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And chattering pies in dismal discord sung.—3 H. VI., v. 6.
And mar the concord with too harsh a descant.-Two G. of V., i. 2.
For on that ground I'll make a holy descant.-R. III., iii. 7.
Sung . . . with ravishing division to her lute.-1 H. IV., iii. 1.
Some say the lark makes sweet division.-R. & Jul., iii. 5.
Well said, my lord! well, you say so in fits.—Tr. & Cr., iii. 1.
In what key shall a man take you, to go in the song ?-M. Ado, i. 1.
Both warbling of one song, both in one key.—Mid. N. D., iii. 2.
And with an accent tun'd in self-same key.—Tr. & Cr., i. 3.
There wanteth but a mean to fill your song.-

The mean is drown'd with your unruly base.-Two G. of V., i. 2.
Nay, he can sing a mean most meanly.-Love's L. L., v. 2.

They are most of them means and bases.-W. T., iv. 2.

The choir, with all the choicest music of the kingdom.-H. VIII., iv. 1.
Bid the music leave, they are harsh and heavy to me.-Ibid., iv. 2.


What music is this?—I do but partly know, sir: it is music in parts.--Tr. & Cr., iii. 1 My lessons make no music in three parts.-Tam. of S., iii. 1.

See if thou canst find out Sneak's noise; Mistress Tear-sheet would fain hear some music.-2 H. IV., ii. 4.

The plain-song cuckoo gray.-Mid. N. D., iii. 1 (Song).

That is the very plain-song of it.-The plain-song is.-H. V., iii. 2.

May bring his plain-song, and have an hour of hearing.-H. VIII., i. 3.

He fights as you sing prick-song, keeps time.-R. & Jul., ii. 4.
More than light airs, and recollected terms.-Tw. N., ii. 4.
But screw your courage to the sticking-place.-Macb., i. 7.
Three-man songmen all, and very good ones.-W. T., iv. 2.
O fie! the treble jars.-Tam. of S., iii. 1.

In the following passage, Shakespeare uses a word that has been supposed to be the commencement of some song; but we rather believe Concolinel" to be a few syllables strung together by the dramatist to express warbling, or humming a tune,-as 'la li ra,' 'fal, lal, lal, la,' or 'fol de rol lol' are used:


Warble, child; make passionate my sense of hearing.-Concolinel.-Sweet air!— Love's L. L., iii. 1.

Shakespeare alludes to and employs some of the burdens formerly introduced into songs :

With such delicate burdens of "dildos" and "fadings," "jump her and thump her."-W. T., iv. 3.

Ding-dong. Hark, now I hear them—ding-dong, bell.—Temp., i. 2 (Song).

Let us all ring fancy's knell;
I'll begin it, ding-dong, bell.

Ding-dong, bell.—Mer. of V., iii. 2 (Song).

Heigh, ho! sing, heigh, ho! unto the green holly;
Most friendship is feigning, most loving mere folly :
Then heigh, ho! the holly!—As You L., ii. 7 (Song).

Philomel, with melody,

Sing in our sweet lullaby ;

Lulla, lulla, lullaby; lulla, lulla, lullaby.—Mid. N. D., ii. 3 (Song).

Then, lullaby, the learned man hath got the lady gay;

For now my song is ended.-Pass. Pil., Stanza 12.

Converting all your sounds of woe
Into Hey, nonny, nonny.-M. Ado, ii. 3.

With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino.-As You L., v. 3.
They bore him bare-fac'd on the bier;

Hey non nonny, nonny, hey nonny.—Hamlet, iv. 5 (Song).
Says suum, mun, nonny.-Lear, iii. 4.

He has expressed some birds' notes by written words :—

Hark, hark! I hear

The strain of strutting chanticleer

Cry, Cock-a-doodle-doo.-Temp., i. 2 (Song).

Save the nightingale alone

"Fie, fie, fie," now would she cry;

"Tereu, Tereu!" by-and-by.-Pass. Pil., Stanza 15.

The lark, that tirra-lirra chants.-W. T., iv. 2 (Song).

Then nightly sings the staring owl,

To-who; tu-whit, to-who, a merry note.-Love's L. L., v. 2 (Song).

He employs some of the technical terms for certain musical flourishes on bugles or hunting-horns, and on trumpets :—

Hunting thee hence with hunt's up to the day.—R. & Jul., iii. 5. And then to sigh, as 'twere the mort o' the deer.-W. T., i. 2. But that I will have a recheat winded in my forehead, or hang my bugle in an invisible baldrick.-M. Ado, i. 1.

Sennet. Enter to the Parliament, KING HENRY.-2 H. VI., iii. 1.
Sennet. The Lords come forward.-3 H. VI., i. 1.

Trumpets, sennet, and cornets. Enter two VERGERS.-H. VIII., ii. 4.

