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ii. 2.

Thou liest, thou thread, thou thimble,
Thou yard, three-quarters, half-yard, quarter, nail !
Thou flea, thou nit, thou winter-cricket thou !
Brav'd in mine own house with a skein of thread?

Away, thou rag, thou quantity, thou remnant.--Tam. of S., iv. 3. A base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundred-pound, filthy, worstedstocking knave ; a lily-livered, action-taking knave; a whoreson glass-gazing, super. serviceable, finical rogue ; one-trunk-inheriting slave.--Lear, Toadstool, learn me the proclamation.Tr. & Cr., ii, 1.

To the descent and dust below thy foot,

A most toad-spotted traitor.-Lear, v. 3. I pressed me none but such toasts and butter.

1:-1 H. IV., iv. 2. I'll tell thee what, thou damned tripe-visaged rascal thou paper-faced villain.2 H. IV., V. 4.

Hear you this Triton of the minnows ?-Coriol., iii. 1.
Or an old trot with ne'er a tooth in her head.-Tam. of S., i. 2.
Ah, ha, boy! say'st thou so ? art thou there, true-penny ?-Hamlet, i. 5.

A tun of man is thy companion. Why dost thou converse with that trunk of humours, that bolting-hutch of beastliness, that swoin parcel of drupsies, that huge bombard of sack, that stuffed cloak-bag of guts, that roasted Manningtree or with the pudding in his belly, that reverend vice, that grey iniquity, that father rutan, that vanity in years ? that villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstafl, that old white-bearded Satan.-1 H. IV., ii. 4.

Turk Gregory never did such deeds in arms.-Ibid., v. 3.
We'll use this unwholesome humidity, this gross watery pumpion.Merry W., iii. 3.
Where be my horses ? speak well of them, varletto.-Ibid., iv. 5.
To velvet-guards, and Sunday citizens.-1 H. IV., iii. 1.

I see them lording it in London streets,

Crying—"Villiago.!” unto all they meet.—2 H. VI., iv. 8.
Speak, then, thou vinewd'st leaven, speak.--Tr. & Cr., ii. 1.
Dost know this water-fly?-Hamlet, v. 2.
I do allow this wen to be as familiar with me.—2 H. IV., ii. 2.
O this woodcock! what an ass it is !—Tam. of S., i. 2.

Who was wont to call them woollen vassals, things created to buy and sell with groats.-Coriol., iii. 2.

How now, wool-sack ! what mutter you ?-1 H.IV., ii. 4.

A rascally yea-forsooth knave ... the whoreson smooth-pates do now wear nothing but high shoes.-2 H. IV., ii. 1.

Thou whoreson zed, thou unnecessary letter! ... Spare my grey beard, you wagtail !--Lear, ii. 2.


Much expressiveness and inclusiveness of effect is produced by the mode in which Shakespeare occasionally uses various parts of speech with different power from that which is strictly their own. He some times uses nouns as verbs :

And make him with our pikes and partisans

A grave: come arm him (where the effect is succinctly expressed of take him up in your arms '].-Cym., iv. 3.

Scald rhymers ballad us out o'tune: the quick comedians extemporally will stage us. -Ant. & C., v. 2.

And thou, his yoke-fellow of equity, bench by his side.—Lear, iii. 6.
Blanket my loins; elf all my hạir in knots.-Ibid., ii. 3.
To book our dead, and then to bury them.-H. V., iv. 7.
And I will boot thee with what gift beside.-Ant. & C., ii. 5.
I shall see some squeaking Cleopatra boy my greatness.-Ibid., v. 2.
There thou may'st brain him ... or paunch him.Temp., iii. 2.
I'll buckler thee against a million.Tam. of S., iii. 2.
No farther personal power to business with the king.-Hamlet, i. 2.
Will the cold brook, candied with ice, caudle thy morning taste.Timon, iv. 3.
That such as we cave here, hunt here, are outlaws.- Cym., iv. 2.
The blessed gods purge all infection from our air, whilst you do climate here:-
W. T., v. 1.

