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enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of the state, and the whole number of the representatives shall, at the first session held, after making every such enumeration, be fixed by the general assembly, and apportioned among the several counties, cities, or towns, entitled to separate representation, according to their respective numbers of white inhabitants; and the said apportionment, when made, shall not be subject to alteration, until after the next census shall be taken. The house of representatives shall not consist of less than forty-four, nor more than sixty members, until the number of white inhabitants shall be one hundred thousand, and after that event, the whole number of representatives shall never be less than sixty, nor more than one hundred: Provided, however, that each county shall be entitled to at least one representative.
10. The general assembly shall, at the first session after making every such enumeration, fix by law the whole number of senators, and shall divide the state into the same number of districts, as nearly equal in the number of white inhabitants as may be, each of which districts shall be entitled to one senator and no more; Provided, that the whole number of senators shall never be less than one fourth, nor more than one third, of the whole number of representatives.
11. When a senatorial district shall be composed of two or more counties, the counties of which such district consists shall not be entirely separated by any county belonging to another district; and no county shall be divided in forming a district. ,
12. Senators shall be chosen by the qualified electors, for the term of three years, at the same time, in the same manner, and at the same places, where they may vote for members of the house of representatives; and no person shall be a senator unless he be a white man, a citizen of the United States, and shall have been an inhabitant of this state two years next preceding his election, and the last year thereof a resident of the district for which he shall be chosen, and shall have attained to the age of twenty-seven years.
13. The senators chosen according to the apportionment under the census ordered to be taken in one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, when convened, shall be divided by lot into three classes, as nearly equal as may be. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, those of the second class at the expiration of the second year, and those of the third class at the expiration of the third year, so that one third may be annually chosen thereafter, and a rotation thereby kept up perpetually. Such mode of classifying new additional senators shall be observed as will, as nearly as possible, preserve an equality of members in each class. 14, The house of representatives, when assembled, shall choose a speaker, and its other officers; and the senate shall. annually, choose a president, and its other officers; each house shall judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns, of its own members: but a contested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law,
15. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.
16. Each house may determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member; but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent state.
17. Each house, during the session, may punish by imprisonment, any person, not a member, for disrespectful or disorderly behaviour in its presence, or for obstructing any of its proceedings: Provided, that such imprisonment shall not, at any one time, exceed forty-eight hours.
18. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and cause the same to be published immediately after its adjourn. ment, excepting such parts as, in its judgment, may require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be entered on the journals. And any member of either house shall have liberty to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons of his dissent entered on the journals.
19. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the general assembly, and in going to and returning from the same; allowing one day for every twenty miles such member may reside from the place at which the general assembly is convened; nor shall any member be liable to answer for any thing spoken in debate in either house, in any court or place elsewhere.
20. When vacancies happen in either house, the governor, or the person exercising the powers of the governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
21. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secrecy.
22. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.
23. Bills may originate in either house, and be amended, altered, or rejected, by the other; but no bill shall have the force of a law until on three several days it be read in each house, and free discussion be allowed thereon, unless, in cases of urgency, four-fifths of the house in which the bill shall be depending may deem it expedient to dispense with this rule: and every bill, having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speaker and president of their respective houses; provided, that all bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives, but the senate may amend or reject them as other bills.
24. Each member of the general assembly shall receive from the public treasury such compensation for his services as may be fixed by law; but no increase of compensation shall take effect during the session at which such increase shall have been made.
25. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this state, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term; except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people,
26. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, (the office of postmaster excepted,) this state, or any other power, shall be eligible to the general assembly; provid. ed, that offices in the militia to which there is attached no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or that of the quorum or county court, while it has no salary, shall not be deemed lucrative.
27. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of public moneys shall have a seat in either house of the general assembly, or be eligible to any office of trust or profit under this state, until he shall have accounted for, and paid into the treasury, all sums for which he may be accountable.
28. The first election for senators and representatives shall be general throughout the state; and shall be held on the third Monday and Tuesday in September next.
29. The first session of the general assembly shall commence on the fourth Monday in October next, and be held at the town of Huntsville, and all subsequent sessions at the town of Cahawba, until the end of the first session of the general assembly to be held in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty. five; during that session the general assembly shall have power to designate by law (to which the executive concurrence shall not be required) the permanent seat of government, which shall not thereafter be changed; Provided, however, that unless such designation be then made by law, the government shall continue permanently at the town of Cahawba; and provided, also, that the general assembly shall make no appropriations previous to the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty
five, for the building of any other state house than that now provided for by law,
Executive Department. $1. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the state of Alabama.
2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the time and places when they shall respectively vote for representatives.
3. The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up, and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in presence of both houses of the general assembly. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor, but if two or more shall be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen governor by the joint vote of both houses. Contested elections for governor shall be determined by both houses of the general assembly, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
4. The governor shall hold his office for the term of two years from the time of bis installation, and until his successor shall be duly qualified, but shall not be eligible for more than four years in any term of six years; he shall be at least thirty years of age, shall be a native citizen of the United States, and shall have resided in this state at least four years next preceding the day of his election.
5. He shall, at stated times, receive a compensation for his services, which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected.
6. He shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of this state, and of the militia thereof, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. And when acting in the service of the United States, the general assembly shall fix his rank.
7. He may require information in writing from the officers in the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.
8. He may, by proclamation, on extraordinary occasions, convene the general assembly at the seat of government, or at a different place, if that shall have become, since their last adjournment, dangerous from an enemy, or from contagious disorders; in case of disagreement between the two houses, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to
such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the day of the next annual meeting of the general assembly.
9. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient.
10. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
11. In all criminal and penal cases, except in those of treason and impeachment, he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, under such rules and regulations as shall be prescribed by law. In cases of treason he shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to grant reprieves and pardons; and he may, in the recess of the senate, respite the sentence until the end of the next session of the general assembly.
12. There shall be a seal of this state, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially, and the present seal of the territory shall be the seal of the state, until otherwise directed by the general assembly.
13. All commissions shall be in the name, and by the authority of the state of Alabama, be sealed with the state seal, signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary of state.
14. There shall be a secretary of state, appointed by joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, who shall continue in office during the term of two years. He shall keep a fair register of all official acts and proceedings of the governor, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all papers, minutes, and vouchers relative thereto, before the general assembly; and shall perform such other duties as may be required of him by law.
15. Vacancies that may happen in offices, the appointment to which is vested in the general assembly, shall be filled by the governor, during the recess of the general assembly, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of the next session.
16. Every bill which shall have passed both houses of the general assembly, shall be presented to the governor: if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large upon the journals, and proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number elected to that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; if approved by a majority of the whole number elected to that house, it shall become a law: but in such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for or against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively: if any bill shall not be returned by the governor within five days, Sundays excepted,