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of the state of Connecticut; shall be sealed with the state seal, signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary.

$ 12. Every bill which shall have passed both houses of the general assembly, shall be presented to the governor. If he approves, he shall sign and transmit it to the secretary; but if not, he shall return it to the house in which it originated, with his objections, which shall be entered on the journals of the house; who shall proceed to reconsider the bill. If, after such reconsideration, that house shall again pass it, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the other house, which shall also reconsider it. If approved, it shall become a law. But, in such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the members voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journals of each house respec. tively. If the bill shall not be returned by the governor within three days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it; unless the general assembly, by their adjourn. ment, prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

§ 13. The lieutenant governor shall, by virtue of his office, be president of the senate, and have, when in committee of the whole, a right to debate, and, when the senate is equally divided, to give the casting vote.

§ 14. In case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve, or removal from office of the goveruor, or of his impeachment, . or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor shall exercise the powers and authority appertaining to the office of governor, until another be chosen at the next periodical election for governor, and be duly qualified; or until the governor impeached or absent shall be acquitted or return.

§ 15. When the government shall be administered by the lieutenant governor, or he shall be unable to attend as president of the senate, the senate shall elect one of their members as president pro tempore. And if, during the vacancy of the office of governor, the lieutenant governor shall die, resign, refuse to serve, or be removed from office, or if he shall be impeached, or absent from the state, the president of the senate pro tempore shall, in like manner, administer the government until he be superseded by a governor or lieutenant governor.

§ 16. If the lieutenant governor shall be required to aclminister the government, and shall, while in such administration, die or resign during the recess of the general assembly, it shall be the duty of the secretary, for the time being, to convene the senate for the purpose of choosing a president pro tempore.

$ 17. A treasurer shall annually be chosen by the electors at their meeting in April; and the votes shall be returned, counted, canvassed, and declared, in the same manner as is

provided for the election of governor and lieutenant governor: but the votes for treasurer shall be canvassed by the secretary and comptroller only. He shall receive all moneys belonging to the state, and disburse the same only as he may be directed by law. He shall pay no warrant or order for the disbursement of public money, until the same has been registered in the office of the comptroller.

§ 18. A secretary shall be chosen next after the treasurer, and in the same manner; and the votes for secretary shall be returned to, and counted, canvassed, and declared by, the treasurer and comptroller. He shall have the safe keeping and custody of the public records and documents, and particularly of the acts, resolutions, and orders of the general assembly, and record the same; and perform all such duties as shall be prescribed by law. He shall be the keeper of the seal of the state, which shall not be altered.

$ 19. A comptroller of the public accounts shall be annually appointed by the general assembly. He shall adjust and settle all public accounts and demands, except grants and orders of the general assembly. He shall prescribe the mode of keeping and rendering all public accounts. He shall ex officio, be one of the auditors of the accounts of the treasurer. The general assembly may assign to bim other duties in relation to his office, and to that of the treasurer, and shall prescribe the manner in which his duties shall be performed.

§ 20. A sheriff shall be appointed in each county, by the general assembly, who shall hold his office for three years, removable by said assembly, and shall become bound, with sufficient sureties, to the treasurer of the state for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law: in case the sheriff of any county shall die or resign, the governor may fill the vacancy occasioned thereby, until the same shall be filled by the general assembly.

§ 21. A statement of all receipts, payments, funds, and debts of the state, shall be published, from iime to time, in such manner, and at such periods, as shall be prescribed by law.


Of the Judicial Department. $ 1. The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a su. preme court of errors, a superior court, and such inferior courts as the general assembly sball, from time to time, ordain and establish; the powers and jurisdiction of which courts shall be defined by law.

82. There shall be appointed in each county a sufficient number of justices of the peace, with such jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases as the general assembly may prescribe.

3. The judges of the supreme court of errors, of the su. perior and inferior courts, and all justices of the peace shall be appointed by the general assembly, in such manner as shall by law be prescribed. The judges of the supreme court, and of the superior court, shall hold their offices during good behaviour; but may be removed by impeachment; and the governor shall also remove them on the address of two-thirds of the members of each house of the general assembly; all other judges and justices of the peace shall be appointed annually. No judge or justice of the peace shall be capable of holding his office after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years.


of the qualifications of Electors. § 1. All persons who have been, or shall hereafter, previous to the ratification of this constitution, be, admitted freemen, according to the existing laws of this state, shall be electors.

