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SECTION II. 1. The President” shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States. . He may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal Officers in each of the executive Departments, upon any fubject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences againit the United States, except in cales of impeachment.

II. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make trearies, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he ihall nominate, and, by and with the advice and content of the Senate, inall appoint Amballadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States whole appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may, by law, veit the appointment of such inferior officers, as they may think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

III. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of Senate, by granting commiffions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.

SECTION III. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the flate of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houles, or either of them; and, in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall receive Ambat. fadors and other public Ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed ; and thall commission all the Officers of the United States.

SECTION IV. The President, Vice-President, and all Civil Officers of the United States, snall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treaion, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III.-SECTION I. The Judicial Power of the United States thall be vefted in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts, as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour; and shall, at itated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.


SECTIONII. I. The Judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Conftitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cafes affecting Ambassadors, or other public Ministers and Confuls; to all cases of Admiralty and maritime Jurisdi&tion; to controversies to which the Uuited States shall be a party, to controversies between two or more States, be. tween a State and Citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between Citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects.

II. In all cases affecting Ambaffadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cales before mentioned, the Supreme Court, shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the Congress shall make.

III. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, Mall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not com. mitted within any State, the trial shall be at such place or plase ces as the Congress may by law have directed.

SECTION III. I Treason againft the United States shall confift onty in levy. ing war againf them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No perion shall be convicted of treason, unless on the teltimony of two witnesses to the fame overt act, or on confefion in open Court.

II. The Congress Thall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

ARTICLE IV.--Section I. Full faith and credit fall be given, in each State, to the pub. lic acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may, by penal laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

SECTION II. I. The Citizens of each State thall be entitled to all the pri. vileges and immunities of Citizens in the several States. -- II. A perton charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall fee from justice, and be found in ano. ther State, Thall, on demand of the Executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.


III. No person, held to service or labour in one State under The laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such fervice or labour; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.

Szction III. 1. New States may be admitted by Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdic. tion of any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the confent of the Legillatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.

11. The Congress thall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations refpe&ing the territory or other property belonging to the United States ; and nothing in this Conftitution shall be so conftrued; as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Suction IV. The United States thalt guarantee to every State in this Union e Republicon form of Government; and shall prote& each of them against invafion, and, on application of the LegiNature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domeftic violence.

ARTICLE V. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it neceffary, shall propose Amendments to this Conftitution, or on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the fem veral States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either cafe, malt be valid to all intents and purpofes, as part of this Conftitution, when ratified by the Legisatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress : Provided, that no Amendment, which may be made prior to the year 1808, shall in any manner affe&t the ift and 4th clauses in the oth Section of the first Are ticle ; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

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ARTICLE VI. 1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, Thall be as valid against the United States, under this Conftitution, as under the Confederation.

II. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land, and the Judges, in every State, shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithfænding.

III. The Senators and Representatives before-mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the fe veral States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious teit shall ever-be required as a qualification to any office or, public trust under the United States.

· ARTICLE VII. The ratification of the Conventions of nine States Mall be fufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States

present, the 17th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1787, and of the Independence of the United States of America the 12th. - In witness whereof, we have here. unto subscribed our names.


and Delegate from Virginia. New Hampsire. Tho. Mimin,

Virginia. :
John Langdon, Robert Morris, John Blair,
Nich. Gillman.

George Clymer, james Madison, jun. .
Massachusetts. Tho. Fitzsimons,
Nath. Gorham,

Jared Ingersoll, North-Carolina. Rufus King

James Wilson, Wm. Blount, Connecticut.

Gouv. Morris. Rich. D. Spaight,
Wm. S. Johnson, · Delaware. Hugh Williamson,
Roger Sherman.

George Read,
New-York. Gun. Bedford, jan. South-Carolina.
Alexander Hamilton. John Dickinson, John Rutledge,

New-Jersey. Rich. Baffet, Cha. C. Pinckney,
Wm. Livingston, Jacob Broom.

Charles Pinckney, David Brearly, Maryland.

Pierce Butler. Wm. Patterson, James M'Henry, 'Jon. Dayton. Daniel Carrol,

Georgia. Pennsylvania. Danieljof St. Thomas William Few, Benj. Franklin,


Abm.Baldwin. . Atteft.



The following ARTICLES, in Addition to, and Amenda. ment of, the Consitution of the UNITED STATES, having been ratified by the Legislatures of nine States, are equally obligatory with the Constitution itself.

1. MONGRESS. fhall make no law refpeting an establishment

U of Religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of Speech, or of the Press ; or the right of the People peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

II. A well regulated Militia being necessary for the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner ; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

IV. The right of the People to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated ; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other. wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval Forces, or in the Militia when in actual service, in time of war, or pubá lic danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private preperty be taken for public use, without just compensation.

VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and District wherein the crime shall have been committed, (which district shall have been previously ascertained by law), and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accufation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favour; and to have the afilance of counsel for his defence.

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