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Force should be right; or rather, right and wrong
(Between whose endless jar justice resides)
Should lose their names, and so should justice too.—Tr. & Cr., i. 3.
Rashly (and prais'd be rashness for it: let us know,
Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well,
When our deep plots do pall: and that should teach us
There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
Rough-hew them how we will.That is most certain.-)
Up from my cabin,
My sea-gown scart'd about me, in the dark
Groped I to find out them : had my desire.--Hamlet, v. 2.
Led him, begg'd for him, sav'd him from despair ;
Never (O fault!) revealed myself unto him.-Lear, v. 3.
But when we in our viciousness grow hard
(Oh, misery on 't!), the wise gods seel our eyes.-Ant. & C., iii. 11.

You do seem to know
Something of me, or what concerns me: pray you
(Since doubting things go ill often hurts more
Than to be sure they do ; for certainties
Either are past remedies, or, timely knowing,
The remedy then born) discover to me
What both you spur and stop.-Cym., i. 7.
How should I be reveng'd ? If this be true-
As I have such a heart that both mine ears
Must not in haste abuse-if it be true,

How should I be reveng'd ?-Ibid., i. 7. Shakespeare occasionally uses a peculiar form of construction in a parenthetical sentence; so that the parenthesis is much intermingled with the context :

Have not you seen, Camillo
(But that's past doubt-you have, or your eye-glass
Is thicker than a cuckold's horn), or heard
(For, to a vision so apparent, rumour
Cannot be mute), or thought (for cogitation
Resides not in that man that does not think),
My wife is slippery ?-W. T., i. 2.
No more such wives: therefore, no wife: one worse,
And better us'd, would make her sainted spirit
Again possess her corse, and on this stage
(Where we offenders now appear), soul-vex'd,

Begin, “ And why to me? "--I bid., v. I. In the above passage the First Folio prints. And begin'instead of “ Begin, And; which is Capell's correction, adopted by Steevens and others. We have also adopted it as being probable; but we by no means feel sure that, after all, the right reading in this speech is attained.

If you 'll bestow a small (of what you have little) patience awhile, you 'll hear the belly's answer.-Coriol., i. 1.

* Amount' is elliptically understood after “small,” and “of” is understood as repeated after “little."


There are two names, a man's name and a woman's name, which have always struck us as revealing something of Shakespeare's own life-history, since he has twice employed each; and, in both instances, he has given the particular name to a particular kind of character. In the first instance, he has given the name “Antonio" to the generous and devoted friend of Bassanio in the “ Merchant of Venice"; and also to the enthusiastic sea-captain who is the generous and devoted friend of Sebastian in “ Twelfth Night." (See APPRECIATION OF FRIENDSHIP, &c.] Antonio the royal merchant, in his worshipping attachment to the young lord Bassanio, and Antonio the noble-natured sea-captain, in his self-dedication to the patrician youth Sebastian, appear to us to mirror Shakespeare's own adoring sentiment towards the unnamed object of his friendship in the “Sonnets.” Both these impersonations of manly fondness for an idolised young friend—both these embodiments of modest merit merging itself into passionate admiration of a chosen ideal—both these dramatic characters, named alike “ Antonio," have long impressed us as being creations wherein the author put himself and his own strength of affection into delineated form. In the second instance, he has given the name “ Rosaline" to the brilliant-complexioned beauty with dark eyes and hair in " Love's Labour's Lost”; and to the brilliant-complexioned beauty with dark eyes and hair in “Romeo and Juliet”: while both these “Rosalines

bear strong resemblance to the unnamed brilliant-complexioned beauty with dark eyes and hair who figures in the Sonnets. The following passages, thus brought together under one view, will serve to manifest the evident points of similitude :

A whitely* wanton with a velvet brow,
With two pitch balls stuck in her face for eyes.-Love's L. L., iii. i.

By heaven, thy love is black as ebony.-
Is ebony like her? oh, wood divine.
No face is fair that is not full so black...
Devils soonest tempt, resembling spirits of light.
Oh, if in black my lady's brows be deckt,
It mourns that painting and usurping hair
Should ravish doters with a false aspect!
And therefore is she born to make black fair.
Her favour turns the fashions of the days,
For native blood is counted painting now;
And therefore red, that would avoid dispraise,
Paints itself black, to imitate her brow.
I 'll prove her fair, or talk till doomsday here.-Ibid., iv. 3.
Ah! that same pale hard-hearted wench,t that Rosaline,

Torments him so, that he will sure run mad. . .
Alas! poor Romeo, he is already dead! stabbed with a white wench's black eye.
R. & Yul., ii. 4.

* This word (misprinted whitly' in the Folio) appears to us to be the very epithet to express a complexion that looks fair, almost white, and certainly daszling, in contrast with black eyes, eyebrows, eyelashes, and hair.

+ This conjunction of " pale" and "white" with “black," appears to us to be in unison with the word " whitely” conjunctively with “ velvet” and “pitch," previously. Epithets of seeming disparagement; but, thus combined, implying beautiful contrast.