In my rights, by me invested, he compeers the best.-Lear, v. 3.
Dost dialogue with thy shadow ?-Timon, ii. 2.
All my right of her I do estate unto Demetrius.- Mid. N. D., i. 1.
My becomings kill me, when they do not eye well to you.-Ant. & C., i 3.
And rather father thee than master thee.-Cym., iv. 2.
Foot it featly here and there.-Temp., i. 2 (Song).
And foot me, as you spurn a stranger cur.—Mer. of V., i. 3.
I'll knock her back, foot her home again.-Cym., iii. 5.
The holy eagle stoop'd, as to foot us.Ibid., v. 4.
He .furnaces the thick sighs from him.-Ibid., i. 7.
Adoptious christendoms, that blinking Cupid gossips.-All's W., i. 1.
And ditches grave you all !--Timon, iv. 3.
Or hoop his body more with thy embraces.-W. T., iv. 3.
Go bear it to the Centaur, where we host.-Com of E., i. 2.
I will bring you where you shall host.-All's W., iii. 5.
To hovel thee with swine and rogues forlorn.-Lear, iv. 7.
That were the most, if he should husband you.-Ibid., v. 3.
Yet neither pleasure's art can joy my spirits.—Per., i. 2.
And knee the way into his mercy.-Coriol., v. 1.
I could as well be brought to knee his throne.—Lear, ii. 4:
And rather woo those that would mischief me.Timon, iv. 3.
You shall nose him as you go up the stairs into.-Hamlet, iv. 3.
Will these moss'd trees ... page thy heels.-Timon, iv. 3.
With ridiculous and awkward action. . . . he pageants us.—Tr. & Cr., i. 3.
And palli thee in the dunnest smoke of hell.—Macb., i. 5.
And his own letter . . . must fetch him in he papers.-H. VIII., i. 1.
That mine own servant should parcel the sum of my disgraces.-Ant. & C., v. 2.
That relish all as sharply, passion as they.Temp., V. 1.
But with this I passion to say wherewith.-Love's L. L., i. 1 (Letter).
For if thou path, thy native semblance on.-

1.-Jul. C., ii, 1.
When the thunder would not peace at my bidding.-Lear, iv. 6.
Which, failing, periods his comfort.-Timon, i. 1.
And nature prompts them ... to prince it.-Cym., iii. 3.
Quoit him down, Bardolph, like a.2 H.IV., ii.
Which calls me pupil, or hath readt to me? I H. IV., iii. I.

* “ Pall” has been variously explained by several previous commentators; but we believe it to be one of Shakespeare's expressively framed verbs from nouns, and signifying 'cover as with a funereal pall.'

+ " Read” is here used for 'given counsel or information '; “read" being an antique noun, signifying counsel,' • advice,' imparted wisdom.'

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The things of fame, that do renown this city.—Tw. N., iii. 3.
Life-rendering pelican, repast them with my blood.-Hamlet, iv. 5.
Come, seeling night, scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day.—Macb., iii. 2.
I'll silence* me e'en here.-Hamlet, iii. 4.

That even her art sisters the natural roses;

Her inkle, silk, twin with the rubied cherry.-Per., v. (Gower). Sin-dieted man, that slaves your ordinance.Lear, iv. 1, Thou dost stone my heart, and mak'st me.-Oth., V. 2. Rather than story him in his own hearing.-Cym., i. 5. The smiles of knaves tent in my cheeks.-Coriol., iii. 2. A birth, indeed, which throes thee much to yield.—Temp., ii. 1. The time's with labour; and throes forth, each minute, some.-Ant & C., iii. 7. I should . . . uproar the universal peace.Macb., iv. 3.

That the first face of neither, on the start,

Can woman me unto 't.--All's W., iii. 2.
For all the sun sees, or the close earth wombs.-W.T., iv. 3.
He words me, girls, he words me, that I.-Ant. & C., v. 2.
He sometimes uses nouns adjectively :-
Blow, villain, till thy sphered bias cheek outswell.—Tr. & Cr., iv. 5.
Hence, broker-lackey! ignomy and shame.--Ibid., v. II.
On the pendent boughs her coronet weeds clambering.-Hamlet, iv. 7.
Virtue is of so little regard in these costermonger times.—2 H. IV., i. 2.
Looks with such ferret and such fiery eyes.Jul. C., i. 2.
Is of so flood-gate and o’erbearing nature.-Oth., i. 3.
Yet godt Achilles still cries, " Excellent !”—Tr. & Cr., i. 3.
That the weaker sort may wish godt Marcius home again.-Coriol., iv. 6.

