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Shakespeare, with the right and might of a true poet, and with his peculiar royal privilege as king of all poets, has minted several words that deserve to become current in our language. He coined them for his own special use to express his own special meanings in his own special passages; but they are so expressive and so well framed to be exponents of certain particulars in meanings common to us all, that they deserve to become generally adopted and used :
For then the bold and coward,
Now, sir, be judge yourself
Thou art no soldier.-Ibid., ii. 3. By the condensedly framed word “affin'd,” Shakespeare expresses, in the first of the above three passages, • united by affinity;' in the second, · bound by any claim of affinity ;' and in the third, .swayed by any link of affinity.'
You, Titus Lartius,
Proclaim'd at market-crosses, read in churches.—1 H. IV., v. I. Shakespeare framed for himself the verb “ articulate" (from one of the meanings of the Latin word articulus, óan article or condition in a covenant') to express concisely enter into articles;' and "articulated,” to express set forth in articles.'
You are much more attask'd for want of wisdom
Than prais'd for harmful mildness.—Lear, i. 4. In the above passage, the word “ attask'd' succinctly expresses "taken to task.'
Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff,
That beetles o'er his base into the sea.-Hamlet, i. 4. “ Beetle-brows,” to express prominent brows,' was
a very old epithet; and Shakespeare framed the expressive verb “beetles," to indicate a clift's summit that juts out prominently,' that projects beyond its wave-worn base, like the head of a wooden “ beetle” or mallet.
With cadent tears fret channels in her cheeks.—Lear, i. 4.
As, by the same co-mart,
Shakespeare framed the word “co-mart,” to express joint bargains,' "compact made together,' in the same manner that the words coheiress,' 'co-partner,' &c., are formed, and as he himself formed the word " co-mates ” in the following passage:
Now, my co-mates and brothers in exile.-As You L., ii. 1.
Like music.-H. V., i. 2. By the one word “congreeing,” Shakespeare expresses agreeing with itself, in all its parts.'
That, face to face and royal eye to eye,
You have congreeted.-Ibid., v. 2. The single word “congreeted" expresses greeted each other,' * met together.'
First, all you peers of Greece, go to my tent;
There in the full convive we.-Tr. & Cr., iv. 5. Shakespeare frames the above verb to express . let us be convivial,' • let us feast together.'
Yet here she is allow'd her virgin crants,
Of bell and burial.-Hamlet, v, 1. Here Shakespeare has anglicised and brought into our language a word which exists in various northern languages, under the form of • krans,' krants,' 'kranz,' and 'crance,' each meaning “crown' or 'garland.' He has also in the present passage appropriately introduced the custom which prevails in many countries of the northamong the rest, Denmark—of placing on the grave of a maiden the chaplet she wore when in life as token of her virgin condition, together with the strewn flowers emblematical of her purity.
For my authority bears so credent bulk,
If with too credent ear you list his songs.-Hamlet, i. 3. From the Latin participles credendus, “to be believed or trusted,' and credens, believing,' 'trusting,' Shakespeare fashioned the word "Credent': to express, in the first of the above three passages, ' quality commanding belief or credit'; in the second, ' easily to be believed or credited'; and in the third, “facilely believing or giving credit.'
Your wife Octavia, with her modest eyes
Demuring upon me.-Ant. & C., iv. 13. In framing the word “demuring,” the poet, with felicitous condensation, expresses, looking demurely.'
The poisonous damp of night dispunge upon me.--Ant. & C., iv. 9.
By the single verb “dispunge” is expressed discharge as from a spunge.
The violence of either grief or joy
Their own enactures with themselves destroy.-Hamlet, iii, 2. This expressive word was fabricated by the poet to designate “purposes put into action,' 'intentions enacted.'
Were they not forc'd with those that should be ours,
And beat them backward home.—Macb., V. 5. Shakespeare framed the vigorous word “ forc'd” to express "reinforced,'provided with forces'; and yet the emendators have sought to deprive us of it by proposing various substitutions.
A good sherris-sack hath a twofold operation in it. It ascends me into the brain ; dries me there all the foolish and dull and crudy vapours which environ it; makes it apprehensive, quick, forgetive, full of nimble, fiery, and delectable shapes.2 H. IV., iv. 3. This word succinctly expresses capable of mentally forging.'
His heart is fracted and corroborate.-H. V., ii. 1.
Have smit my credit.—Timon, ii. 1. From the Latin word fractus, .broken,' Shakespeare has fabricated this expression, " fracted."
When vice makes mercy, mercy's so extended,
Not friended by his wish, to your high person
With aptness of the season. -Cym., ii. 3. Shakespeare makes the word “ friended” concisely express what is generally conveyed by the word befriended.'
