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of their offices, be conservators of the peace in their respective counties.
8. The judges of the supreme court, the presidents, and the associate judges of the courts of common pleas, shall be appointed by a joint ballot of both houses of the general assembly, and shall hold their offices for the term of seven years, if so long they behave well. The judges of the supreme court, and the presidents of the courts of common pleas, shall, at stated times, receive for their services an adequate compensation, to be fixed by law, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office; but they shall receive no fees or perquisites of office, nor hold any other office of profit or trust under the authority of this state or the United States.
9. Each court shall appoint its own clerk, for the term of seven years; but no person shall be appointed clerk, except pro tempore, who shall not produce to the court appointing him a certificate from a majority of the judges of the supreme court, that they judge him to be well qualified to execute the duties of the office of clerk to any court of the same dignity · with that for which he offers himself. They shall be removable for breach of good behaviour, at any time, by the judges of the respective courts.
10. The supreme court shall be held once a year, in each county; and the courts of common pleas shall be holden in each county at such times and places as shall be prescribed by law.
11. A competent number of justices of the peace shall be elected by the qualified electors in each township in the several counties, and shall continue in office three years; whose powers and duties shall from time to time be regulated and defined by law.
12. The style of all process shall be, The State of Ohio; and all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the state of Ohio; and all indictments shall conclude, against the peace and dignity of the same.
§ 1. In all elections, all white male inhabitants, above the age of twenty-one years, having resided in the state one year next preceding the election, and who have paid, or are charged with, a state or county tax, shall enjoy the right of an elector; but no person shall be entitled to vote, except in the county or district in which he shall actually reside at the time of the election.
2. All elections shall be by ballot.
3. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, and in going to and returning from them. 1. The legislature shall have full power to exclude from the privilege of electing, or being elected, any person convicted of bribery, perjury, or any other infamous crime.
5. Nothing contained in this article shall be so construed as to prevent white male persons, above the age of twenty-one years, who are compelled to labour on the roads of their respective townships or counties, and who have resided one year in the state, from having the right of an elector.
§ 1. Captains and subalterns in the militia shall be elected by those persons in their respective company districts subject to military duty
2. Majors shall be elected by the captains and subalterns of the battalion.
3. Colonels shall be elected by the majors, captains, and subalterns of the regiment.
4. Brigadiers general shall be elected by the commissioned officers of their respective brigades,
5. Majors general and quarter masters general shall be appointed by joint ballot of both houses of the legislature,
6. The governor shall appoint the adjutant general. The majors general shall appoint their aids, and other division offi. cers, The brigadiers their majors; the brigade majors their staff officers; commanders of regiments shall appoint their adjutants, quarter masters, and other regimental staff officers; and the captains and subalterns shall appoint their non-commis. sioned officers and musicians.
7. The captains and subalterns of the artillery and cavalry shall be elected by the persons enrolled in their respective corps, and the majors and colonels shall be appointed in such manner as shall be directed by law. The colonels shall appoint their regimental staff, and the captains and subalterns their non-commissioned officers and musicians.
§ 1. There shall be elected in each county one sheriff and one coroner, by the citizens thereof who are qualified to vote for members of the assembly: they shall be elected at the time and place of holding elections for members of assembly; they shall continue in office two years if they shall so long behave well, and until successors be chosen and duly qualified: provided, that no person shall be eligible as sheriff for a longer term than four years in any term of six years.
2. The state treasurer and auditor shall be triennially appointed, by a joint ballot of both houses of the legislature.
3. All town and township officers shall be chosen annually, by the inhabitants thereof duly qualified to vote for members
of the assembly, at such time and place as may be directed by law.
4. The appointment of all civil officers, not otherwise directed by this constitution, shall be made in such manner as may be directed by law,
§ 1. Every person who shall be chosen or appointed to any office of trust or profit under the authority of the state, shall, before the entering on the execution thereof, take an oath or affirmation to support the constitution of the United States and this state, and also an oath of office.
2. Any elector who shall receive any gift or reward for his vote, in meat, drink, money, or otherwise, shall suffer such punishment as the laws shall direct; and any person who shall directly or indirectly give, promise, or bestow, any such reward to be elected, shall thereby be rendered incapable for two years to serve in the office for which he was elected, and be subject to such other punishment as shall be directed by law.
