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i. 1.

In the following, he uses interjections substantively:
She did, with an "alas," I would fain say, bleed tears.-W. T., v. 2.
Their loud applause and aves vehement.M. for M.,
Crier Hobgoblin, make the fairy 0-yes.-Merry W., v. 5.
Fame with her loudest o-yes cries.Tr. & Cr., iv. 5.
His daughter's woe and heavy well-a-day.Per., iv. 4 (Gower).

In the following he uses substantively a word which is both an adjective and an adverb :

From th' extremest upward of thy head, to the.Lear, v. 3.
In the following passages he uses an adverb as a noun :-
In russet yeas, and honest kersey noes.-Love's L. L., V. 2.
That" only ” came well in.—Tam. of S., ii. 1.
Dies in his own too-much.-Hamlet, iv. 7.

A lady's verily is as potent as a lord's by your dread verily, one of them you shall be.-W. T., i. 2.

They say every why hath a wherefore.--Com. of E., ii. 2.
How if your husband start some other where.-Ibid., ii. 1.
I know his eye doth homage some other where.Ibid., ii. 1.
This is not Romeo, he's some other where.R. & Ful., i. 1.
Thou losest here, a better where to find.-Lear, i. 1.
In the following he uses an adverb adjectively :-
Are as interpreters of my behind-hand slackness.-W. T., v. 1.
So, my state, seldom, but sumptuous, showed like a feast. :-I H. IV., iii. 2.
Blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure. -Sonnet 52.

Ere twice the sun hath made his journal greeting

To th' under generation, you shall find.-M. for M., iv. 3.
With the spleen of all the under fiends.*—Coriol., iv. 5.
Approach, thou beacon to this under globe.Lear, ii. 2.

Lo, in the orient when the gracious light
Lifts up his burning head, each under eye

Doth homage to his new-appearing sight.-Sonnet 7.
In the following he makes a petulant speaker use an adjective as a
verb and as a noun (See CoinED WORDS]:-
Thank me no thankings, nor proud me no prouds.-R. & Yuli, iii. 5.
He occasionally uses even short phrases substantively:-
The hardest voice of her behaviour, to be Englished rightly, is, “I am Sir John
Falstaff's."-Merry W., i. 3.

Here's too much “out upon thee!Com. of E., iii. 1.
Indeed, your O Lord, sir !” is very sequent to your whipping.-All's W., ii. 2.
This “ once again," but that your highness pleas’d, was once superfluous.-Yohn, iv. 2.
Better at home, if " would I might may.Tr. & Cr., i. 1.
Letting I dare not” wait upon “I would.Macb., i. 7.
And with an absolute, “Sir, not I," the cloudy messenger.-Ibid., iii. 6.

But yet” is as a gaoler to bring forth

Some monstrous malefactor.-Ant. & C., ii. 5.
He sometimes uses verbs substantively :-
Without the sensible and avouch of mine.- Hamlet, i.
Sextus Pompeius hath given the dare to Cæsar.-Ant. & C., i. 3.

* The under fiends" is equivalent to the fiends below,' the fiends of the lower regions.'

were "

I true! how now! what wicked deem is this ?-Ty. & Cr., iv. 4.
For the fail of any point in 't shall not only be.-W.T., ii.

3.
By his highness' fail of issue.--Ibid., v. 1.
How grounded he his title to the crown upon our fail ?-H.VIII., i. 2.
The danger which my realms stood in by this my issue's fail.-Ibid., ii. 4.
Shall be false and perjur’d, from thy great fail.-Cym., iii. 4.
Troy; within whose strong immures the.--Tr. & Cr. (Prologue).
According to your ladyship's impose, I am.—Two G. of V., iv. 3.
Our fortune lies upon this jump.--Ant. & C., iii. 8.
Bear the guilt of our great quell.Macb., i. 7.
And send forth us, to make our sorrow'd render.-Timon, v. 2.
May drive us to a render where we have liv’d.-Cym., iv. 4.
Take no stricter render of me than my all.---Ibid., v. 4.
The solve is this that thou dost common grow.-Sonnet 69.
That we come short of our suppose thus far.–Tr. & Cr., i. 3.
While counterfeit supposes blear'd thine eyne.--Tam. of S., V. I.
There has been much to do on both sides.Hamlet, ii. 2.
What's sweet to do, to do will aptly find.--Lover's Comp., Stansa 13.
With every gale and vary of their masters.-Lear, ii. 2.
That, on the view and know of these contents.-Hamlet, v. 2.
Will I not, Pompey; it is not the wear.--M. for M., iii. 2.
Motley's the only wear.-As You L., ii. 7.
Of the new'st and fin'st, fin'st wear-a?-W.T., iv. 3 (Song).
In the following passage he uses a verb as a noun-adjective :-
And be a thwart disnatur’d torment to her !-Lear, i. 4.
Sometimes he uses verbs framed from adjectives :-
None does offend, none--I say, none; I'll able 'em.-Ibid., iv. 6.
And it shall go hard but I will better the instruction.--Mer. of V., üi. 1.
Each day still better other's happiness; until.-R. II., i. 1.
Not unlike, each way, to better yours.-Coriol., iii. I.
If that ever my low fortunes better, I'll pay.--Per., ii. 1.
Since they do better thee in their command.-Ibid., iv. 6.
What you do still betters what is done.-W. T., iv. 3.