A sennet sounded. Enter CÆSAR, ANTONY, LEPIDUS, POMPEY, &c.—Ant. & C., ii. 7.

A tucket sounds.-Mer. of V., v. I.

Tucket within.-Lear, ii. I.

Tucket within.-Ibid., ii. 1, and ii. 4.

Then let the trumpets sound the tucket-sonance.—H. V., iv. 2.

Shakespeare makes more than one allusion to the custom of illustrious personages being preceded, when they arrive, by a peculiar flourish on the trumpet:

Your husband is at hand; I hear his trumpet.-Mer. of V., v. I.
And even there, methinks an angel spake :
Look, where the holy legate comes apace.-John, v. 2

What lusty trumpet thus doth summon us ?—Ibid., v. 2.

What trumpet? look, Menelaus.-From Troy.—Tr. & Cr., i. 3.
What trumpet's that?-'Tis Alcibiades.-Timon, i. 1.

Hark, the duke's trumpets! I know not why he comes.-Lear, ii. 1.
What trumpet's that?—I know 't-my sister's: this approves her letter,
That she would soon be here.—Ibid., ii. 4.

The Moor! I know his trumpet.-Oth., ii. 1.

What trumpet is that same ?-Something from Venice, sure.-Ibid., iv. 1.

And also to the custom of players, or performers in a masque, being preceded on arrival by a flourish of trumpets :

The trumpets sound: be mask'd; the maskers come.-Love's L. L., v. 2.

* We believe these words to indicate that a trumpet sounds, heralding the approach of Pandulph, the Pope's legate; as "what lusty trumpet," &c., announces the approach of Faulconbridge.

Sirrah, go see what trumpet 'tis that sounds:
Belike, some noble gentleman that means,
Travelling some journey, to repose him here.
How now! who is it?-An it please your honour,

Players that offer service to your lordship.-Tam. of S., Induc. 1. [Flourish of trumpets within.]—There are the players.-Hamlet, ii. 2. Shakespeare, in the following passage, makes allusion to a celebrated musician of his time :


Dowland to thee is dear, whose heavenly touch

Upon the lute doth ravish human sense.-Pass. Pil., Stanza 6.

And, in the following passages, he points out persons of particular callings said to be specially addicted to music :


Shall we rouse the night-owl in a catch, that will draw three souls out of one weaver?-Tw. N., ii. 3.

Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house that ye squeak out your coziers' catches. -Ibid., ii. 3.

I would I were a weaver; I could sing psalms or anything.-1 H. IV., ii. 4.

I will not sing.-'Tis the next way to turn tailor, or be redbreast teacher.—Ibid., iii. 1.


The variety and extreme appropriateness of the oaths, exclamations, interjections, ejaculations, imprecations, adjurations, and forms of asseveration used by Shakespeare are especially interesting as a study in dramatic fitness and philological resource. Most characteristically does he put different invocations or exclamatory phrases into the mouths of certain of his characters :—

Grace go with you! Benedicite!-M. for M., ii. 3.
Good-morrow, father.-

Benedicite!-R. & Jul., ii. 3.

The above expression of combined blessing and salutation the dramatist assigns, in the first instance, to the benignant friar-duke, and, in the second instance, to the benevolent Friar Laurence.

God's bread! it makes me mad.—Ibid., iii. 5.

The above solemn expression is uttered by the irate old Capulet, as we hear it used, to this day, by Italian quarrellers in Italian form-"per l' Ostia."

Jesu Maria! what a deal of brine hath wash'd.—Ibid., ii. 3.

The dramatist, with marked propriety, gives the above exclamation to an Italian friar, as it is one exclusively belonging to Catholic countries. It is a contracted form of Jesu-Mariæ, Jesus of Mary,' or Jesus the son of Mary.'

Holy Saint Francis! what a change is here!-Ibid., ii. 3.

Saint Francis be my speed! how oft to-night have my.-Ibid., v. 3. It will at once be perceived how aptly the above exclamations are uttered by a Franciscan friar.

Saint Denis be my speed !-H. V., v. 2.

Saint Denis bless this happy stratagem !—ı H. VI., iii. 2.

In the first of the above two instances Harry of England invokes the patron saint of France to aid him in his attempts to woo in French; and, in the second, Charles, the French Dauphin, asks a blessing from the patron saint of his native land.

This proves that thou canst not read.—
Come, fool, come: try me in thy paper.-

There; and Saint Nicholas be thy speed!-Two G. of V., iii. 1.

Launce asks for his fellow-servant's assistance in reading from "St. Nicholas," because he was the patron saint of children and scholars.

Yes, by Saint Patrick, but there is, Horatio.-Hamlet, i. 5.

