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neatness, but it has less power over the pupil in regarıl to temperance. It can teach him self-control and self-sacrifice in the three disciplines already named - punctuality, regularity, and silence — and in so far it may free him from thraldom to the body in other respects. It can and does labor efficiently against obscenity and profanity in language.
(2) Self-culture. This duty belongs especially to the school. All of its lessons contribute to the pupil's self-culture. By its discipline it gives him control over himself and ability to combine with his fellow-men; by its instruction it gives him knowledge of the world of nature and man. This duty corresponds nearly to the one named Prudence in ancient ethical systems. The Christian Fathers discuss four cardinal virtues -- Temperance, Prudence, Fortitude, and Justice. Prudence places the individual above and beyond his present moment, as it were, letting him stand over himself, watching and directing himself. Man is a two-fold being, having a particular, special self, and a general nature, his ideal self, the possibility of perfection. Self-culture stands for the theoretical or intellectual side of this cardinal virtue of Prudence, while industry is its practical side.
(3) Industry. This virtue means devotion to one's calling or business. Each one owes it to himself to have some business and to be industrious. The good school does not tolerate idleness. It has the most efficient means of securing industry from its pupils. Each one has a definite task scrupulously adjusted to his capacity, and he will be held responsible for its performance.
Is there any better training yet devised to educate youth into industry, and its concomitants of sincerity, earnestness, simplicity, perseverance, patience, faithfulness, and reability, than the school method of requiring work in definite amounts and at definite times and of an approved quality ?
The pupil has provided for him a business or vocation. By industry and self-sacrifice the pupil is initiated into a third of the cardinal virtues — fortitude. .
(b) Duties to others. Duties to self rest on the consciousness of a higher nature in the individual and of the duty of bringing out and realizing this higher nature. Duties to others rccognize this higher ideal nature as something general, and hence as also the true inward self of our fellow-men. This ideal of man we are conscious that we realize only very imperfectly, and yet it is the fact that we have the possibility of realizing a higher ideal in ourselves that gives us our value above animals and plants. In our fellow-men we see revelations of this ideal nature that we have not yet realized ourselves. Each one possesses some special gift or quality that helps us to know ourselves. The experience of each man is a contribution towards our own self-knowledge, and vicariously aids us without our being obliged to pay for it in the pain and suffering that the original experience cost. Inasmuch as our ideal can be realized only through this aid from our fellow-men, the virtues that enable us to combine with others and form institutions precede in importance the mechanical virtues.
There are three classes of duties towards others :
(1) Courtesy, — including all forms of politeness, good breeding, urbanity, decorum, modesty, respect for public opinion, liberality, magnanimity, etc., etc., described under various names by Aristotle and others after him. The essence of this virtue consists in the resolution to see in others only the ideal of humanity, and to ignore any and all defects that may be apparent.
Courtesy in many of its forms is reasy taught in school. Its teaching is often marred by the manner of the teacher, which may be sour and surly, or petulant and fault-finding. The importance of this virtue both to its possessor and to all his fellows demands a more careful attention on the part of school-managers to secure its presence in the school-room.
(2) Justice: this is recognized as the chief in the family of secular virtues. It has several forms or species, as, for example, (a) honesty, the fair dealing with others, respect for their rights of person and property and reputation ; (b) truth-telling or honesty in speech — honesty itself being truth-acting. Such names as integrity, uprightness, righteousness, express further distinctions that belong to this staunch virtue.
Justice, like courtesy in the fact that it looks upon the ideal of the individual, is unlike courtesy in the fact that it looks upon the deed of the individual in a very strict and business-like way, and measures its defects by the high standard of the ideal. According to the principle of justice, each one receives in proportion to his deeds and not in proportion to his possibilities, wishes, or unrealized aspirations. All individuals are ideally equal in the essence of their humanity; but justice will return upon each the equivalent of his deed only. If it be a crime, Justice returns it upon the docr as a limitation of his personal freedom or property. The school is perhaps more effective in teaching the forms of justice than in teaching those of courtesy. Truth-telling, especially, receives the full emphasis of all the power of school discipline. Every lesson is an exercise in digging out and closely defining the truth — in extending the realm of clearness and certainty further into the region of ignorance and guess
work. How careful the pupil is compelled to be with his statements in the recitation and with his previous preparation !
Justice, in discovering the exact performance of each pupil and giving him recognition for it, may give place to injustice in case of carelessness on the part of the teacher. Such carelessness may suffer the weeds of lying and deceit to grow up, and it may allow the dishonest pupil to gather the fruits of honesty and truth, and thus it may offer a premium for fraud. The school may thus furnish an immoral education, notwithstanding its great opportunities to inculcate this noble virtue of honesty. The private individual must not be permitted to return the evil deed upon the doer, for that would be revenge, and hence a new crime. All personality and self-interest must be sisted out before justice can be done the criminal. Hence we have another virtue, — that of respect for law.
(3) Respect for law, as the only means of protecting the innocent and punishing the guilty, is the complement of justice. It looks upon the ideal as realized not in an individual man, but in an institution represented in the person of an executive officer, who is supported with legislative and judicial powers.
The school, wiren governed by an arbitrary and tyrannical teacher, is a fearfully demoralizing influence in a community. The law-abiding virtue is weakened and the whole troop of lesser virtues take their flight and give admittance to passions and appetites. But the teacher may teach respect for law very thoroughly, on the other hand. In this matter a great change has been wrought in the methods of discipline in later years. Corporal punishment has been very largely disused. It is clear that with frequent and severe corporal punishment it is
next to impossible to retain genuine respect for law. Only the very rare teacher can succeed in this. Punishment through the sense of lionor has therefore superseded for the most part in our best schools the use of the rod. It is easy now to find the school admirably disciplined and its pupils enthusiastic and law-abiding — governed entirely without the use of corporal punishment. The school possesses very great advantages over the family in the matter of teaching respect for law. The parent is too near the child, too personal, to teach him this lesson.
(c) Religious Duties. At this point we approach the province of religious duties. Iligher than the properly moral duties, or at least higher than the secular or cardinal virtues, are certain ones which are called “ celestial” virtues by the theologians. These are faith, hope, charity, and their special modifications. The question may arise whether any instruction in these duties can be given which is not at the same time sectarian? An affirmative answer will have to show only that the essential scope of these virtues has a secular meaning and that the secular meaning is more fundamental than in the case of the so-called car linal virtues.
(1) Faith in a theologic sense means the true knowledge of the first principle of the universe. Everybody presupposes some theory or view of the world, its origin and destiny, in all his practical and theoretical dealing with it. Christendom assumes a personal creator of divine human nature who admits man to grace in such a way that he is not destroyed by the results of his essential imperfection, but is redeemed in some special manner. The Buddhist and Brahmin think that finitude and imperfection are utterly incompatible with the divine being, and hence that the things of the world cannot be permitted to