It toucheth us, as France invades our land,

Not bolds the king, with others, whom, I fear.-Lear, v. I.
Deep clerks she dumbs; and with her neeld.--Per., v. (Gower).
Madam, the care I have had to even your content.--All's W., i. 3.
To make him even o'er the time he has lost.---Lear, iv. 7.

There's more to be consider'd; but we'll even

All that good time will give us.* -Cym., iii. 4. It faints me, to think what follows.-H. VIII., ii. 3.

* It is to be noted that in each of these three passages Shakespeare uses the word "even” with largely inclusive effect. In the first, “to even your content" includes the combined significations of “to keep pace with your wishes,' to act conformably with your wishes,' • to make the accomplishment of your desires easy’; in the second, the phrase implies to make him pass in review the interval that has elapsed, and endeavour to render its events smooth and easy of comprehension to himself"; and in the third, the phrase comprises the multiplied effect of we will make our attempts keep pace with the time allowed us for endeavour,' we will accomplish all that time will give us leave to try for,''we will meet smoothly and with even temper all that time brings,' and we will accept thankfully all that good time grants.' See VARIED MEANINGS COMBINED IN ONE Word or SENTENCE, in justification of our ascribing these largely inclusive significations to Shakespeare's words.

And makes Diana's rangers false themselves.-Cym., ii. 3.
And I, poor monster, fond as much on him.-Tw. N., i. 2.
And god-like reason to fust in us unus'd.-Hamlet, iv. 4.
This day shall gentle his condition.-H. V., iv. 3.
That which most with you should safe my going.–Ant. & C., i. 3.
How poor

Andromache shrills her dolours forth Tr. & Cr., v. 3.
And violenteth in a sense as strong.-Ibid., iv. 4.

In the following passage he frames a verb from a word used both as a noun and as an adjective :Which we will niggard with a little rest.—Jul. C., iv. 3. In the following he uses a verb humorously framed from a pronoun :-If thou thou'st him some thrice, it shall.-Tw. N., iii. 2. And, in the following, verbs humorously framed from nouns :

A French song and a fiddle has no fellow.

The devil fiddle 'em SH. VIII., i. 3.
You are grand-jurors, are ye? we'll jure ye, i' faith.—1 H. IV., ii. 2.
He sometimes uses participles framed from adjectives :-
He hath, indeed, better bettered expectation.-M. Ado, i. 1.
Which, bettered with his own learning.-Mer. of V., iv. 1 (Letter).
Which I have better'd rather than decreas’d.—Tam. of S., ii. 1.
But since he is better'd, we have therefore odds.-Hamlet, v. 2.
And the bettering of my mind with that.Temp., i. 2.
Bettering thy loss makes the bad-causer worse.—R. III., iv. 4.
Nay, if he coy'd to hear Cominius speak.-Coriol., v. I.
Shall acquire no honour demuring upon me.--Ant. & C., iv. 12.
Till I am even'd with him, wife for wife.-Oth., ii. 1.
Spoke was beastly dumb'd by him.-Ibid., i. 5.
Fairing the foul with art's false borrow'd face.-Sonnet 127.
Nay, not sure, in a thing falsing.Com. of E., ii. 2.
Best you saf'd the bringer out of the host.-Ant. & C., iv. 6.
I would I knew not why it should be slow'd.-R. & Ful., iv. I.
All his visage wann'd: tears in his eyes.-Hamlet, ii. 2.

In the following passages he uses participles humorously framed from nouns (See CoinED WORDS]:

Aufidius got off . : I would not have been so fidiused for all the chests in Corioli. -Coriol., ii. 1.

To see how the sea flap-dragoned it.-W. T., iii. 3.
He hath out-villained villainy so far, that the rarity.-All's W., iv. 3.
And in the following he uses a proper name humorously as a verb:-

Come, Mother Pratt; come, give me your hand. -
I 'll “ prather.-Merry W., iv. 2.

.