This saint being the patron saint of Ireland, and Ireland having been in ancient times a famed seat of learning whence the whole northern world derived their erudition, there is peculiar fitness in making the studious Danish Prince use this form of affirmation,

Now, by Saint Paul, this news is bad indeed.—R. III., i. 1. Or, by Saint Paul, I'll make a corse of him that disobeys! . . . Or, by Saint Paul, I'll strike thee to my foot.—Ibid., i. 2. By holy Paul, they love his grace but lightly.-Ibid., i. 3. Now, by Saint Paul I swear, I will not dine until I.—Ibid., iii. 4. By the Apostle Paul, shadows to-night have struck.—Ibid., v. 3. Shakespeare makes Richard six times swear thus, "Paul" being by tradition the saint habitually invoked by that monarch.

All's one. Good father! how foolish are our minds!-Oth., iv. 3.

Into the mouth of "the gentle Desdemona" is this gently reliant aspiration most aptly placed.

Name of mercy! when was this, boy?—W. T., iii. 3.

It is the old shepherd who uses the above simply beautiful adjuration.

By my christendom,

So I were out of prison, and kept sheep,

I should be as merry as the day is long.-John, iv. 1.

On the lips of poor little Prince Arthur the above phrase has an infantinely pious effect, thoroughly natural and touching.

Now, by two-headed Janus, Nature hath fram'd strange.-Mer. of V., i. 1.
By Janus, I think no.-Oth., i. 2.

In the former of the above two passages it is Salarino, in the latter Iago (both Venetians), who use this oath; and it is still an Italian habit to use mythological names in adjuration.

Gods, gods! 'tis strange, that from their cold'st neglect.--Lear, i. 1.
O gods! who is 't can say, I am at the worst.-Ibid., iv. 1.

O gods! he has the stamp of Marcius!-Coriol., iv. 1.

O gods and goddesses! these flowers are like the.—Cym., iv. 2.
By the gods, it is one.-Ibid., i. 5.

The gods! it smites me beneath the fall I have.—Ant. & C., v. 2.
O the gods! what's the matter?-Tr. & Cr., iv. 2.

O me, the gods! you must not speak of that.-Coriol., ii. 3.
O the blest gods! so will you wish on me, when.-Lear, ii. 4.
O the good gods !—Nay, that is certain.—Ant. & C., v. 2.

Ye gods, it doth amaze me, a man of such.-Jul. C., i. 2.

O ye gods, render me worthy of this noble wife !—Ibid., ii. 1.

In all the above passages "gods" is put thus plurally and appropriately into the mouths of those who lived in pagan times.

What may be sworn by, both divine and human,
Seal what I end withal!-Coriol., iii. 1.

This form of attestation is peculiarly well given to Coriolanus, since we are informed that the Romans swore by what was human as well as divine; by their head, by their eyes, by the dead bones and ashes of their parents, &c.

Pluto and hell! all hurt behind!-Ibid., i. 4.

It is the same Coriolanus who employs the above appropriately heathen execration.

Welcome to Troy! now, by Anchises' life,

Welcome, indeed! By Venus' hand I swear,

No man alive can love, in such a sort.-Tr. & Cr., iv. 1.

Eneas first swears by his father Anchises' life, which was so dear to him that when Troy was burning and the old man was too infirm to fly, the son took his parent on his shoulders and bore him safely away; and, secondly, by the hand of the goddess (his reputed mother), which had received a wound from Diomed when she took part in one of the encounters during the Trojan war.

To prove to you that Helen loves him—she came, and puts me her white hand to his cloven chin,

Juno have mercy! how came it cloven?—

Why, you know, 'tis dimpled.-Ibid., i. 2.

Cressida, pretending to take her uncle's expression of "cloven chin" as involving a charge of bodily defect, deprecates the power of "Juno," in her attribute of presiding goddess of childbirth.

My boy Marcius approaches; for the love of Juno, let's go.—Coriol., ii. 1. Volumnia, as a proud Romań mother, naturally invokes the name of the matron-goddess.

By Juno, that is queen

Of marriage, all the viands that I eat

Do seem unsavoury, wishing him my meat.-Per., ii. 3.

This is said aside by Thaisa, when falling in love with Pericles, at the banquet.

O Jupiter! how weary are my spirits!—As You L., ii. 4.

O most gentle Jupiter! what tedious homily of love have you wearied your parishioners withal.—Ibid., iii. 2.

In both the above passages, Rosalind invokes "Jupiter " as the god of good spirits; in which capacity, and under his name of 'Jove,' he gave origin to the word 'jovial.'

By Jupiter, I had it from her arm.—

Hark you, he swears; by Jupiter he swears.

'Tis true;-nay, keep the ring-'tis true.-Cym., ii. 4.

Thus making Posthumus impressed by the solemnity of the oath, when Iachimo swears 66 by Jupiter," is most characteristic; for, besides

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