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Most monster-like, be shown
For poor'st diminutives, for* doits. - Ant. & C., iv. 10.

I, that with my sword
Quarter'd the world, and o'er green Neptune's back
With ships made cities, condemn myself to lack
The courage of a woman ; lesst noble mind
Than she which by her death our Cæsar tells,
“I am conqueror of myself."--Ibid., iv. 12.

Thou art sworn, Eros,
That, when the exigent should come (which now
Is come indeed), when I should see behind me
The inevitable prosecution of
Disgrace and horror, that, on my command,
Thou then wouldst kill me.Ibid., iv. 12.

I never do him wrong
But he does buy my injuries to be friends;
Pays dear for my offences.-Cym., i. 2.
A wooer more hateful than the foul expulsion is
Of thy dear husband, than that horrid act
Of the divorce he'd make!Ibid., ii. 1.
Woe is my heart that the poor soldier, that so richly fought,
Whose rags sham'd gilded arms, whose naked breast
Stepp'd before targes of proof, cannot be found.-Ibid., v. 5.
I never saw such noble fury in so poor a thing;
Such precious deeds in one that promis'd naught
But beggary and poor looks.-Ibid., v. 5.
Our heir apparent is a king!

Who dream d, who thought of such a thing ?-Per., iii. (Gower). Occasionally Shakespeare gives emphatic effect to a speech by introducing a precisely repeated word and phrase :

Now does he feel
His secret murders sticking on his hands;
Now minutely revolts upbraid his faith-breach;
Those he commands move only in command,
Nothing in love: now does he feel his title
Hang loose about him, like a giant's robe
Upon a dwarfish thief.Macb., v. 2.

PECULIAR REPLIES. Shakespeare occasionally introduces peculiarly phrased replies, where the form of answer does not seem precisely to cohere with the form of question just put :

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* It has been proposed to change the first " for " in the present passage into to, assuming “poor'st diminutives” to signify. meanest and most insignificant persons'; whereaso“ poor'st diminutives” is here used for smallest and lowest coins,' as “poorest piece" is used in “ Coriolanus,” iii. 3.

+ . To be of' elliptically understood before “less noble mind”; and under ELLIPTICAL STYLE we have shown several instances of passages similarly constructed, though the present one has been suspected of error, and altered by emendators. I Shakespeare's mode of occasionally employing the infinitive mood be borne in mind, it will be seen that “condemn myself to lack condemn myself for lacking'; and then, according to his elliptical style, allows“ less noble mind” to imply. conderan myself for being of less noble mind.'


When are you married, madam ?

Why, every day to-morrow (See Note at p. 357, Idioms, for our explanation of this reply).-M. Ado, iii. I.

Hate him not, for my sake.-
Why should I not? doth he not deserve well ?-As You L., i. 3.

After " why should I not,” we must understand not hate him?' Celia implying, “Why should I not love him ? 'as is shown by what Rosalind says immediately after.

Can it be possible that no man saw them ?

I cannot hear of any that did see her.-Ibid., ii. 2. Duke Frederick asks after both ladies; while the courtier, in his reply, mentions the duke's daughter only.

Thou knowest, winter tames man, woman, and beast; for it hath tamed my old master, and my new mistress, and myself, fellow Curtis.Away, you three-inch fool! I am no beast.Tam. of S., iv. I.

Grumio having made himself out to be “a beast," and then called the other servant “ fellow Curtis," includes him in the imputation, thereby eliciting Curtis's indignant disclaimer.

It shall do you no harm to learn.

To be young again, if we could.-All's W., ii. 2. The old Countess follows up the Clown's remark as if it were an incomplete sentence.

How goes all in France ?

From France to England.-Yohn, iv. 2. The messenger makes part of the king's inquiry form the implied commencement of his own; as if he said : * All goes now from France to England.'

I had a mighty cause
To wish him dead, but thou hadst none to kill him.-

No had, my lord! why, did you not provoke me ?-Ibid., iv. 2. "No had,” as well as no did,' ‘no does, and no will,' were idiomatic retorts formerly in use.

How now, good Blunt! thy looks are full of speed.

So hath the business that I come to speak of.—1 HIV., iii. 2. The reply here omits the “full of” included in the question, and accepts it as if it had been “thy looks have speed in them'; thus consisting well with the hurry of the speaker.