PASSAGES OF INCOMPLETE EXPLANATION. Shakespeare has some passages, where much is dramatically inferred in very few words; thus sparing needless diffuseness and prolixity in detailing circumstances already known to the perusers or spectators of the play. These passages generally occur in the closing scenes, where the plot is wound up, and the characters come

to a mutual understanding; therefore much is taken for granted, or left for supposed subsequent explanation among themselves, in order to avoid recapitulation before the audience. Some of his commentators, not perceiving this intentional succinctness on the part of the dramatist, have accused him of oversight, omission, forgetfulness, inexplicitness, &c., &c.; but we think that the following collected instances will serve to show that, far from denoting any of these alleged defects, they evince systematic art with care and skill in dramatic provision. He will often throw in an apparently trivial phrase, which really serves to indicate a point that it is requisite should be conveyed and known; yet doing this so slightly, that it demands attention on the part of those who read or see the play : and thus it comes, that so frequently when fault is found with Shakespeare's composition, it is the carelessness of the observer, and not the carelessness of the writer, which deserves blame. The two first passages we shall cite afford instances of the slight by-touches he occasionally introduces, to convey a circumstance needful to be noted, yet not demanding lengthy explanation:There is no better way than that they spoke of.Merry W., iv. 4.

Here allusion is made to the proposal already made by Mistress Ford and Mistress Page, supposed to have been "spoken of" before entering on the scene, and which their husbands proceed to discuss.

But, they say, the duke will be here to-morrow,-M. for M., iv. 3.

By the words “ they say," put into Lucio's mouth here, the fact is indicated that the duke's return is now generally reported.

My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
Had fasten'd him unto a small spare mast.
My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care,
At eighteen years became inquisitive

After his brother.—Com of E., i. 1. Here, in order perhaps to convey the effect of the confusion of the wreck, the description is given somewhat confusedly; so that the particulars of the mother's having fastened the “ latter-born" to the mast, while she herself became fastened to the other end where her elder twin son was secured, thus leaving the “ youngest boy” under the charge of her husband, must be well borne in mind, so that the present details may tally with the fact of Æmilia's having reached Ephesus with the elder Antipholus, and Ægeon's having had the younger Antipholus with him at Syracuse Are you a suitor to the maid you talk of?—Tam. of S., i. 2.

Here reference is made to a subject as if it had been named; while, in fact, it has only been implied. But though there has been no actual mention of Bianca among the speakers, it is well understood that she is meant by them.

Petruchio is my name ; Antonio's son,
A man well known throughout all Italy.-
I know him well; you are welcome for his sake.-
Saving your tale, Petruchio, I pray,

Let us, that are poor petitioners, speak too.Ibid., ii. 1.
By this expedient of Gremio's interruption, the needless repetition of
Petruchio's stating his father's death to Baptista is saved.

.

Lucentio is your name—of whence, I pray ?—Tam. of S., ii. 1.

Here the dramatist allows the disguised Tranio's assumed name of Lucentio to be supposed to have become known to the speaker ; possibly by its having been marked upon the lute, or inscribed in the volumes presented to Baptista. Had you not lately an intent ... to go to Paris ?-All's W., i. 3.

Although there has been no express mention of Helena's “intent having become known to the Countess, the dramatist here allows the point to be inferred.

Methought you said you saw one here in court could witness it.I did, my lord, but loath am to produce so bad an instrument: his name's Parolles.-Ibid., v. 3.

Notwithstanding that there has been no actual speech made by Diana to this effect, yet, knowing that the audience are already aware of the point, and that it is needful to introduce Parolles, the dramatist permits her having adverted to some one who could “ witness” for her to be taken for granted :

That I am Viola : which to confirm,
I'll bring you to a captain in this town,
Where lie my maiden weeds; by whose gentle help
I was preserv'd, to serve this noble count. .
The captain that did bring me first on shore
Hath my maid's garments; he, upon some action,
Is now in durance; at Malvolio's suit.
Pursue him, and entreat him to a peace:

He hath not told us of the captain yet.—Tw. N., v. I. By the above slight indications, the dramatist sketches events already known to the audience; not only avoiding their recapitulation, but also leaving undetailed the needless particulars of " Malvolio's suit ” against the sea-captain..

Thou wouldst have poison'd good Camillo's honour,

To have him kill a king.-W.T., iii. 3. Although Leontes' confession of his misdeed took place during Paulina's absence from the scene, our dramatist permits her to make the above speech as if aware of the self-accusation, since it has become known to the audience.

Teeth hadst thou in thy head when thou wast born,
To signify, thou cam’st to bite the world :
And, if the rest be true which I have heard,
Thou cam'st-
I'll hear no more: die, prophet in thy speech ;
For this, among the rest, was I ordain'd
Indeed, 'tis true, that Henry told me of;

For I have often heard my mother say, &c.—3 H. VI., v. 6. Shakespeare purposely allows King Henry's speech to be broken off in the midst of his scoffing at the preposterous circumstances attending Richard's birth, while allowing Richard to allude to them as having been "told"; because they are not only recounted immediately after by Richard himself, but were well known and popularly believed. The noble Brutus hath told you Cæsar was ambitious.—7ul. C., iii. 2.

The dramatist here causes it to be inferred that Antony has heard of Brutus's having told the people this.

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