Abbildungen der Seite

I'll ever serve his mind with my best will :
Whilst I have gold, I'll be his steward still.Timon, iv. 2.
And, after this, let Cæsar seat him sure ;
For we will shake hum, or worse days endure.- ul. C., i. 2.
Away, and mock the time with fairest show :
False face must hide what the false heart doth know.Macb., i. 7.
Till then sit still, my soul: foul deeds will rise,
Though all the earth o'ewhelm them, to men's eyes.-Hamlet, i. 2.
Let me, if not by birth, have lands by wit:
All with me's meet that I can fashion fit.-Lear, i. 2.
For if such actions may have passage free,
Bond-slaves and pagans shall our statesmen be.-Oth., i. 2.
Ah, women, women! come; we have no friend
But resolution, and the briefest end.Ant. & C., iv. 13.
Do as I bid thee: there's no more to say ;
Accessible is none but Milford way.-Cym., iii, 2.
Thaliard, adieu! Till Pericles be dead,

My heart can lend no succour to my head.-Per., i. 1. “ The Winter's Tale" is the only one of Shakespeare's plays which does not afford an instance of the dialogue in a scene ending with a rhyming couplet.

[ocr errors]

"S'ADDED OR OMITTED IN THE FIRST FOLIO. Among the many typographical inaccuracies of the 1623 Folio, is that of adding a final. s' to a word which should obviously not have it appended, and of omitting a final's' or ''s' in a word which obviously requires either of these conclusions. It is needful therefore to bear in mind this peculiar error of the First Folio printer, when judging certain passages written by Shakespeare ; and we here collectively cite several passages that have given rise to debate upon the point in question. The italicised words in the following passages are printed in the 1623 Folio with an erroneously added 's':

A man who is the abstract of all faults
That all men follow.–Ant. & C., i. 4.
Farther than he is Cæsar.-Ibid., iii. 11.
She, Eros, has pack'd cards with Cæsar.-Ibid., iv. 12.

Their discipline
(Now mingled with their courage) will make known.--Cym., ii. 4.
Most miserable is the desire that 's glorious.-Ibid., i. 7.
Whose subdu'd eyes ... drop tears as fast.--Oth., V. 2.
By the hangman* boys in the market-place.Tw. G. of V., iv. 4.
There hath been in Rome strange insurrection.Coriol., iv. 3.

Our bloods
No more obey the heavens than our courtiers
Still seem as does the king.-Cym., i. 1.

My lordt, farewell.-H. VIII., i. 2. Shakespeare elsewhere (“* Much Ado About Nothing," iii. 2) uses “hangman" as a nick-name. See ParticULAR NAMES.

+ As Abergavenny accompanies Buckingham to the Tower, the latter takes leave merely of Norfolk.

For affection,
Master of passion, sways it to the mood
Of what it likes or loathes.--Mer. of V., iv. 1.
I have assailed her with music, but she.-Cym., ii. 3.
And see, a book of prayer in his hand,-
True ornament to know a holy man. -R. III., iii. 7.

When liver, brain, and heart,
These sovereign thrones, are all supplied and fill'd
(Her sweet perfection*) with one self king !—Tw. N., i. 1.
Will nothing stick our person to arraign.-Hamlet, iv. 5.

The son of Duncan,
From whom this tyrant holds the due of birth,
Lives in the English court.--Macb., iii. 6.
So foolish sorrow bids your stones farewell.—R. III., iv. 1.
I am not made of stone, but penetrable to.-Ibid., iii. 7.

What a full fortune does the thick-lips owe, if he.-Oth., i. 1.
Have broke their sleeps with thought, their brains with care.—2 H. IV., iv. 4.

With witchcraft of his wit, with traitorous gifts,
(O wicked wit, and gifts, that have the power
So to seduce !) won to his shameful lust.-Hamlet, i. 5.
For this the foolish over-careful fathers
Have broke their sleeps. ...
For this they have engrossed and pil'd up
The canker'd heaps of strange-achieved gold;
For this they have been thoughtful to invest
Their sons with arts and martial exercises:
When, like the bee, tolling from every flower
The virtuous sweets,
Our thighs pack'd with wax, our mouths with honey,
We bring it to the hive; and, like the bees,
Are murder'd for our pains. This bitter taste

Yieldt his engrossments to the ending father.—2 H. IV., iv. 4.
The italicised words in the following passages are printed in the 1623
Folio with the final s' or ' 's' omitted :-

