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The present volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for the year 1865 embraces the final military operations of the war in the United States, the disbandment of the armies, the reduction of the fleets, and the peaceful occupation of the Southern States. The change in the administration of the Federal Government by the-shocking death of President Lincoln, and the accession of Vice-President Johnson, are described in its pages, together with the various measures to reestablish the State governments and to restore the authority of the Federal Government in all parts of the Union.
The debates in Congress during the year on the relations of the Southern States to the Union, the recognition of the Louisiana government, the admission of a Senator from Virginia, etc., present the preliminary views of that body on one of the most important questions of the time. The views of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson, as expressed in their public addresses, have been included, as also their messages to Congress, the report of the Lieutenant-General, and the public documents of the Government.
The achievement of emancipation by the almost universal assent of the country; the measures taken by the Federal Government relative to the freedmen; those adopted by the Conventions and Legislatures of the Southern States to raise them to a position of civil rights; and the successful adaptation of the former master and servant to the new mode of life—forming one of the most interesting chapters of human history—are presented in this volume. No less interesting was the sudden change in the aspect of the country on the disappearance of military lines ; the unobstructed passage back and forth to the North and South; the reunion of belligerents as “one people, one country, one destiny.” This has not been overlooked in these pages.
The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the disappearance of the armies among the citizens; the resumption of commercial inter
course; the commerce of the country; the finances of the Federal Government and its banking system ; the acts of State Legislatures; the results of elections ; the progress of educational and charitable institutions under the care of the State governments; the debts and resources of the States; and all those political movements, the results of which are to transfer the public power from one to another portion of its citizens.
The relations of the United States to foreign nations, as developed in its Diplomatic Intercourse, are fully presented; and also the civil, military, and commercial history of all the States of Europe and South America, and the more important kingdoms of Asia, with some countries of Africa, is fully brought up.
The progress and peculiar features and mode of treatment of those scourges known as the Asiatic Cholera, the Cattle Disease, and the disease of Swine, with the latest investigations, have been carefully described.
The advance in Astronomy, Chemistry, and many other branches of science, with the new applications to useful purposes which have been developed, hare not been overlooked.
Geographical explorations have been earnestly continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries which have followed have been fully presented.
The record of Literature is not less interesting than that of any previous year. The titles of all important works of the various classes to which they belong, are stated in detail.
A notice of the principal religious denominations of the country states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the progress of their distinctive opinions.
The number of distinguished men who closed their career has been large. A brief tribute is paid to their memory.
All important documents, messages, orders, despatches, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.
A AFRICA. The French Government were when it appeared in the form of a letter to disappointed in their expectation that the in- Marshal McMahon. It concluded as follows: surrection of some of the native tribes in Al- “I would turn to account the valor of the geria was effectually subdued at the close of the Arabs rather than bear hardly upon their povyear 1864. New outbreaks occurred during erty; render the colonists rich and prosperous the year 1865, and at its close the most forini- rather than establish settlements of emigrants, dable of the insurgent chiefs, Si Lala, was still and maintain our soldiers in healthy situations in the field. Very alarming rumors that Si rather than to expose them to the wasting Lala
, at the head of 50,000 men, held the whole climate of the desert. By the realization of south of Algeria, circulated in Paris, in No- this programme we shall appease passions and vember; but the Moniteur denied their correct satisfy interests; then Algeria will be to us no ness, and asserted that, on October 19th, he longer a burden, but a new element of strength. had only made his appearance in the southern The Arabs, restrained and conciliated, will give districts of Algeria with 2,000 horsemen and us what they can best give, namely, soldiers, 1,400 soldiers on foot. According to the and the colony, become flourishing by the deMoniteur de l'Algérie of November 12, Si Lala, velopment of its territorial riches, will create a finding his efforts to be fruitless, his resources commercial movement eminently favorable to exhausted, and his cavalry fatiguing themselves the mother country.” in vain, decided upon retreating rapidly toward In accordance with the views of the Emthe southwest, and was actively pursued by the peror, the French Government, on June 22d, French forces. Gen. Lacretelle, marching from brought forward the draft of a decree respectDaya, overtook and defeated, on November 8th, ing Algeria. It provides that the native at Oud-bon-Lerdjem, to the west of Maia-Chott, Mussulman be considered a Frenchman.