Have you laid fair the bed ? are all things well,
According as I gave directions ?---

'Tis, my good lord.—2 H. VI., iii. 2. Here, although the question is put in the plural, the reply is given in the singular; implying, “'tis done,'' all that you have ordered is performed.'

In any case, not too rough in terms;
For he is fierce, and cannot brook hard language.-

I will, my lord.Ibid., iv. 9. In this case, not be too rough' is elliptically understood after “I will."

I was,


Tell me, my friend, art thou the man that slew him ?

i't like your majesty.—2 H. VI., V, I. Instead of the usual · I am, Iden answers, I was,” to signify it was I that slew him.'

You forget
That we are those which chas'd you from the field,
And slew your fathers, and with colours spread
March'd through the city to the palace-gates. --

Yes, Warwick, I remember it to my grief.—3 H.VI., i. 1. Here “yes” implies yes, I do'; and forms the reply to "you forget,” as if that were equivalent to ' you do not remember.'

No, Warwick, no; while life upholds this arm,
This arm upholds the house of Lancaster.-

And I the house of York.-Ibid., iii. 3. To have preserved literal consistency of phraseology, “ And I," might here have been · And mine.'

The packet, Cromwell, gave it you the king ?--
To his own hand, in his bedchamber.
Look'd he o'th' inside of the paper ?-

He did unseal them : and the first he view'd,

He did it with a serious mind.-H. VIII., iii. 2.
Here " them" is used as if the questions implied the contents of
the "packet” or “paper. '
Would we were all discharg'd.

I fear it.-Timon, ii. 2. Here “discharged” means “paid' (* that all our debts were discharged '); and “ I fear it " implies, “I fear that we shall not be paid' (* have our debts discharged ').

Cæsar, thou canst not die by traitors' hands,
Unless thou bring'st them with thee.-

So I hope.- Jul. C., V. I.
This reply signifies, • I hope not to die by traitors' hands.'

Of Albany's and Cornwall's powers you heard not.

'Tis so, they are a-foot.-Lear, iv. 3. Here “'tis so” implies, yes, I did hear of them, and it is as was rumoured,'. it is just as we expected.' Save you, worthy general !

With all my heart, sir.-Oth., iv. I. • I thank you' is elliptically understood before with all my heart. [See MODE OF ADDRESS OR SALUTATION.) What shall be said to thee?

Why, anything : An honourable murderer, if you will.-Ibid., v. 2. In accordance with usual phraseology, the word “to,” in the question, might be .of.'

Whence are you ?-A poor Egyptian yet.Ant. & C., V. I. The answer implies, 'I come from Egypt; and as yet I have been no more than a poor Egyptian, though now no less than a messenger froni Egypt's queen to Octavius Cæsar.'

I came unto your court for honour's cause,
and not to be a rebel to her state ;
And he that otherwise accounts of me,
This sword shall prove he's honour's enemy.--

No! here comes my daughter, she can witness it. -- Per., ii. 5. The reply signifies, she can witness that you are a traitor, as I have said you are.'

Shakespeare occasionally introduces retorts where a somewhat similar word is used :Where is my lady?

Here; what would my lord ?-Mer. of V., ii. 9.
Save you, fair queen.-
And you, monarch.--
No.-And no.-All's W., i. 1.
Hail, royal prince !

Thanks, noble peer.-R. II., v. 5.
But, hear you, my lord.-
What say'st thou, my lady ?-1 H.IV., ii. 3.
My lord the prince,

How now, my lady the hostess !-Ibid., ii.
Who am I, sir ?—My lady's father.—My lady's father! my lord's knave.-Lear, i. 4.
Sir, sir,-Yes, my lord, yes.-Ant. & C., iii. 9.
What's your lordship's pleasure ?-Your lady's person.-Cym., ii. 3.
O, my all-worthy lord !--All-worthy villain !-Ibid., iii. 5.

Sometimes he introduces a half-scornful rejoinder in the form of an inquiry :

Thanks, i' faith; for silence is only commendable
In a neat's tongue dried, and a maid not vendible.-
Is that anything now ?? *-Mer. of V., i.
To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you where I lie.---
Can anything be made of this ?-Oth., iii.