3. No new county shall be established by the general assembly which shall reduce the county or counties, or either of them, from which it shall be taken, to less contents than four hundred square miles, nor shall any county be laid off of less contents. Every new county, as to the right of suffrage and representation, shall be considered as a part of the county or counties from which was taken, until entitled by numbers to the right of representation.
4. Chilicothe shall be the seat of government until the year one thousand eight hundred and eight. No money shall be raised until the year one thousand eight hundred and nine, by the legislature of this state, for the purpose of erecting public buildings for the accommodation of the legislature.
5. That, after the year one thousand eight bundred and six, whenever two-thirds of the general assembly shall think it necessary to amend or change this constitution, they shall recommend to the electors, at the next election for members to the general assembly, to vote for or against a convention; and if it shall appear that a majority of the citizens of the state, voting for representatives, have voted for a convention, the general assembly shall, at their next session, call a convention, to consist of as many members as there may be in the general assembly, to be chosen in the same manner, at the same places, and by the same electors that choose the general assembly, who shall meet within three months after the said election, for the purpose of revising, amending, or changing the constitution. But no alteration of this constitution shall ever take place, so as to introduce slavery or involuntary servitude into this state.
6. That the limits and boundaries of this state be ascertain
ed, it is declared, that they are as hereafter mentioned that is to say, bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio river, to the mouth of the great Miami river; on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid; and on the north by an east and west line, drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east, after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami, until it shall intersect Lake Erie, or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid: Provided, always, and it is hereby fully understood and declared by this convention, that if the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan should extend so far south, that a line drawn due east from it should not intersect Lake Erie, or if it should intersect the said Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river of the Lake, then, and in that case, with the assent of the congress of the United States, the northern boundary of this state shall be established by, and extending to, a direct line, running from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, to the most northerly cape of the Miami bay, after intersecting the due north line from the mouth of the Great Miami river as aforesaid, thence north-east to the territorial, and by the said territorial line to the Pennsylvania line.
That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized, and forever unalterably established, we declare,
$ 1. That all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain natural, inherent, and unalienable rights, amongst which are the enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety; and every free republican government, being founded on their sole authority, and organized for the purpose of protecting their liberties, and securing their independence-to effect these ends they have at all times a complete power to alter, reform, or abolish their government, whenever they may deem it necessary.
2. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in this state, otherwise than for the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted; nor shall any male person, arrived at the age of twenty-one years, nor female person, arrived at the age of eighteen years, be held to serve any person as a servant, under pretence of indenture, or otherwise, unless such person shall enter into such indenture while in a state of perfect freedom, and on condition of a bona fide consideration, received, or to be received, for their service, except as before excepted. Nor shall any indenture of any negro or mulatto hereafter made and executed, out of this state, or, if made in the state, where the term of service exceeds one year, be of the least validity, except those given in the case of apprenticeships.
3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; that no human authority can in any case whatever control or interfere with the rights of conscience; that no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support, any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry, against his consent; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious society or mode of worship; and no religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office of trust or profit. But religion, morality, and knowledge, being essentially necessary to the good government, and the happiness of mankind, schools, and the means of instruction, shall forever be encouraged by legislative provision, not inconsistent with the rights of con
4. Private property ought, and shall ever be held inviolate, but always subservient to the public welfare, provided a coma pensation in money be made to the owner.
5. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from all unwarrantable searches and seizures; and that general warrants, whereby an officer may be commanded to search suspected places, without probable evidence of the fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offences are not particularly described, and without oath or affirmation, are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be granted.
6. That the printing presses shall be open and free to every citizen who wishes to examine the proceedings of any branch of government, or the conduct of any public officer; and no law shall ever restrain the right thereof. Every citizen has an indisputable right to speak, write, or print, upon any subject, as he thinks proper, being liable for the abuse of that liberty. In prosecutions for any publication respecting the official conduct of men in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may always be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.
7. That all courts shall be open, and every person for any injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by the due course of law; and right and jus. tice adıninistered without denial, or delay:
8. That the right of trial by jury shall be inviolate.
9. That no power of suspending the laws shall be exercised, unless by the legislature.
10, That no person arrested or confined in gaol shall be