In the old age black was not counted fair,
Or if it were, it bore not beauty's name;
But now is black beauty's successive heir.
Therefore my mistress' eyes are raven black ;
Her eyes so suited, as they mourners seem
At such, who, not born fair, no beauty lack,
Slandering creation with a false esteem:
Yet so they mourn, becoming of their woe,
That every tongue says, beauty should look so.-Sonnet 127.
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. ...
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.-Ibid. 130.
Thy black is fairest in my judgment's place.-Ibid. 131.
Thine eyes I love, and they, as pitying me,
Knowing thy heart torments me with disdain,
Have put on black, and loving mourners be,
Looking with pretty ruth upon my pain.
And truly not the morning sun of heaven
Better becomes the grey cheeks of the east,
Nor that full star that ushers in the even
Doth half that glory to the sober west,
As those two mourning eyes become thy face :
0, let it, then, as well beseem thy heart
To mourn for me, since mourning doth thee grace,
And suit thy pity like in every part.
Then will I swear beauty herself is black,

And all they foul that thy complexion lack.-Ibid. 132. The name, “ Falstaff,” now indelibly associated with all that is most witty, most humorous, most epicurean, and most irresistibly pleasant in dramatic delineation, was not the name originally bestowed by Shakespeare on Prince Hal's companion, the fat knight who figures in the “ Merry Wives,” in the First and Second Parts of “ King Henry IV.," and (by mention) in “King Henry V.” There exists internal evidence that the character was first called by its author “ Sir John Oldcastle"; but as that was the name of a heroic martyr known to history, Shakespeare renamed his immortal creation, and called him “Sir John Falstaff.” See the introductory notes to the First and Second Parts of “ King Henry IV.," and notes 41, i., and 94, V., to the “Second Part of King Henry IV.” in our “Annotated Edition of Shakespeare," published by Messrs. Cassell and Co., for the details of this evidence. We have some idea that as one of the characteristics of Sir John Falstaff" is a luxurious regard to his own safety, almost amounting to lack of bravery, the author may have fabricated this name from that of Sir John Fastolfe,” the recreant knight in the “ First Part of King Henry VI.”—a notorious coward.

In the invention of several names given to certain of his men characters, Shakespeare has imparted significant effect to their respective appropriation :

Sir Andrew Ague-cheek (the lank-witted knight in)—Tw. N.
Abhorson (the prison hangman and executioner in)-M. for M.
Ariel (the aerial and airy sprite in]-Temp.
Autolycus (the mercurial-natured and Mercury-propensitied rogue in]-W.T.
Sir Toby Belch (the burly toper in)—Tw. N.
Borachio (the dissolute ' wine-skin' of a fellow in)-M. Ado.


Young Charbon the Puritan and old Poysam the Papist (the first the French word for 'coal' or 'charcoal,' in allusion to the eternal fires with which the Puritan preachers menaced their hearers; the second, a corruption of the French word poisson, in allusion to the fish eaten by Papists on fast-days).-All's W., i. 3.

Costard (the ruddy apple-faced and round apple-headed rustic in)-Love's L. L.

Dogberry (the officer of the watch who has “ always been called a merciful man ; but who deems himself an exemplar of legal severity: to whom Shakespeare has given one of the names of the cornelian cherry-tree, the fruit of which is remarkably austere; and who figures in-M. Ado.

Dull (the doltish constable in]—Love's L. L.
Feste (the festive-spirited jester in)--Tw. N.
Froth (the empty-headed “ foolish gentleman ”in]-M for M.
Gadshill [the highwayman on the famous road near Rochester in]-1 H. IV.

Old Gobbo (the blind old hobbler, probably intended to be also a “hunchback,' as this Italian name implies, in]-Mer. of V.

Did not goodwife Keech [a lump of fat rolled up by butchers ready for the chandlers), the butcher's wife, come in.-2 H. IV., ii. 1.

Lafeu (the fiery old French nobleman in)-All's W.

Lavatch (probably a corruption of the French word lavage, a familiar term for slop,' “puddle,' washiness': the muddy-principled Clown who has “no mind to Isbel” since he was at court, who stops his nose when accosted by one who has been “muddied in fortune's mood,” and who figures in]-Ibid.

Le Beau (the fine-gentleman courtier in]--As You L.

Marcus Luccicos* [the Greek soldier of Cyprus, or Estradiot, inquired for by the Duke in]--Oth., i. 3.

Malvolio (the ill-willed steward, “ sick of self-love,” in]-Tw. N.

Moth (the little page who flutters round that tall tallow-candle and shining light of fantasticalness, his master, Don Adriano de Armado, in}-Love's L. L.

Neighbour Mugs (the yawning First Carrier who, by his “ an 't were not as good a deed as drink,” is fond of lingering over his mug of ale, and who pudders about the inn yard in]-1 H. IV.

Nym (the pickpocket" coney-catching rascal” in]--M. W. and H. V.

Oswald (a name of Saxon origin, signifying "house-ruler,' or 'major-domo’; and given to the feudally faithful steward of Goneril, in]-Lear.

