in dede. In consideration wherof I renyewe my sute unto your Honors, instantly requyring you that I may be hard according to justice, and that with such speede as the delay of your audience give not occasion to such as be ignoraunt of my matter abroad to thinke that your Lordships allowed and approved the detayning of me heare, which without hearing my declaration I trust you will not, but haue such consideration of me as myne estate in the comon wealth, the passing of my former lief amongst you, and other respectes doo require; wherin you shall bynde me to doo agreably to your honors, and justice have a free course, whereof you haue honorably taken uppon you to make open to the realme without respect, which is thonly establishment of all common wealthes. And thearfore the zeale of hym was allowed that said fiat justicia rudt mundus, signifying that by it the worlde is keapt from falling in dede, although it might seeme otherwise in some respectes, and some troble to arise in doing it. And this I wright bycause in the late L. Protector's tyme theare was an insynuation made unto me, as though I weare keapt heare by pollycy, which with the violation of justice toke never good effect, as I doubt not of your wisedomes you can and will consider, and doo thearfore accordingly: for theffectuall execution wherof I shall pray Almighty God with the preservation of your Honors.


[Camden states that the death of Queen Mary was “for some time kept private ;” ut it appears from the following document that Elizabeth was publicly proclaimed on the day after her predecessor died, supposing the Proclamation to be issued when it bears date. Stowe says nothing of any delay or interval during which the news was “ kept private.” The last clause, in the then condition of the kingdom, deserves remark. No printed copy of the Proclamation appears to be extant, and the difficulty of obtaining one was perhaps the reason why Lord Ellesmere procured it in MS.] Indorsed by Lord Ellesmere “The Proclamation for Queen Eliza. after the death of Q. Mary.”

ELIZABETH by the grace of God Queene of Englande, Fraunce and Irland, Defender of the Faythe, &c. Because it hath pleased Almightie God by calling to his mercye out of this mortall lief, to our great griefe, our deerest sister of noble memorye, Mary, late Queene of Englande, Fraunce and Ireland (whose soule God haue), to dispose and bestowe upon us, as the onelye righte heyre by blood and lawfull succession to the Crowne of the aforesaide kingdomes of Englande, Fraunce and Irlande, with all manner of titles and rightes therunto in anye wise apperteyninge, Wee doe publishe and give knowledge by this our proclamation to all manner people, beinge naturall subjectes of every the saide kingdomes, that from the beginninge of the xvijth daye of this moneth of November, at which tyme our said deerest sister departed from this mortall liese, they be discharged of all bondes and dutye of subjection towardes our saide sister, and be from the same tyme in nature and lawe bound onely to us as theire onelye Soverayn Ladye and Queene, wherewith wee doe by this our proclamation straightly chardge and allye them to us, promisinge on our parte noe lesse love and care towardes theire preservation then hathe ben in any of our progenitors, and not doubtinge on their partes but they will observe the duetye which belongeth to naturall goode and true lovinge subjectes. And further wee straightlye chardge and commaunde all manner our saide subjectes to keepe themselues within our peaxe, and not to attempte upon anye pretence the breach, alteration or chaunge of any order or usage presently established within this our realme, upon peyne of our indignation, and the peril and punishement which therto in any wise maye belonge. Yeven the xviijth daye of November, the firste yere of our reigne.


[Sir Nicholas Bacon was appointed Keeper of the Great Seal (Privy Seal according to the translation of Camden’s “Elizabeth,” in Kennett, ii. 369, edit. 1719) in less than five weeks after Elizabeth came to the throne; Heath, Archbishop of York, though not excluded from the Queen's Council, being deprived of his office of Lord Chancellor. On the 14th April, 1559, a Commission (of which the following is an official copy) was issued, authorizing Sir N. Bacon, as Keeper of the Great Seal, to hear causes in Chancery, as the Lord Chancellor had been accustomed to do, and indemnifying him for any acts he had committed. When Lord Ellesmere (then Sir Thomas Egerton) was raised from Master of the Rolls to be Lord Keeper, this Commission seems to have been taken as a precedent, and for that purpose a copy of the original was made and furnished to him.]

Indorsed by Lord Ellesmere, “A” l Eliza. A Commission to Sir N. Bacon, Keper of the Great Seale, to heare causes in the Chaunc'rye, as the L. Chancelor of Englande might doe.”

Elizabeth by the grace of God, &c. To all and singuler our subjectes, greeting. Where we of our especial grace haue deputed and assigned our trustie and welbeloved Counsellor Nicholas Bacon, knight, to be Keper of our Greate Seale, knowe that we by theis presentes doe giue full powre and autoritie to the same Nicholas Bacon aswell to heare, examyne and determine of all causes, offences, contemptes, and matters of whatsoeuer kynde or nature they be of, as to doe and use himselfe in every thinge and thinges with our said Seale in as lardge and ample manner as our Chauncellor of England might doe, and that he shall haue the same powre and auctoritie in euery behalfe towchinge the premisses, as if he were our Chauncellor. And further, we graunt for us, our heirs and successors, that all actes and thinges done or suffered to be done by the saide Nicholas at any tyme since the committinge of the custodye of the saide Seale to his handes, shalbe as good and effectuall to all intentes and purposes, as if he had bene Chauncellor at the time of doinge or sufferinge of any suche acte or thinge: Or that he, his heires or executors, shall in no wise be ympecheable or aunswearable for any suche acte or thinge, otherwise then he should haue bene if that he hadd byn our Chauncellor at the tyme of doinge of any suche acte or thinge. And that theis our Letters Patentes shalbe to him sufficient warraunt for the same. In witnes whereof, &c. Witnes the Quene at Westmr the xiiijth daie of Aprill, in the first yere of our raigne. Per ipsam Reginam, &c. Convenit cum record. et exãiat. per me Tho. RAvex scroFTE.


[The following appears to be the original draught of a letter sent by some person of distinction to the Queen, to induce her to forego her purpose of sending forces to Scotland to expel the French from that kingdom. It has no date, but is indorsed in the same hand, 12th January, 1559, i. e. 1560, according to our present mode of computing the year. The style is a little pedantic, but the arguments (though unavailing, for Admiral Winter arrived in the Firth of Forth in January 1560) show great caution and sound judgment. The censure of the useless and protracted discussions in Parliament is remarkable from its universal application; and the notice of William Somer, Jester to Henry VIII., is curious. The Sir Thomas Carden, who is mentioned at the close, was Sir Thomas Cawarden, who had been appointed Master of the Revels, 11th March, 1545. It is perhaps impossible now to ascertain who was the writer of the letter; but it is clear, from the conclusion, that he was a suitor for a license, no doubt to give him some exclusive advantage.]

Indorsed, “To the Q. 12 Jany, 1559.”

It may please your Most Excellent Matie to understand, that yesterday Mr. Treasourer and Mr. Secretarie were in hand with

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