How parted with your brothers? How first met them?—Cym., V. 5.
Ye see, I drink the water of mine eyes.3 H. VI., V. 4.
Left and abandon'd of his velvet friends.-As You L., ii. 1.
Be that you seem, truly your country's friends.-Coriol., iii. 1.
His sons he there proclaim'd the kings of kings.-Ant. & C., iii. 6.
The legions, now in Gallia, sooner landed.-Cym., ii. 4.
I have fair meanings, sir.-
And fair words to them.-Ant. @ C., ii. 6.
Half all men's hearts are his.-Cym., i. 7.
Hath he not passed the nobles and the commons ?--Coriol., iii. 1.

Takes no account
How things go from him; nor resumes no care
Of what is to continue.-Timon, ii. 2.

See Peculiar Use of Words (page 576) for explanation of the mode in which the word “perfection " is used, in the present passage and in two others, by Shakespeare, with reference to the beautiful doctrine that prevailed in his time of marriage being the perfectioning of a human being.

+ The previous context of this sentence shows that the word "engrossments" refers to the heaps " which the over-careful fathers have “ engrossed and pil'd up"; therefore the construction is— His engrossments yield this bitter taste to the ending father.'

How many ages hence
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over
In states unborn and accents yet unknown !- Jul. C., iii. 1.

She's a lady
So tender of rebukes, that words are strokes,
And strokes death to her.-Cym., iii. 5.
But even the very middle of my heart
Is warm’d by the rest, and takes it thankfully.-Ibid., i. 7.
The things I have forsworn to grant may never
Be held by you denials.-Coriol., v. 3.

So our virtues
Lie in the interpretation of the time.--I bid., iv. 7.
The first line in the following passage is printed thus in the First
Folio : “When many times the captiue Grecian fals ’; but the word
“ them," in the third line, shows the 's' to be misplaced :-

When many times the captive Grecians fall,
Even in the fan and wind of your fair sword,

You bid them rise, and live.--Tr. & Cr., v. 3. In the earliest printed editions of “ Pericles " (which is not included among the plays in the 1623 Folio) there occur some of these additions and omissions of the final · s'or •'s’in a word. The italicised words in the following passages have an erroneously added 's':

By Cleon train d in music, letters.Per., iv. (Gower).
His woful queen we leave at Ephesus,

Unto Diana there a votaress.--Ibid., iv. (Gower). And the italicised words in the following passages have the final 's' or "'s' omitted :

Sure, all's effectless; yet nothing we 'll omit.-Ibid., v. 1.
This cannot be: my daughter's buried.-Ibid., v. 1.
Whose death 's, indeed, the strongest in our censure.-Ibid., ii. 4.
And leaves us to our free election.--Ibid., ii. 4.
Where now his son's like a glow-worm in the night.-Ibid., ii. 3.


Into the mouths of two of his gentlest women, Shakespeare has put bitter sarcasms; worded quietly, but none the less forcible and intense for their very temperance of expression. Cordelia, led in captive with her cruelly aggrieved father, inquires :

Shall we not see these daughters and these sisters ?-Lear, v. 3. And Imogen, in reply to Cymbeline's storm of reproaches at the very moment he banishes her husband from her side, says :

I beseech you, sir,
Harm not yourself with your vexation :
I am senseless of your wrath; a touch more rare

Subdues all pangs, all fears.-Cym., i. 2. Again, when Pisanio, telling Imogen that he has received her husband's command to kill her, adding, “Oh, gracious lady, since I

receiv'd command to do this business I have not slept one wink," she, with sarcastic quietude, replies ::

Do't and to bed then.-Cym., iii. 4. With equal yet quite another force of effect, Shakespeare has put into the mouths of vehement and vicious-natured women sarcastic speeches remarkable for quiet wording, yet strength of sneer. Lady Macbeth, when her husband is aghast at the apparition of the murdered man sitting at the very festal board in the seemingly empty seat, exclaims :

Shame itself!
Why do you make such faces? When all's done,

You look but on a stool.-Macb., iii. 4.
Goneril greets Edmund with the words:

Welcome, my lord: I marvel our mild husband

Not met us on the way.--Lear, iv. 2. Cleopatra asks after Marc Antony's wife Fulvia by an epithet which, in the mouth of the imperial courtesan, is a superb scoff :

What says the married woman?-Ant. & C., i. 3. And she afterwards alludes to his wife Octavia with terms that, used by the “ Serpent of old Nile," signify profoundest scorn :

Your wife Octavia, with her modest eyes
And still conclusion, shall acquire no honour

Demuring upon me.-Ibid., iv. 13. Dionyza heaps contempt upon her husband Cleon's less unscrupulous character and his remorse for their joint deed in words of cutting taunt that are akin to Lady Macbeth's diction. They are well worthy the same dramatist's hand who, later on in his career, depicted that grandly drawn impersonation of criminal ambition :

Cleon ... What canst thou say
When noble Pericles shall demand his child ?