Parolles [the wordy braggart in)-All’s W.

Pinch [the schoolmaster and conjuror, described as “a hungry, lean-fac'd villain, a mere anatomy ... a needy, hollow-ey'd, sharp-looking wretch, a living dead man,' in]-Com of E., v. I.

Pistol [the ever-recoiling, sharp-snapping, noisy swaggerer, in)-M. W., I and 2 H. IV., and H. V.

Proteus (the fickle, unstable, changeable lover in)-Two G. of V.

Puff of Barson (puffed off by Silence, as greater than “one of the greatest men in the realm," in]—2 H. IV., v. 3.

Shallow (the un-deep justice, believing himself to be of unfathomable profundity, in) -Merry W. and 2 H. IV.

Silence [the taciturn justice, prone admirer of Shallow, in]—2 H. IV.

Slender [limp and attenuated worshipper of his “ Cousin Shallow” and of Anne Page,” in)-Merry W.

Simple (the simpleton servant to simpleton Master Slender, in ]—Ibid. Sly (the cunning tinker, who shirks paying his reckoning, and sticks fast to "a pou of small ale,” inTam. of S. (Induc.)

Master Surecard (for whom Sir John Falstaff mistakes Master Silence).2 H. IV., iii. 2.


+ This is the form of name given by both Folio and Quarto edition of our poet; though Capell and others alter it to · Lucchese.'

Touchstone (the faithful cheerful-hearted jester, whose attachment is tested by following his lady mistress into exile).-As You L.

Verges (a corruption of .verjuice,' which is made from crab-apples: “a good old man," and honest as the skin between his brows"; but who fancies he emulates his * partner,” Dogberry in official austerity and crabbedness, and clinches his hardest-toswallow assertions of being “ the malefactors,” &c., with a sapless “Nay, that's certain "].-M. Ado.

Shakespeare has also given some expressive names to some of his women characters :

Cordelia (the cordial daughter of the wilful and ill-used old king; who hoards in her heart her filial love, till she pours it forth in the hour of her father's distress].-Lear.

Diana (the chaste evader of Bertram's illicit suit).--All's W.
Marina (the princess" born at sea "].—Per.
Miranda (the “ admired" of Prince Ferdinand).—Temp.
Patience (the gentle waiting-gentlewoman of Queen Katharine].-H. VIII.
Perdita (the " lost" daughter of Leontes and Hermione].-W.T.

Viola (the sweet lady in page's weeds, like the modest violet lurking beneath the hedge-side grass and wild flowers.]—Tw. N.

Jane Nightwork [the flaunting “ bona-roba," who “heard the chimes at midnight with Falstaff and Shallow " in the Windmill in Saint George's Fields"].—2 H. IV.

Mistress Overdone (the old hardworker in loathliest trade).-M. for M.

Hostess Quickly [the active lardlady of the Boar's Head tavern in Eastcheap].-I and 2 H. IV. and H. V.

Mistress Quickly [the pottering busy-body of Windsor; probably the spinster sister of Hostess Quickly).—Merry W.

Doll Tear-sheet (the rantipole companion of Sir John Falstaff and his associates]. 2 H. IV.

The dramatist has given several groups of characteristic names :Here's young Master Rash. . . . Then is there here one Master Caper, at the suit of Master Three-pile the mercer. . . . Young Dizzy, and young Master Deep-vow, and Master Copper-spur, and Master Starve-lackey and young Drop-heir 'that killed lusty Pudding, and Master Forthright the tilter and brave Master Shoc-tie the great traveller, and wild Half-can that stabbed Pots (the set of lawless young scamps and scapegraces met by the Clown in prison].-M. for M., iv. 3.

Peter Quince, the carpenter; Snug, the joiner; Nick Bottom, the weaver; Francis Flute, the bellow's-mender; Tom Snout, the tinker; Robin Starveling, the tailor (the "hempen-homespuns,” the “ rude-mechanicals” who enact the interlude before Duke Theseus and his court).–Mid. N. D.

Peas-blossom, Cobweb, Moth, and Mustard-seed [the fairy-attendants upon Queen Titania). ---Ibid.

Fang and Snare (the sheriffs' officers in] 1-2 H. IV. Little John Doit of Staffordshire, and black George Bare, and Francis Pickbone, and Will Squele, a Cotswold man,-you had not four such swinge-bucklers in all the inns of court again (the four riotous provincial associates of Master Shallow in his mad metropolitan career of former London days).—2 H. IV., iii. 2.

Mouldy, Shadow, Wart, Fecble and Bull-calf [the raw recruits provided by Justice Shallow for selection by Falstaff ].-Ibid.

Simon Catling, Hugh Rebeck, and James Sound post [“ the musicians” bantered by Peter. See Musical TERMS].-R. & Ful., iv. 5.

Shakespeare has some dramatically adopted names :

Aliena (the name adopted by Princess Celia, when she goes with her cousin into exile, voluntarily alienating herself from her father].—As You L., i. 3.

Cesario (the name adopted by Viola, when passing as a youth].—T'w. N., i. 4.

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