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And chattering pies in dismal discord sung.-3 H. VI., v. 6.
See if thou canst find out Sneak's noise ; Mistress Tear-sheet would fain hear some music.—2 H. IV., ii. 4.
The plain-song cuckoo gray.—Mid. N. D., iii. 1 (Song).
In the following passage, Shakespeare uses a word that has been supposed to be the commencement of some song ; but we rather believe “Concolinel " to be a few syllables strung together by the dramatist to express warbling, or humming a tune,-as • la li ra,' •fal, lal, lal, la,' or fol de rol lol ' are used :
Warble, child; make passionate my sense of hearing.-Concolinel.-Sweet air !Love's L. L., ii. 1.
Shakespeare alludes to and employs some of the burdens formerly introduced into songs :
With such delicate burdens of " dildos” and “fadings,” “jump her and thump her."-W.T., iv. 3. Ding-dong. Hark, now I hear them—ding-dong, bell.—Temp., i. 2 (Song).
Let us all ring fancy's knell ;
With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino.-As You L., V. 3.
Says suum, mun, nonny.-Lear, iii. 4.
Hark, hark! I hear
To-who; tu-whit, to-who, a merry note.—Love's L. L., v. 2 (Song). He employs some of the technical terms for certain musical flourishes on bugles or hunting-horns, and on trumpets :
Hunting thee hence with hunt's up to the day.--R. & Jul., iii. 5.
And then to sigh, as 'twere the mort o'the deer.-W.T., i. 2. But that I will have a recheat winded in my forehead, or hang my bugle in an invisible baldrick.-M. Ado, i. 1.
Sennet. Enter to the Parliament, King Henry.—2 H. VI., iii. 1.
Trumpets, sennet, and cornets. Enter two Vergers.-H. VIII., ii. 4. A sennet sounded. Enter CÆSAR, ANTONY, LEPIDUS, Pompey, &c.—Ant. & C., il. 7.
A tucket sounds.-Mer. of V., V. I.
Then let the trumpets sound the tucket-sonance.-H. V., iv. 2. Shakespeare makes more than one allusion to the custom of illustrious personages being preceded, when they arrive, by a peculiar flourish on the trumpet :
Your husband is at hand; I hear his trumpet.-Mer. of V., V. I.
And also to the custom of players, or performers in a masque, being preceded on arrival by a flourish of trumpets :
The trumpets sound: be mask'd; the maskers come.—Love's L. L., V. 2.
* We believe these words to indicate that a trumpet sounds, heralding the approach of Pandulph, the Pope's legate; as “what lusty trumpet,” &c., announces the approach of Faulconbridge.
Sirrah, go see what trumpet 'tis that sounds :
Players that offer service to your lordship.- Tam. of S., Induc. 1. (Flourish of trumpets within.]-There are the players.-Hamlet, ii. 2.
Shakespeare, in the following passage, makes allusion to a celebrated musician of his time :
Dowland to thee is dear, whose heavenly touch
Upon the lute doth ravish human sense. -Pass. Pil., Stanza 6. And, in the following passages, he points out persons of particular callings said to be specially addicted to music :
Shall we rouse the night-owl in a catch, that will draw three souls out of one weaver ? -Tw. N., ii. 3.
Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house that ye squeak out your coziers' catches. -Ibid., ii. 3.
I would I were a weaver; I could sing psalms or anything.-1 H. IV., ii. 4.
OATHS, EXCLAMATIONS, &c. The variety and extreme appropriateness of the oaths, exclamations, interjections, ejaculations, imprecations, adjurations, and forms of asseveration used by Shakespeare are especially interesting as a study in dramatic fitness and philological resource. Most characteristically does he put different invocations or exclamatory phrases into the mouths of certain of his characters :
Grace go with you! Benedicite !-M. for M., ii. 3.
Benedicite !-R. & Jul., ii. 3. The above expression of combined blessing and salutation the dramatist assigns, in the first instance, to the benignant friar-duke, and, in the second instance, to the benevolent Friar Laurence.
God's bread! it makes me mad.-Ibid., iii. 5. The above solemn expression is uttered by the irate old Capulet, as we hear it used, to this day, by Italian quarrellers in Italian form“per l Ostia."