He the Hamian tribes and the fractions of the will, nevertheless, continue subject to the MusDjembas and Chafas who had joined Si Lala. sulman laws of the country, but can, on apOfficial news from Algeria reached Paris on De- plication, be admitted to the rights of French tember 15th, which stated that Col. Colomb, re- citizenship. The native Israelite also is to be enforced by the tribes recently subjected, had on considered a Frenchman. He will continuo several occasions beaten the tribes still in insur- to be governed according to the peculiar statrection, who were seeking refuge in the desert of utes of the Hebrew race, but, on application, Sahara, that the tribes who had been defeated can enjoy the rights of a French citizen. Forhad asked for pardon, and Col. Sonis had cut eigners, upon proving three years' residence in off the retreat toward the east of Si Lala. In the country, are entitled to the rights of citizenMay the Emperor Louis Napoleon visited Al- ship. An administrative regulation will degeria, where he received an enthusiastic recep- termine the conditions of admission to the pubtion on the part of many chiefs and tribes, and lic service and of advancement in the army for was met by special ambassadors from Tunis and native Mussulmans and Israelites, and also the Moroeco. On his return to France, it became offices to which they can attain. This draft known that the Emperor was preparing a was adopted by the Senate without important pamphlet on French colonization in Algeria, modifications. "In July, Mr. P. H. Rathbone, but its issue was delayed until November 3d, the President of the Liverpool Chamber of
VOL. 7.-1 A
Commerce, on returning from a visit to North The accoants given by the Rev. Mr. Ellis, the Africa, presented an interesting report on the pioneer missionary, were more favorable. He commerce of Algeria. Mr. Rathbone is of stated in a public address delivered in England, opinion that Algeria might rapidly be developed that the Government of Madagascar upheld reinto a "paying " colony if ruled by France on ligious toleration, that Christianity was spread. more sound economic principles, and if the col. ing very rapidly, not only in the capital, but in onists were pot, as at present, subordinate to the most remote parts of the country, and that the army, and the colony to Marseilles. Mr. there was reason to hope that the next generaRathbone also advocates the opening of the tion would be predoininantly Christian, and ports and the establishment of regular steam witness the extinction of Paganism. communication with Great Britain. The Arabs South Africa was throughout the year the he denounces as dishonest and lazy, and en- scene of hostilities between the Orange Free couraged by the laxity of the Bureau Arabe to State and the Basutos, which sometimes threatcheat Europeans, particularly in the sale of wool. oned the peace of the frontier of the English The Kabyles, he says, are both industrious and Colony of Natal. In reply to representations honest. With more business freedom, Algeria, from the Governor of the Cape Colony, Moshe thinks, would easily produce immense quan- hesh, the chief of the Basutos, stated that he had tities of good wool, cotton, wine, oil, and corn, met the demand of the Natal Government for as well as useful grass, called crin végétal, invading their frontier. He also urged the much used by apholsterers in place of horse- governor to take possession of his country and hair.
people, alleging that they were desirous of beIn Morocco, a fresh insurrection broke out coming British subjects. The governor declined in the neighborhood of Rabat, in May, but it to take steps at the present juncture, and doubtwas soon quelled. In July, the Emperor of ed the sincerity of Moshesh, but lamented the Morocco issued an important edict commanding war, which, he said, if continued much longer, that no person, poor or rich, should be punished would cause much misery and destitution among contrary to law, and prohibiting the exaction the Basutos, and largely increase their cattle of any fines except as prescribed by law. It thieving. also forbids people to present money or other The Government of the Cape Colony proposed gifts to any governor or employé; and if any to the Colonial Parliament the annexation of governor imposes fines contrary to imperial de- British Kaffraria to the colony, and curried the crees, the people have the liberty of appeal to measure, although considerable opposition was bis Majesty, who promises complete satisfac- made to it. tion. The Emperor also appointed a day in AGRICULTURE. The year 1865 was, on each week for receiving and determining the the whole, a favorable one for agricultural prod, complaints of his poor subjects.
ucts, though the extreme moisture of May and The Suez Canal has made sufficient progress June in some sections affected the earlier grain to enable light boats to pass from the Medi- crops, and the extraordinary drought of the terranean to the Red Sea. The completion of autumn in New England and portions of New the work, and its opening for navigation, the York, affected the late crops, and especially the company expects to take place by the 1st of fruits, unfavorably. So vast is the extent of the July, 1868. (See Suez, CANAL OF.)
country, however, and so varied its climate, The English Government had not, at the that with our abundant and constantly mulclose of the year, obtained from the Emperor tiplying means of communication, a deficiency of Abyssinia the release of Consul Cameron of a particular crop in one section is readily and other British subjects who have been kept made up by its excess, or at least abundance, in in prison nearly two years. A parliamentary another. paper issued by the Government on June 20th, Of the cereal grains, the wheat crop is smaller contains full and interesting information re- both in the number of bushels and the weight specting the relations of the Emperor Theodore of the grain than in any year since 1860. The of Abyssinia with England and France. following are the crops of this grain, according
The Island of Madagascar continued to be to the estimates of the Agricultural Departagitated by internal convulsions. In October, ment during six years past, omitting the crop the French Government received despatches of 1861. stating that Raharia, governor of Tarnatava, persisted in his refusal to pay to the commander
.182,984,782 busbels. of the French squadron on the station the sum
.179,404,036 due to the French Government as an indem
.148,522,829 nity. His refusal was approved by the Queen, and a reënforcement of 1,000 men was sent to By this table it appears that there has been him to guard the house where the money was & decrease in the amount of the wheat crop deposited, thus raising the force stationed there each year since 1862, when it attained its mas. to 3,000 men. The Government of the Hovas imum, and that this decrease in 1865, as commoreover resolved to burn the treaties in the pared with the crop of 1862, was nearly $3 public square of Tamatava between King Ra- millions of bushels, being a little more than 13 dama and the agent of the French Government. millions of bushels less than the crop of 1864
1860. 1862 1868. 1864. 1865.
