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ing any office of trust, or profit, under the United States, or either of them, or under any foreign power, shall be eligible as a member of the general assembly of this commonwealth, or hold or exercise any office of trust, or profit, under the same.
18. The general assembly shall direct by law how persons who now are, or may hereafter become, securities for public officers, may be relieved or discharged on account of such securityship.
Concerning Slaves. $1. The general assembly shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of their owners, or without paying their owners, previous to such emancipation, a full equivalent in money for the slaves so emancipated. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this state from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States, so long as any person of the same age or description shall be continued in slavery by the laws of this state. They sball pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a charge to any county in this commonwealth. They shall have full power to prevent slaves being brought into this state as merchandise. They shall have full power to prevent any slaves being brought into this state, who have been, since the first day of January, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, or may hereafter be, imported into any of the United States, from a foreign country. And they shall have full power to pass such laws as may be necessary to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity, to provide for them necessary clothing and provision, to abstain from all injuries to them extending to life, or limb, and in case of their neglect or refu. sal to comply with the directions of such laws, to have such slave or slaves sold for the benefit of their owner or owners.
2. In the prosecution of slaves for felony, no inquest by a grand jury shall be necessary, but the proceedings in such prosecutions shall be regulated by law: except that the general assembly shall have no power to deprive them of the privilege of an impartial trial by a petit jury.
$ 1. The seat of government shall continue in the town of Frankfort, until it shall be removed by law: Provided, how. ever, that two-thirds of all the members elected to each house of the general assembly shall concur in the passage of such law. ARTICLE 9.. Mode of revising the Constitution. $1. When experience shall point out the necessity of amending this constitution, and when a majority of all the members elected to each house of the general assembly shall, within the first twenty days of their stated annual session, concur in passing a law, specifying the alterations intended to be made, for taking the sense of the good people of this state, as to the necessity and expediency of calling a convention, it shall be the duty of the several sheriffs, and other returning officers, at the next general election which shall be held for representatives after the passage of such law, to open a poll for, and make return to the secretary, for the time being, of, the names of all those entitled to vote for representatives, who have voted for calling a convention; and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of this state entitled to vote for representatives have voted for a convention, the general assembly shall direct that a similar poll shall be opened and taken for the next year; and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of this state entitled to vote for representatives have voted for a convention, the general assembly shall, at their next session, call a convention, to consist of as many members as there shall be in the house of representatives and no more; to be chosen in the same manner and proportion, at the same places, and at the same time, that representatives are, by citizens entitled to vote for representatives; and to meet within three months after the said election, for the purpose of re-adopting, amending, or changing this constitution. But if it shall appear, by the vote of either year, as aforesaid, that a majority of all the citizens entitled to vote for representatives, did not vote for a convention, a convention shall not be called.
ARTICLE 10. That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare:
$1. That all free men, when they form a social compact, are equal; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive, separate, public emoluments or privileges, from the community, but in consideration of public services.
2. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness: For the advancement of these ends, they have at all times an unalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish their government, in such manner as they may think proper,
3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to wors ship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; that no human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious societies or modes of worship.
4. That the civil rights, privileges, or capacities of any citizen shall in no wise be diminished or enlarged on account of his religion.
5. That all elections shall be free and equal.
6. That the ancient mode of trial by jury shall be held sacred, and the right thereof remain inviolate.
7. That printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature or any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and every citizen may freely speak, write, and print, on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. . 8. In prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers, or men in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence. And in all indictments for libels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other cases.
9. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from unreasonable seizures and searches; and that no warrant to search any place or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.
10. That, in all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and counsel: to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him: to meet the witnesses face to face: to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favour; and, in prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the vicinage; that he cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty, or property, unless by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the land.
11. That no person shall, for any indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or the militia, when in actual service, in time of war or public danger, by leave of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in office.
12. No person shall, for the same offence, be twice put in jeopardy of his life or limb, nor shall any man's property be taken or applied to public use without the consent of his re. presentatives, and without just compensation being previously inade to him.
13. That all courts shall be open, and every person for any injury done him in his lands, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by the due course of law; and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay.
14. That no power of suspending laws shall be exercised, unless by the legislature or its authority.
15. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.
16. That all prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient securities, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident, or presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
17. That the person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
18. That no ex post facto law, nor any law impairing contracts, shall be made.
19. That no person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the legislature.
20. That no attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the commonwealth.
21. That the estates of such persons as shall destroy their own lives, shall descend or vest as in case of natural death; and if any person shall be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof."
22. That the citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assemble together for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government for redress of grievances or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.
23. That the right of the citizens to bear arms in defence of themselves and the state shall not be questioned.
24. That no standing army shall, in time of peace, be kept up, without the consent of the legislature; and the military shall in all cases and at all times be in strict subordination to the civil power.
25. That no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
26. That the legislature shall not grant any title of nobility or hereditary distinction, nor create any office, the appointment to which shall be for a longer term than during good behaviour. 27. That emigration from this state shall not be prohibited.
28. To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we have delegated, we declare, that every thing in this article is excepted out of the general powers of government, and shall forever remain inviolate ; and that all laws contrary thereto, or contrary to this constitution, shall be void.
That no inconvenience may arise from the alterations and amendments made in the constitution of this commonwealth, and in order to carry the same into complete operation, it is hereby declared and ordained:
§ 1. That all laws of this commonwealth, in force at the time of making the said alterations and amendments, and not inconsistent therewith, and all rights, actions, prosecutions, claims, and contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate, shall continue as if the said alterations and amendments had not been made.
2. That all officers now filling any office or appointment, shall continue in the exercise of the duties of their respective offices or appointments for the terms therein expressed, unless by this constitution it is otherwise directed.
3. The oaths of office herein directed to be taken, may be administered by any justice of the peace, until the legislature shall otherwise direct.
4. The general assembly, to be held in November next, shall apportion the representatives and senators, and lay off the state into senatorial districts conformable to the regulations prescribed by this constitution. In fixing those apportionments, and in establishing those districts, they shall take for their guide the enumeration directed by law to be made in the present year, by the commissioners of the tax, and the apportionments thus made shall remain unaltered until the end of the stated annual session of the general assembly in the year eigh. teen hundred and three.
5. In order that no inconvenience may arise from the change made by this constitution in the time of holding the general election, it is hereby ordained that the first election for governor, lieutenant governor, and members of the general assembly, shall commence on the first Monday in May, in the year eighteen hundred. The persons then elected shall con. tinue in office during the several terms of service prescribed by this constitution, and until the next general election which shall be held after their said terms shall have respectively expired. The returns for the said first election of governor and lieutenant governor shall be made to the secretary, within fifteen days from the day of election, who shall, as soon as may be, examine and count the same, in the presence of at least