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THE

AMERICAN

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

18 6 5.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU.
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

VOLUME Y.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON & CO., 90, 92 & 94 GRAND STREET.

1869.

AES
A72
1865

LIBRARY OF THE 'ELAND STAFORD JA UNIVERSITY.

a.39113

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of New York.

MAR 9' 1900

PREFACE.

THE

present volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for the year 1865 embraces the final military operations of the war in the United States, the disbandment of the armies, the reduction of the fleets, and the peaceful occupation of the Southern States. The change in the administration of the Federal Government by the shocking death of President Lincoln, and the accession of Vice-President Johnson, are described in its pages, together with the various measures to reestablish the State governments and to restore the authority of the Federal Government in all parts of the Union.

The debates in Congress during the year on the relations of the Southern States to the Union, the recognition of the Louisiana government, the admission of a Senator from Virginia, etc., present the preliminary views of that body on one of the most important questions of the time. The views of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson, as expressed in their public addresses, have been included, as also their messages to Congress, the report of the Lieutenant-General, and the public documents of the Government. The achievement of emancipation by the almost universal assent of the coun

the measures taken by the Federal Government relative to the freedmen ; those adopted by the Conventions and Legislatures of the Southern States to raise them to a position of civil rights; and the successful adaptation of the former master and servant to the new mode of life—forming one of the most interesting chapters of human history—are presented in this volume. No less interesting was the sudden change in the aspect of the country on the disappearance of military lines; the unobstructed passage back and forth to the North and South; the reunion of belligerents as “one people, one country, one destiny.” This has not been overlooked in these pages.

The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the disappearance of the armies among the citizens; the resumption of commercial inter

try;

course; the commerce of the country; the finances of the Federal Government and its banking system; the acts of State Legislatures; the results of elections ; the progress of educational and charitable institutions under the care of the State governments; the debts and resources of the States; and all those political movements, the results of which are to transfer the public power from one to another portion of its citizens.

The relations of the United States to foreign nations, as developed in its Diplomatic Intercourse, are fully presented; and also the civil, military, and commercial history of all the States of Europe and South America, and the more important kingdoms of Asia, with some countries of Africa, is fully brought up.

The progress and peculiar features and mode of treatment of those scourges known as the Asiatic Cholera, the Cattle Disease, and the disease of Swine, with the latest investigations, have been carefully described.

The advance in Astronomy, Chemistry, and many other branches of science, with the new applications to useful purposes which have been developed, hare not been overlooked.

Geographical explorations have been earnestly continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries which have followed have been fully presented.

The record of Literature is not less interesting than that of any previous year. The titles of all important works of the various classes to which they belong, are stated in detail.

A notice of the principal religious denominations of the country states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the progress of their distinctive opinions.

The number of distinguished men who closed their career has been large. A brief tribute is paid to their memory.

All important documents, messages, orders, despatches, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.

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