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In the following, he uses interjections substantively:
In the following he uses substantively a word which is both an adjective and an adverb :
From th' extremest upward of thy head, to the.—Lear, v. 3.
A lady's verily is as potent as a lord's by your dread verily, one of them you shall be.-W. T., i. 2.
They say every why hath a wherefore.--Com. of E., ii. 2.
Ere twice the sun hath made his journal greeting
To th' under generation, you shall find.-M. for M., iv. 3.
Lo, in the orient when the gracious light
Doth homage to his new-appearing sight.-Sonnet 7.
Here's too much “out upon thee!”—Com. of E., iii. 1.
“ But yet” is as a gaoler to bring forth
Some monstrous malefactor.-Ant. & C., ii. 5.
* The under fiends" is equivalent to the fiends below,' the fiends of the lower regions.'
I true! how now! what wicked deem is this ?-Ty. & Cr., iv. 4.
It toucheth us, as France invades our land,
Not bolds the king, with others, whom, I fear.-Lear, v. I.
There's more to be consider'd; but we'll even
All that good time will give us.* -Cym., iii. 4. It faints me, to think what follows.-H. VIII., ii. 3.
* It is to be noted that in each of these three passages Shakespeare uses the word "even” with largely inclusive effect. In the first, “to even your content" includes the combined significations of “to keep pace with your wishes,' to act conformably with your wishes,' • to make the accomplishment of your desires easy’; in the second, the phrase implies to make him pass in review the interval that has elapsed, and endeavour to render its events smooth and easy of comprehension to himself"; and in the third, the phrase comprises the multiplied effect of we will make our attempts keep pace with the time allowed us for endeavour,' we will accomplish all that time will give us leave to try for,''we will meet smoothly and with even temper all that time brings,' and we will accept thankfully all that good time grants.' See VARIED MEANINGS COMBINED IN ONE Word or SENTENCE, in justification of our ascribing these largely inclusive significations to Shakespeare's words.
And makes Diana's rangers false themselves.-Cym., ii. 3.
Andromache shrills her dolours forth Tr. & Cr., v. 3.
In the following passage he frames a verb from a word used both as a noun and as an adjective :Which we will niggard with a little rest.—Jul. C., iv. 3. In the following he uses a verb humorously framed from a pronoun :-If thou thou'st him some thrice, it shall.-Tw. N., iii. 2. And, in the following, verbs humorously framed from nouns :
A French song and a fiddle has no fellow.
The devil fiddle 'em SH. VIII., i. 3.
In the following passages he uses participles humorously framed from nouns (See CoinED WORDS]:
Aufidius got off . : I would not have been so fidiused for all the chests in Corioli. -Coriol., ii. 1.
To see how the sea flap-dragoned it.-W. T., iii. 3.
Come, Mother Pratt; come, give me your hand. -
PASSAGES OF INCOMPLETE EXPLANATION. Shakespeare has some passages, where much is dramatically inferred in very few words; thus sparing needless diffuseness and prolixity in detailing circumstances already known to the perusers or spectators of the play. These passages generally occur in the closing scenes, where the plot is wound up, and the characters come
to a mutual understanding; therefore much is taken for granted, or left for supposed subsequent explanation among themselves, in order to avoid recapitulation before the audience. Some of his commentators, not perceiving this intentional succinctness on the part of the dramatist, have accused him of oversight, omission, forgetfulness, inexplicitness, &c., &c.; but we think that the following collected instances will serve to show that, far from denoting any of these alleged defects, they evince systematic art with care and skill in dramatic provision. He will often throw in an apparently trivial phrase, which really serves to indicate a point that it is requisite should be conveyed and known; yet doing this so slightly, that it demands attention on the part of those who read or see the play : and thus it comes, that so frequently when fault is found with Shakespeare's composition, it is the carelessness of the observer, and not the carelessness of the writer, which deserves blame. The two first passages we shall cite afford instances of the slight by-touches he occasionally introduces, to convey a circumstance needful to be noted, yet not demanding lengthy explanation:There is no better way than that they spoke of.—Merry W., iv. 4.
Here allusion is made to the proposal already made by Mistress Ford and Mistress Page, supposed to have been "spoken of" before entering on the scene, and which their husbands proceed to discuss.
But, they say, the duke will be here to-morrow,-M. for M., iv. 3.
By the words “ they say," put into Lucio's mouth here, the fact is indicated that the duke's return is now generally reported.
My wife, more careful for the latter-born,
After his brother.—Com of E., i. 1. Here, in order perhaps to convey the effect of the confusion of the wreck, the description is given somewhat confusedly; so that the particulars of the mother's having fastened the “ latter-born" to the mast, while she herself became fastened to the other end where her elder twin son was secured, thus leaving the “ youngest boy” under the charge of her husband, must be well borne in mind, so that the present details may tally with the fact of Æmilia's having reached Ephesus with the elder Antipholus, and Ægeon's having had the younger Antipholus with him at Syracuse Are you a suitor to the maid you talk of?—Tam. of S., i. 2.
Here reference is made to a subject as if it had been named; while, in fact, it has only been implied. But though there has been no actual mention of Bianca among the speakers, it is well understood that she is meant by them.
Petruchio is my name ; Antonio's son,
Let us, that are poor petitioners, speak too.—Ibid., ii. 1.
Lucentio is your name—of whence, I pray ?—Tam. of S., ii. 1.
Here the dramatist allows the disguised Tranio's assumed name of Lucentio to be supposed to have become known to the speaker ; possibly by its having been marked upon the lute, or inscribed in the volumes presented to Baptista. Had you not lately an intent ... to go to Paris ?-All's W., i. 3.
Although there has been no express mention of Helena's “intent having become known to the Countess, the dramatist here allows the point to be inferred.
Methought you said you saw one here in court could witness it.—I did, my lord, but loath am to produce so bad an instrument: his name's Parolles.-Ibid., v. 3.
Notwithstanding that there has been no actual speech made by Diana to this effect, yet, knowing that the audience are already aware of the point, and that it is needful to introduce Parolles, the dramatist permits her having adverted to some one who could “ witness” for her to be taken for granted :
That I am Viola : which to confirm,
He hath not told us of the captain yet.—Tw. N., v. I. By the above slight indications, the dramatist sketches events already known to the audience; not only avoiding their recapitulation, but also leaving undetailed the needless particulars of " Malvolio's suit ” against the sea-captain..
Thou wouldst have poison'd good Camillo's honour,
To have him kill a king.-W.T., iii. 3. Although Leontes' confession of his misdeed took place during Paulina's absence from the scene, our dramatist permits her to make the above speech as if aware of the self-accusation, since it has become known to the audience.
Teeth hadst thou in thy head when thou wast born,
For I have often heard my mother say, &c.—3 H. VI., v. 6. Shakespeare purposely allows King Henry's speech to be broken off in the midst of his scoffing at the preposterous circumstances attending Richard's birth, while allowing Richard to allude to them as having been "told"; because they are not only recounted immediately after by Richard himself, but were well known and popularly believed. The noble Brutus hath told you Cæsar was ambitious.—7ul. C., iii. 2.
The dramatist here causes it to be inferred that Antony has heard of Brutus's having told the people this.