And what so poor a man as Hamlet is
May do, to express his love and friending to you.-Hamlet, i. 5.
Though the treasure
That make ingrateful man !-Lear, iii. 2. He has framed the word " germins " to express *the principles of germination.'
He led our powers;
And call itself your brother.-Lear, v. 3. By the word “immediacy " Shakespeare succinctly expresses ' authority immediately derived,' 'representativeship directly delegated and not intermediately obtained.'
That I some lady trifles have reserv'd,
As we greet modern friends withal.-Ant. & C., V. 2.
mentous,' . of no moment or importance.' Both of the above-cited words Dr. Johnson denounces ; calling “immediacy" a harsh word, and “immoment" a barbarous word: but we very emphatically disagree with the lexicographer's opinion, and venture to think them admirably condensed and significant words, which it would be well to adopt and retain in our language. It appears to us that instead of abjuring felicitously framed expressions because they are unprecedented, we ought, on the contrary, to receive with gratitude the philological inventions of such masters in highest poesy and clearest sense as William Shakespeare, when they frame new and good terms for their own purposes, which will admirably serve ours.
Yet gives he not till judgment guide his bounty,
Nor dignifies an impair thought with breath.---Tr. & Cr., iv. 5. From the Latin impar, signifying 'unequal,' "unsuitable,' unbefitting,' unworthy;' from the Latin imparatus, signifying unprepared,' unready,' perplexed,' entangled,' and from the English * impairing,' as signifying injurious,' detracting,' Shakespeare has framed the adjective “impair,” to express a compound meaning, including the various significations of these derivatives. His contemporaries used the word “ impair” as a substantive; but Shakespeare made it do duty as an expressive adjective.
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood
Making the green-one red.—Macb., ii. 2. Shakespeare devised the magnificently poetic verb “incarnardine from the Italian word incarnardino, carnation or flesh colour,' to express ' stain carnation-red colour.'
He grew unto his seat;
With the brave beast.-Hamlet, iv. 7. The word "incorps'd " more compactly expresses incorporated,' while “demi-natur'd” poetically suggests the dual formation of the centaur-half-man, half-horse.
You are born
Such cherubins as your sweet self resemble.-Sonnet 114. From the Latin word indigestus, disordered,' confused,' Shake. speare framed the term " indigest,” which he uses as a noun, in the first of the above passages, to express “a mass of confusion or disorder,' ' a chaos or chaotic state'; and as an adjective, in the second of the above passages, to express . unformed,' shapeless.'
The heavens themselves, the planets, and this centre,
From the Latin verb insistere, to stay,' stop,' or 'stand still,' Shakespeare framed his word “ insisture," to express · fixed position,' • appointed situation,'' steadfast place.'
As easy may'st thou the intrenchant air
With thy keen sword impress, as make me bleed.-Macb., v. 7. From the word “trenchant," "cutting,' Shakespeare has formed the epithet “intrenchant," to express incapable of being cut.'
The diamond-why, 'twas beautiful and hard,
Whereto his invis'd properties did tend.-Lover's Complaint, Stansa 31. The poet formed the word “invis'd” to express ' unseen,' • invisible.'
Conspir’d with that irregulous devil, Cloten.-Cym., iv. 2. Shakespeare invented the epithet “irregulous" to express something much more strong than irregular ’; something that combines the sense of • disorderly,' 'lawless,' • licentious,' as well as 'anomalous,' * mongrel,' • monstrous'-out of ordinary rule and order in every way.
But soon that war had end, and the time's state
Made friends of them, jointing their force 'gainst Cæsar.–Ant. & C., i. 2. Here “jointing” is framed to express .combining conjointly,' 'joining confederately.'
At such a point,
The mered question.-Ibid., iii. II. Inasmuch as Shakespeare uses the word “mere” sometimes in the sense of · absolute,' entire,' sole,' and sometimes in the sense of • boundary' or limit,' he here forms the word “mered” to express limited entirely,'confined absolutely.'
Not Neoptelemus so mirable
A thought of added honour torn from Hector.-Tr. & Cr., iv. 5. From the Latin mirabilis, “wonderful,' that which is to be admired at,' or 'marvelled at,' Shakespeare coined for himself the epithet * mirable.'
Our discontented counties do revolt;
Throw your mistemper'd weapons to the ground.-R. & Yul., i. 1. In this excellently formed word “mistemper'd,” the poet not only gives the effect of ill-temper’d,' • wrathful'; he also gives the effect of misguidedly and misdirectedly wrathful’; and he moreover