4. He sometimes uses a form of rejoinder that draws attention to a purposed obscurity of style in the question (See DRAMATIC LAWS AND ART: I understand you not : my griefs are dull.--Love's L. L., V. 2. How blow ? how blow? speak to be understood.-Ibid., v. 2. He not unfrequently has a word used in one sense, and replied to as if it were used in another sense :

How cam'st thou in this pickles mess'] ?--
I have been in such a pickle ['brine'] I shall not fear fly-blowing.Temp., V. 1.

So, by your circumstance [* argumentative statement'], you call me fool.–So, by your circumstance [* actual state or condition '], I fear you 'll prove.—Two G. of V., i. 1.

The music likes [. pleases '] you not.-
You mistake; the musician likes [' loves '] me not.-Ibid., iv. 2.
I have a brother is condemn'd (.doomed' or 'sentenced'] to die.

Why, every fault 's condemn’d ('censured ') ere it be done.-M. for M., ii. 2. What a plague mean ye to colt [. cheat,' 'trick,' . deceive '] me thus ?—Thou liest ; thou art not colted (" provided with a horse or colt'], thou art uncolted ["deprived of ihy horse ').-1 H. IV., ii. 2. • The Folio prints this, * It is that any thing now': but the very similar phrase in

(above quoted) makes it probable that Shakespeare intended to write, Is that anything now ? ”


* Othello

And therein you are senseless [“ unconscious,'' purposely without perception ').-
Senseless [devoid of sense,' stupid ']! not so.--Cym., ii. 3.

In the following passage he uses a form of question in a peculiar manner :

Will you be gone (* Are you going '] ?-Coriol., iv. 2.

PECULIAR USE OF WORDS.* Shakespeare often uses words with peculiar force of meaning, and sometimes in a sense not ordinarily assigned. It is requisite to bear this in mind when judging certain passages that present some difficulty of interpretation, if his practice in this respect be not remembered; and frequently, by observing how he employs a word in one instance, it will aid in denoting how he similarly employs it in another, where perhaps the whole signification of the phrase is less obvious. In some cases, he uses words in a sense that they bore when he wrote, but which they have since lost; in others, he uses words in the sense they strictly bear as derived from classical original sources ; and, in others, with a degree of latitude in signification, as indirectly pertaining to them. But, in every case, as it appears to us, he uses words with expressive and effective power.

Being all this time abandoned [' banished,' 'interdicted'] from your bed.Tam. of S., Induc. 2.

If she be so abandon'd [' given up,''given over '] to her sorrow.-TW.N., i. 4.
O long and tedious night! abate ['curtail,' • diminish ') thy hours.—Mid.N.D., iii. 2.
Abate ['suppressing,' leaving out,' 'excepting') throw at novum.—Love's L.L., V. 2.
Which once in him abated [* reduced to lower temper,' • let down '].—2 H. IV., i. 1.

Abate ['blunt,' put down,' repress,' subdue,''lower,'. depress'; and ' diminish, • make fewer,' « lessen the number of.' See Varied MEANINGS, &c., for instances of Shakespeare's thus including many senses in one expressive word] the edge of traitors, gracious Lord.—R. III., v. 4.

Deliver you as most abated [' depressed,' subdued,' • cast down,' dispirited ] captives.—Coriol., iii. 3.

Let no man abide [endure the consequence of,' 'incur the penalty of'] this deed.-7ul. C., iii. 1.

We are the queen's abjects [' lowest of subjects '].—R. III., i. 1.
I say, none; I 'll able [' empower '] 'em.-Lear, iv. 6.

The night-crow cried, aboding [' foreboding,' 'presaging '] luckless time.3 H. VI., v. 6.

Be absolute [' firm,'' decided '] for death.-M. for M., iii. I.
I am absolute [' certain,' positive,' decided '] 'twas very Cloten.-Cym., iv, 2.

As just, as absolute ['complete in excellence,'• accomplished in merit ') as Angelo.M. for M., v. 1.

Contends in skill with absolute ["fully accomplished,' completely excellent') Marina.Per., iv. (Gower).

I am mightily abus'd [' confused,' bewildered,'perplexed with false illusions ']. Lear, iv. 7.

Then Edgar was abus'd [' maligned,''calumniated '].—Ibid., iii. 7.

* It is to be observed that we here give to several of Shakespeare's words-in many cases-more varied and quite different significations from those given by other glossarists and commentators.

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