Yet gives he not till judgment guide his bounty,

Nor dignifies an impair I thought with breath.Tr. & Cr., iv. 5. That I some lady trifles have reserv’d.—Ant. & C., V. 2. Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood.--R. II., i. 1. Rumour'd through the peasant towns between.—2 H. IV. (Induc.) Oh, what a rogue and peasant slave am I!-Hamlet, ii. 2. 'Twas this flesh begot those pelican daughters.-Lear, iii. Think this pilot thought ; so with his steerage.--Per., iv. 4 (Gower). I should have fatted all the region kites.Hamlet, ii. 2. Look on me with your welkin eye.--W. T., i. 2. 'Tis wonder, that thy life and wits at once.—Lear, iv. 7. 'Tis wonder, that an invisible instinct should.—Cym., iv. 2.

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Silence” has been altered by Hanmer and others to · sconce'; but "silence me” appears to us to be here used by Shakespeare to express .silently station myself.'

+ In both these passages, it appears to us, that “god” is put into the mouth of a speaker who uses it as a scoffing epithet, implying that the person thus alluded to is deified by his admirers. In the passage from “ Troilus and Cressida,” both Folio and Quartos have the word “god,” though some editors have changed it to good"; in the passage from “Coriolanus " the Folio prints · good,' though it seems evident that the author intended “god,” from this epithet having been similarly used " Troilus and Cressida,” from the circumstance of Cominius saying soon after, “ He is their god," and from the expression subsequently employed by Coriolanus himself, “Nay, godded me, indeed.”

For our explanation of "impair," See Varied MEANINGS COMBINED IN ONE WORD, &c.

In this latter expression, “wonder” may either be used adjectively, to signify wonderful'; or it may be used elliptically, to imply a wonder,' or 'matter for wonder.'

In the following passage, Shakespeare uses a noun adverbially :-
But he's vengeance proud, and loves not the.-Coriol., ii. 2.
In the two following passages, Shakespeare uses a noun as a term
of address :

Well said, Adversity! and what need these tricks ?-Tr. & Cr., v. 1.
And you, enchantment-worthy enough a herdsman.-W.T., iv. 3.

In the following passage, Shakespeare uses a noun framed from a
compound salutation :-
Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter !-Macb., i. 5.
And, in the following, a noun framed from a compound verb :--
The let-alone lies not in your good will.-Lear, v. 3.
And, in the following, a noun framed from a defective verb:-
Mark you his absolute "shall? . . . with his peremptory shall,being but the
horn and noise ... who puts his “shall,'' his popular" shallagainst.-Coriol., iii. 1.

And, in the following, a noun framed from other verbs :-
O, that “ had !how sad a passage 'tis !-All's W., i. 1.

For this "wouldchanges, and hath abatements and delays and then this * shouldis like a spendthrift sigh, that hurts by easing.-Hamlet, iv. 7.

He sometimes uses participles framed from nouns:
Therefore my son i' the ooze is bedded.--Temp. iii. 3.
Your bedded hair, like life in excrements.-Hamlet, iii. 4.
Supple and courteous to the people, bonneted, without.—Coriol, ii. 2.
That hath so cowarded and chas'd your blood out.-H. V., ii. 2.
Or worth, in thee make thy words faith'd.-Lear, ii. 1.
Being so father'd and so husbanded ?- Ful. C., ii. 1.
For he is footed in this land already.--H. V., ii. 4.
There is part of a power already footed.---Lear, iii. 3.
Swithold footed thrice the old.-Ibid. iii. 4 (Song).
The traitors late footed in the kingdom ?-Ibid., iii. 7.
Were they not forc'd with those that should be ours.—Macb., v. 5.
Julius Cæsar, who at Philippi the good Brutus ghosted.-Ant. & C., ii. 6.
Above the measure of a father; nay, godded me, indeed.--Coriol., v. 3.
Are you so gospell’d, to pray for this good man.—Macb., iii. 1.
Kingdom'dAchilles in commotion rages.—Tr. & Cr., ii. 1.
A hand that kings have lipp'd, and trembled kissing.–Ant. & C., ii. 5.
One minded like the weather, most unquietly.Lear, iii. 1.
And with him there lie mudded.-Temp., iii. 3.
I wish myself were mudded in that oozy bed.-Ibid., v. 1.