Dionyza. That she is dead. Nurses are not the fates,
To foster, nor ever to preserve.
She died at night; I'll say so.

Who can cross it ?
Unless you play the pious innocent,
And for an honest attribute cry out,
“She died by foul play”

Be one of those that think
The petty wrens of Tharsus will fly hence,
And open this to Pericles. I do shame
To think of what a noble strain you are,
And of how coward a spirit. . .
You are like one that superstitiously
Doth swear to the gods that winter kills the flies.-Per., iv. 4.

SATIRE. Amid the numberless indirect satires upon the crimes, the vices, the errors, the follies, and the mistakes of mankind, that may be traced through all his plays and characters, there are to be found some passages of more direct satire in Shakespeare's works.. He satirises

a fashion that prevailed in his time of painting the cheeks; together with other feminine affectations of manner :

I have heard of your paintings too, well enough; God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another : you jig, you amble, and you lisp, and nickname God's creatures, and make your wantonness your ignorance.-Hamlet, iii. I. And another fashion, of wearing false hair:

Oh, if in black my lady's brows be deckt,
It mourns that painting and usurping hair
Should ravish doters with a false aspect !-Love's L. L, iv. 3.
So are those crisped snaky golden locks,
Which make such wanton gambols with the wind,
Upon supposed fairness, often known
To be the dowry of a second head,

The skull that bred them in the sepulchre.- Mer. of V., iii. 2. And others, of foppishly curling the hair, and trimming or dyeing the beard :

A serving-man, proud in heart and mind; that curled my hair ; wore gloves in my cap.-Lear, iii. 4.

The wealthy curled darlings of our nation.-0th., i. 3.

The barber's man hath been seen with him; and the old ornament of his cheek has already stuffed tennis-balls.—Indeed, he looks younger than he did, by the loss of a beard.-M. Ado, iii. 2.

What beard were I best to play it in ? ... I will discharge it in either your straw-colour beard, your orange-tawny beard, your purple-in-grain beard, or your French-crown-colour beard, your perfect yellow.- Mid. N. D., i. 2.

Others, of fantastical styles in dress, and fanatical adoption of foreign modes:

There is no appearance of fancy in him, unless it be a fancy that he hath to strange disguises ; as, to be a Dutchman to-day, a Frenchman to-morrow; or in the shape of two countries at once; as, a German from the waist downward, all slops, and a Spaniard from the hip upward, no doublet. Unless he have a fancy to this foolery, as it appears he hath, he is no fool for fancy, as you would have it appear he is.M. Ado, iii. 2.

And one Deformed is one of them; I know him ; 'a wears a lock (meaning a long lock of hair, sometimes called a love-lock; a fashion originally introduced from the Continent by young gallants, and afterwards adopted by ruffianly fellows and thieves). -Ibid., iii. 3.

How oddly he is suited ! I think he bought his doublet in Italy, his round hose in France, his bonnet in Germany, and his behaviour everywhere.- Mcr. of V., i. 2.

Farewell, Monsieur Traveller ; look you lisp, and wear strange suits; disable all the benefits of your own country ; be out of love with your nativity, and almost chide God for making you that countenance you are; or I will scarce think you have swan in a gondola.-As You L., iv, 1.

Your son was misled with a snipt-taffeta fellow there, whose villanous saffron would have made all the unbaked and doughy youth of a nation of his colour ... that redtailed humble-bee I speak of.-All's W.,

Report of fashions in proud Italy,
Whose manners still our tardy apish nation
Limps after, in base imitation.-R. II., ii. 1.
Duck with French nods and apish courtesy.--R. III., i. 3.
Is 't possible the spells of France should juggle
Men into such strange mysteries ?-

New customs,
Though they be never so ridiculous,
Nay, let 'em be unmanly, yet are follow'd.-

iv. 5.

« ZurückWeiter »