Jesu Maria! what a deal of brine hath wash'd.-Ibid., ii. 3. The dramatist, with marked propriety, gives the above exclamation to an Italian friar, as it is one exclusively belonging to Catholic countries. It is a contracted form of Jesu-Mariæ, Jesus of Mary,' or Jesus the son of Mary.'
Holy Saint Francis ! what a change is here !-Ibid., ii. 3.
Saint Francis be my speed ! how oft to-night have my.-Ibid., v. 3. It will at once be perceived how aptly the above exclamations are uttered by a Franciscan friar.
Saint Denis be my speed !-H. V., V. 2.
In the first of the above two instances Harry of England invokes the patron saint of France to aid him in his attempts to woo in French; and, in the second, Charles, the French Dauphin, asks a blessing from the patron saint of his native land.
This proves that thou canst not read.-
There; and Saint Nicholas be thy speed !—Two G. of V., iii. I. Launce asks for his fellow-servant's assistance in reading from “ Si. Nicholas,” because he was the patron saint of children and scholars.
Yes, by Saint Patrick, but there is, Horatio.-Hamlet, i. 5. This saint being the patron saint of Ireland, and Ireland having been in ancient times a famed seat of learning whence the whole northern world derived their erudition, there is peculiar fitness in making the studious Danish Prince use this form of affirmation,
Now, by Saint Paul, this news is bad indeed.-R. III., i. 1.
By the Apostle Paul, shadows to-night have struck.-Ibid., v. 3. Shakespeare makes Richard six times swear thus, “ Paul " being by tradition the saint habitually invoked by that monarch.
All's one. Good father! how foolish are our minds !-Oth., iv. 3. Into the mouth of “the gentle Desdemona is this gently reliant aspiration most aptly placed.
Name of mercy! when was this, boy ?-W. T., iii. 3.
By my christendom,
I should be as merry as the day is long.-Yohn, iv. I.
By Janus, I think no.-Oth., i. 2. In the former of the above two passages it is Salarino, in the latter lago (both Venetians), who use this oath; and it is still an Italian habit to use mythological names in adjuration.
Gods, gods ! 'tis strange, that from their cold'st neglect.--Lear, i. 1.
Ye gods, it doth amaze me, a man of such.- Ful. C., i. 2.
Oye gods, render me worthy of this noble wife!—Ibid., ii. 1. In all the above passages “gods" is put thus plurally and appropriately into the mouths of those who lived in pagan times.
What may be sworn by, both divine and human,
Scal what I end withal-Coriol., iii. I. This form of attestation is peculiarly well given to Coriolanus, since we are informed that the Romans swore by what was human as well as divine; by their head, by their eyes, by the dead bones and ashes of their parents, &c.
Pluto and hell ! all hurt behind !-Ibid., i. 4. It is the same Coriolanus who employs the above appropriately heathen execration.
Welcome to Troy! now, by Anchises' life,
No man alive can love, in such a sort.—Tr. & Cr., iv. 1. Æneas first swears by his father Anchises' life, which was so dear to him that when Troy was burning and the old man was too infirm to fly, the son took his parent on his shoulders and bore him safely away; and, secondly, by the hand of the goddess (his reputed mother), which had received a wound from Diomed when she took part in one of the encounters during the Trojan war.
To prove to you that Helen loves him-she came, and puts me her white hand to
Cressida, pretending to take her uncle's expression of " cloven chin" as involving a charge of bodily defect, deprecates the power of “Juno," in her attribute of presiding goddess of childbirth. My boy Marcius approaches; for the love of yuno, let 's go.-Coriol., ii. 1.
Volumnia, as a proud Roman mother, naturally invokes the name of the matron-goddess.
By Yuno, that is queen
Do seem unsavoury, wishing him my meat.—Per., ii. 3. This is said aside by Thaisa, when falling in love with Pericles, at the banquet.
O Fupiter ! how weary are my spirits !-As You L., ii. 4.
O most gentle Jupiter ! what tedious homily of love have you wearied your parishioners withal.-Ibid., iii. 2.
In both the above passages, Rosalind invokes “Jupiter" as the god of good spirits; in which capacity, and under his name of “Jove,' he gave origin to the word “jovial.'
By Yupiter, I had it from her arm.-
'Tis true ;—nay, keep the ring—'tis true.-Cym., ii. 4. Thus making Posthumus impressed by the solemnity of the oath, when Iachimo swears" by Jupiter,” is most characteristic; for, besides