* We take " kingdom'd" to signify dominated by his turbulent inward condition or state of man"?; since we think the following lines serve to illustrate Shakespeare's use of “ kingdom'd” here:

" And the state of man,
Like to a little kingdom, suffers then
The nature of an insurrection.”Jul. C., ii. 1.

'Tis a sufferance panging as soul and body's severing.-H. VIII., ii. 3.
'Twas Ariadne, passioning for Theseus' perjury.—Tw. G. of V., iv. 4.
So am I purposed.-Lear, ii. 4.
My throat of war be turn'd, which quired with my drum.-Coriol., iii. 2.
Still quiring to the young-ey'd cherubins.-Mer. of V., V. I.
These roguing thieves serve the great pirate.-Per., iv. 2.
And made a cistern for scald snakes !--Ant. & C., ii. 5.

But you have found, scaling his present bearing with his past, that he's your fixed enemy. -Coriol., ii. 3.

The scarfed bark puts from her native bay.-Mer. of V., ii. 6.
My sea-gown scarf'd about me.-Hamlet, v. 2.
He smote the sledded Polack on the ice.-Ibid., i. 1.
The hearts that spaniel'd me at heels.--Ant. & C., iv. 10.
I am sprighted with a fool; frighted and angered.-Cym., ii. 3.
My third comfort, starr'd most unluckily.-W. T., iii. 2.
O ill-starr'd wench! pale as thy smock.-Oth., v. 2.
By the forge that stithied Mars his helm.-Tr. & Cr., iv. 5.
Who stock'd my servant ?--Lear, ii. 4.
And stock’d, punished, and imprisoned.-Ibid., iii. 4.
And person of my master, stocking his messenger.-Ibid., ii. 2.
Of love or bounty, you were straited for a reply.-W.T., iv. 3.
Though the catalogue of his endowments had been tabled by his side.-Cym., i. 5.
And bring thee cords made like a tackled stair.-R. & Jul., ii. 4.
I thank you, you have testerned me.—Tw. G. of V., i. 1.
Still virginalling upon his palm ?-W. T., i. 2.
Horns whelk'd and wav'd like the enridged sea.-Lear, iv. 6.
Your loop'd and window'd raggedness.-Ibid., iii. 4.
Wouldst thou be window'd in great Rome.—Ant. & C., iv. 12.
Nor my wish, to have him see me woman'd.-Oth., iii.

So rare a wonder'd father and a wife.—Temp., iv. 1.
In the following passages, he uses a participle substantively:-
Since my becomings kill me, when they do not.---Ant. & C., i. 3.
And all my powers do their bestowing lose.--Tr. & Cr., iii. 2.
Would, to the bleeding and the grim alarm, excite.--Macb., V. 2.
The chronicles of my doing.-H. VIII., i. 2.
These couchings and these lowly courtesies.--ul. C., iii. 1.
Joy's soul lies in the doing.Tr. & Cr., i. 2.
Your having in beard is a younger brother's revenue.-As You L., iji. 2.
Our content is our best having.-H. VIII., ii. 3.
But par'd my present havings, to bestow.Ibid., iii. 2.
Whose rarest havings made the blossoms dote.Lover's Comp., Stansa 34.
She had all the royal makings of a queen.-H. VIII., iv. 1.

And he employs thus several participles that are more frequently used in this manner; such as “baking,” “ beginning," " painting," “ reading,” “ understanding," wedding," wooing," “ writing," &c.

In the following he uses a conjunction substantively :-
And many such like as's of great charge.-Hamlet, v. 2.

You may avoid that too, with an ifyour " ifis the only peace-maker; much virtue in “if."-As You L., V. 4.

Talk'st thou to me of " ifs"?R. III., iii. 4.

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