Ohio. Indians. Illinois.
1862. 1863. 1864. 1865.
This redaction in the amount of this important that of 1862, nearly 54,000,000 bushels. ID crop was not, however, uniform throughout the this crop New York takes the lead, its producTheat-growing States; Vermont, Connecticut, tion being 48,675,090 bushels, and Pennsylvania Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska pro- follows with 46,571,661 bashels. The other daced larger crops than in any previous year principal oat-growing States are, in the order since 1860, and Maine, New Hampshire, New of their production, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, York, and Wisconsin, reported a larger yield Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, New Jersey, Marythan in 1864. The principal falling off was in land, Kentucky, Vermont, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, and TŪinois, and the loss in these Connecticut, and Maine. three States as compared with 1862 and 1864, The Hay crop was also very large, excoedwill appear from the following table :
ing by nearly 5,500,000 tons the crop of
1864, and by more than 3,000,000 that of any 1862. 1864. 1865. preceding year, as the following table will Bushela
show : 80,796,082 20,407,503
.18,728,022 tons. 17,601,472
Hay crop of 1860. 20,292,160 22,821,376 18,020,803
..20, 257,968 " 82, 218,500
19,736,847 " 83,871,178 25, 266, 745
18,116,751 Tatals of three States $3,801,692 76,100,052 55,889,020
In this crop New York leads largely, producing The reduction it will be observed in these considerably more than one-fifth of the entire three States is about 27,500,000 bushels froin crop. Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Ohio come the crop of 1862, and of over 20,000,000 from next, and Maine, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, the crop of 1864. Illinois is still the leading Iowa, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, wheat-growing State, but Wisconsin has passed Connecticut, Missouri
, and New Jersey, follow all its other competitors and ranks second in in order. The production of hay by the other the list
, while Ohio ranks third, and Michigan States is comparatively small. fourth.
The Corn crop of the Northern States was a The Rye crop, a far less iinportant one than very large one, 22.7 per cent above the average. the wheat, is a trifle and but a trifle below that The amount raised in the Southern States was of last year. Its range during the past six also large, but its amount is not readily ascerFears has been limited, as the following table tained. The following statistics show the amount
of this crop in twenty-two States and territories, Eye erop in 1860
the States lately in rebellion and those on the 21,289,451
Pacific coast not being given for want of com20,782,782
plete statistics. .19,872,975
The crop of 1865 is estimated :19,543,905
from the returns to the Agricultural Depart
ment: The principal rye-growing States, in the order of their production, are, Pennsylvania, New
Corn crop in 1862...
451,967,959 York, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Minois, Connec
..580.581,403 ticut, and Ohio. No other States produced in
642,729,247 1865 a half million of bushels.
In this crop Illinois takes the lead, producing The Barley crop is not a large one, but com- nearly one-fourth of the entire crop; Indiana pares favorably with that of former years, having follows, and then in their order, Ohio, Iowa, been exceeded only in 1862, and then only Kentucky, Missouri, Pennsylvania, New York, about 1,100,000 bushels. The following table Michigan, Maryland, Wisconsin, and New Jershows the production of the past few years : sey. Adding the crop in the Southern States, Barley erop in 1860..
.10,926,765 bushels. and the aggregate production of corn for the
year cannot fall much, if at all, short of 900,..11,868.155 10,682,178
000,000 bushels. 11,891,286
The Cotton crop of 1865 was larger than Fearly two-fifths of the whole barley crop is that of 1863 or 1864, though in some sections produced in the State of New York, while the and much of it was planted very late owing to
it was materially affected by the rain and worms, peater part of the remainder is raised in Ohio, the continuance of the war in the early months Illinois
, Wisconsin, Maine, Pennsylvania, and of the year, and the necessity of the corn crop The Out crop of 1865 was largely in excess
for the subsistence of the people. The amount of any former year, as will appear from the given can as yet be only approximately ascerfollowing table:
tained, but probably falls but little short of one
million bales. Eleven or twelve hundred thouOats produced in 1860 .151,290.980 bushels. sand bales of the crops of former years also
,171,463,405 1863. .178,800,575
remained over, so that the supply of cotton in .176,690,064
the country at the beginning of 1866, was about 1865..........285,232,295
one-half the amount of the crops of 1860, or The excess over the crop 1864, it will be of 1859. Mel, is about 48,500,000 bushels, and over The Tobacco crop was a fair average, except
1862 1863 1864 1865.
1862 1863. 1864. 1865.