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ation of the crucifixion in the style of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Above the crucified figure is a representation of God the Father in the manner in which He was usually represented as King in the fourteenth century, viz.
crowned and bearded, and half length. On each side is the figure of a bishop robed and mitred. One figure on the side of the shrine is in a much ruder style of art than the others, and may have belonged to an earlier covering than that which now encloses the bell. At the bottom of the case is an inscription, in lettering, apparently of the fourteenth century: Johannes Alexandri Me Fieri Fecit.
Having thus described the whole of the bells of the early Celtic church that are now known to exist in Scotland, I shall briefly notice those of whose existence in former times there is distinct evidence, although all traces of them are now lost. I do so in the hope that a wider knowledge of their special interest and importance may bring those of them to light that may still be extant.
The bell of St. Kentigern, better known as St. Mungo,1 is figured on the corporation seal of Glasgow of the time of King Eobert the Bruce, and on the chapter seal of the same period. It is represented as a flat-sided, quadrate bell, with a looped handle of the Celtic type.
In the Breviary of Aberdeen there is reference to the bell of St. Ternan or Torannan2 of Banchory Ternan, where a church was said to have been erected over his tomb. Among the chief relics of this church was the bell called the Bonecht, which was preserved there along with a copy of the Gospel of St. Matthew, the latter being enclosed in a shrine or case of metal adorned with silver and gold, as was the custom of the Celtic Church. There are documents extant which show that in 1484 the Abbot of Arbroath assigned to the
1 St . Kentigern, the Apostle of the Strathclyde Britons, called Munghu, "quod La tine dicitur, carus amicus," as Joccline says, was a contemporary of St. Columba. No transformation of a saint's name is stranger than that of his mother Thenew, who in her commemorative dedication at Glasgow is now known only as St. Enoch.
2 St. Ternan or Torannan belongs to the shadowy group of pre-Columban saints. The Scholiast on the metrical calendar of Aengus the Celi De, calls him "Torannan the far-famed voyager, that is Palladius, who was sent from the successor of Peter to Erin before Patraic ;" and adds that as he was not received in Erin, he went into Alban, i.e. into Scotland. See Skene's Celtic Scotland, vol. ii. pp. 29, 32, for an account of the legends of his mission, and that of Palladius.
Vicar of Banchory all his rights in the bell of St. Ternan, and all its emoluments; and in 1489 the vicar purchased them from John Stalker, who was then in possession of the bell, by reason of heritage pertaining to him by his wife. From this we learn that the bell was then in the possession of hereditary keepers, and had its rights and emoluments like all similar relics. Among these was a croft of land called the Deray Croft of Banquhoti-terne.1 No further record of the bell remains. But not many years ago, when the railway was being made along the bank of the Dee, between Banchory Lodge and the present railway station the workmen dug up a small square iron bell . But little notice was taken of it at the time, and what became of it is unknown. If this were the Eonecht of St. Ternan, as seems not unlikely, we can only regret that a relic preserved for so many centuries with religious care should have perished at last from ignorance of the character and history of these memorials of the founders of Christianity in pagan Scotland.
The bell of St. Medan 2 also appears in feudal documents as a relic which carried with it the possession of certain pertinents, including a house and toft near the church of Lintrathen in Forfarshire. We learn from the Airlie Charters, that on the 27th of June 1447, Michael David, the bearer of the bell of St. Medan, came to the presence of John Ogilvy, knight, the lord of Lintrathen, and superior of the said bell which pertained hereditarily to the said David and his heirs, and the said David having voluntarily resigned the bell to Sir John, it was given by him in liferent to his wife Mar
1 There was a Deray Croft also at Fordoun, a " Diracroft, alias Belaikers," at the Kirktoun of Conveth or Laurencekirk, and a " Paroche croft and Diraland" at Fcttcrcairn.
2 Medan is probably Mo-Acdhan, but the identification is uncertain. Bishop Forbes, in his Calendar of Scottish Saints, is unable to determine the saint of Lintrathen.
garet, Countess of Moray. Then on the 18th July the Countess came to Lintrathen to be formally seised in possession, according to use and wont, the manner of which was as follows :—The Countess and her brother-in-law as witness in her behalf, having come to the church, and the deeds having been publicly recited, the Countess entered the house and toft pertaining to the bell, and being enclosed therein by herself, received delivery of the feudal symbols of earth and stone to complete the seisin. We learn no more of St. Medan's bell from the records. But Mr. Jervise states that about twenty years ago he was informed that when an aged woman died at Burnside of Airlie, and her effects were disposed of by public roup, "an auld rusty thing like a flagon, that fouk ca'd Maidie's Bell," was sold with a lot of rubbish. What became of it nobody knew.
So late as 1675, the bell of St. Kessog and the bell of St. Lolan1 were included among the feudal investitures of the earldom of Perth. In that year James, Earl of Perth, was retoured in the lands of Barnachills with the chapel and holy bell of St. Kessog, and also in the mill and manor of Kincardine-on-Forth, along with the holy bell of St. Lolan. We know no more of the bell of St. Kessog, which does not again occur on record. But the bell of St. Lolan is known from the end of the twelfth century, when William the Lion granted the church of Kincardine to the Abbey of Cambuskenneth, with its teinds and a toft with a garden pertaining to the bell of St. Lolan, and a toft with a garden to the staff of St. Lolan. Neither bell nor staff is now known to exist. An ancient manuscript missal of the Celtic Church, written in the Irish character, is still preserved at Drummond Castle,
1 St. Kessog's principal church in Scotland was at Luss. A fair called the Feil-ma-chessaig was held at Callander on 21st March (10th old style), and a mound where the old church stood is called Tom-ma-chessaig. The church of Auchtcrardcr is also dedicated to him. The legend of St . Lolan in the Aberdeen Breviary makes him a nephew of St. Serf.
and it is barely possible that one or other of the bells, if sought for, might yet be discovered.
There is a legend told in the parish of Strath in Skye, that St. Maelrubha used to preach at Askimilruby (now called Ashig), and that he hung a bell in a tree, where it remained for centuries, but was subsequently removed to the church of Strath.1 Possibly it may still exist, as such relics were never wilfully destroyed by the people of the localities in which they were preserved.
Captain Thomas informs me that he was told that in the recollection of persons still living, an ancient bell used to lie in the ruins of the church of Kilmory, at Nuntown, in Benbecula, but it was carried off by a tinker for old metal.2 As each of these objects is actually in itself a portion of the history of art, and in its associations a portion of the history of the ecclesiastical and social condition of the country, their loss in the lamentable way in which it has usually occurred is all the more to be regretted, because it has often occurred after there was an institution open to receive them for preservation in all time coming, among the national memorials of times that have no other record.
In this lecture I have shown that there was a form of bell peculiar to the early Celtic Church, tall, narrow, and tapering, with flattened ends and bulging sides, and having a looped handle at the top—that it was made sometimes in iron and sometimes in bronze—that when it was made in
1 Reeves on St. Maelrubha's history and churches, in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. iii. p. 291.
2 Other instances might be added, such as the bell of St. Duthac at Tain, which had a keeper in 1505 when King James IV. made his pilgrimage to St. Duthac, as we learn from an entry in the Lord High Treasurer's accounts for that year, of a payment of three shillings "in Tayn to the man that beris Sanct Duthois bell," but there is nothing to show what was the form of the bell, which is not now known to exist.