$ 2. Every white male citizen of the United States, who shall have gained a settlement in this state, attained the age of twenty-one years, and resided in the town in which he may offer himself to be admitted to the privilege of an elector, at least six months preceding, and have a freehold estate of the yearly value of seven dollars, in this state; or having been enrolled in the militia, shall have performed military duty therein, for the term of one year next preceding the time he shall offer himself for admission, or being liable thereto, shall have been, by authority of law, excused therefrom; or shall have paid a state tax within the year next preceding the time he shall present himself for such admissiou, and shall sustain a good moral character, shall, on his taking such oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.

3. The privileges of an elector shall be forfeited, by a conviction of bribery, forgery, perjury, duelling, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft, or other offence, for which an infamous punishment is inflicted.

$ 4. Every elector shall be eligible to any office in this state, except in cases provided for in this constitution.

5. The selectmen and town clerk of the several towns shall decide on the qualifications of electors, at such times, and in such manner, as may be prescribed by law.

$ 6. Laws shall be made to support the privilege of free suffrage, prescribing the manner of regulating and conducting meetings of the electors, and prohibiting, under adequate pe nalties, all undue influence therein, from power, bribery, tumult, and other improper conduct.

$7. In all elections of officers of the state, or members of the general assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by ballot.

$ 8. At all elections of officers of the state, or members of

the general assembly, the electors shall be privileged from arrest during their attendance upon, and going to and returning from, the same, on any civil process.

$ 9. The meetings of the electors for the election of the several state officers, by law annually to be elected, and members of the general assembly of this state, shall be holden on the first Monday of April in each year.


Of Religion. $1. It being the duty of all men to worship the Supreme Being, the great Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and their right to render that worship in the mode most consistent with the dietates of their consciences: no person shall, by law, be compelled to join or support, nor be classed with, or associated to, any congregation, church, or religious association. But every person now belonging to such congregation, church, or religious association, shall remain a member thereof, until he shall bave separated himself therefrom, in the manner hereinafter provided. And each and every society or denomination of christians in this state, shall have and enjoy the same and equal powers, rights, and privileges; and shall have power and authority to support and maintain the ministers or teachers of their respective denominations, and to build and repair houses for public worship, by a tax on the members of any such society only, to be laid by a major vote of the legal voters assembled at any society meeting, warned and held according to law, or in any other manner.

82. If any person shall choose to separate himself from the society or denomination of christians to which he may belong, and shall leave a written notice thereof with the clerk of such society, he shall thereupon be no longer liable for any future expenses which may be incurred by said society.


Of Education. $ 1. The charter of Yale college, as modified by agreement with the corporation thereof, in pursuance of an act of the general assembly, passed in May, 1792, is hereby confirmed.

§ 2. The fund, called the School Fund, shall remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of the public or common schools throughout the state, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof. The value and amount of said fund shall, as soon as practicable, be ascertained in such manner as the general assembly may prescribe, published, and

recorded in the comptroller's office; and no law shall ever be made authorising said fund to be diverted to any other use than the encouragement and support of public or common schools, among the several school societies, as justice and equity shall require.


Of Impeachments. $ 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching

$ 2, All impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of twothirds of the members present. When the governor is impeached, the chief justice shall preside.

$ 3, The governor, and all other executive and judicial officers, shall be liable to impeachment; but judgments in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honour, trust, or profit, under this state. The party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, and punishment, accord. ing to law.

8 4. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two, witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason, or attainder shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture.


General Provisions. 81. Members of the general assembly, and all officers, executive, and judicial, shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take the following oath or affirmation, to wit:

You do solemnly swear, (or affirm, as the case may be,) that you will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Connecticut, so long as you continue a citizen thereof; and that you will faithfully discharge, according to law, the duties of the office of the best of your abilities. So help you God.

$ 2. Each town shall annually élect selectmen, and such officers of local police, as the laws may prescribe.

$ 3. The rights and duties of all corporations shall remain as if this constitution had not been adopted; with the exception of such regulations and restrictions as are contained in this

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